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Zhu, K. & Nordström, L. (2014). Design of wide-area damping systems based on the capabilities of the supporting Information Communication Technology infrastructure. IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, 8(4), 640-650
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of wide-area damping systems based on the capabilities of the supporting Information Communication Technology infrastructure
2014 (English)In: IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, ISSN 1751-8687, E-ISSN 1751-8695, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 640-650Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The dependence of the functionality of the wide-area monitoring and control (WAMC) systems on the capabilities of their underlying Information Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure indicates that the parameterisation of the WAMC application algorithm should be coordinated with the design of the supporting ICT system. This study presents a systematic approach to design wide-area damping systems considering phasor measurement unit (PMU) communication delays and data frame losses. The proposed design method is applied to calibrate a wide-area damping system based on generalised predictive control (GPC) for demonstration purposes. In addition, a framework to guide the parameterisation of the GPC- based wide-area damping system is also provided. This research offers a better perspective to predict the capabilities of the underlying ICT infrastructure in the WAMC systems. Moreover, the proposed design method can be generalised to design delay-robust damping systems with compensation limits. Finally, it also offers an opportunity to associate the parameterisation of the damping system with the capabilities of its supporting ICT infrastructure and the reliability of the intended damping control function.

Keywords
Phasor measurement unit, Wide-Area Monitoring and Control systems, power system communication, communication delays, data frame losses, generalized predictive control
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-129071 (URN)10.1049/iet-gtd.2013.0147 (DOI)000333641800007 ()2-s2.0-84897381995 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140602

Available from: 2013-09-19 Created: 2013-09-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Zhu, K., Chenine, M., Nordström, L., Holmström, S. & Ericsson, G. (2014). Design Requirements of Wide-Area Damping Systems-Using Empirical Data From a Utility IP Network. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 5(2), 829-838
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design Requirements of Wide-Area Damping Systems-Using Empirical Data From a Utility IP Network
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2014 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, ISSN 1949-3053, E-ISSN 1949-3061, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 829-838Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) communication delays and data frame losses play a critical role in designing of wide-area damping systems driven by synchrophasor technology. While there are a plethora of simulation-based studies addressing this issue, empirical results from actual PMUs deployed in the field are rare. This paper provides important insights into the characterization of PMU communication delays and data frame losses based on empirical results collected from a utility IP network. Additionally, efforts are also made to elicit design requirements considering the above PMU data quality problems. Furthermore, three distinct delay-robust wide-area damping control schemes parameterized according to the proposed requirements are validated against the empirical delays and data frame losses. Time-domain simulation results suggest that the control schemes in question can effectively stabilize the power system in all of the tested scenarios.

Keywords
Communication delay, data frame loss, delay-robust control, inter-area oscillation, IP network, phasor measurement unit, wide-area monitoring and control system
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-129073 (URN)10.1109/TSG.2013.2290493 (DOI)000331985300030 ()2-s2.0-84897590564 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140414

Available from: 2013-09-19 Created: 2013-09-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Zhu, K., Chenine, M., Nordström, L., Holmström, S. & Erisson, G. (2013). An Empirical Study of Synchrophasor Communication Delay in a Utility TCP/IP Network. International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems, 14(4), 341-250
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Empirical Study of Synchrophasor Communication Delay in a Utility TCP/IP Network
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2013 (English)In: International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems, ISSN 2194-5756, E-ISSN 1553-779X, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 341-250Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although there is a plethora of literature dealing with Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) communication delay, there has not been any effort to generalize empirical delay results by identifying the distributions with the best fit. The existing studies typically assume a distribution, or simply build on analogies to communication network routing delay. Specifically, this study provides insight into the characterization of the communication delay of both unprocessed PMU data and synchrophasors sorted by a Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC). The results suggest that a bi-modal distribution containing two normal distributions offers the best fit of the delay of the unprocessed data, whereas the delay profile of the sorted synchrophasors resembles a normal. Based on these results, the possibility of evaluating the reliability of a synchrophasor application with respect to a particular choice of PDC timeout is discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Walter de Gruyter, 2013
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-129074 (URN)10.1515/ijeeps-2013-0062 (DOI)2-s2.0-84881519181 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20131015

Available from: 2013-09-19 Created: 2013-09-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Zhu, K. (2013). Data Quality in Wide-Area Monitoring and Control Systems: PMU Data Latency, Completness, and Design of Wide-Area Damping Systems. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data Quality in Wide-Area Monitoring and Control Systems: PMU Data Latency, Completness, and Design of Wide-Area Damping Systems
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The strain on modern electrical power system operation has led to an ever increasing utilization of new Information Communication Technology (ICT) systems to enhance the reliability and efficiency of grid operation. Among these proposals, Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU)-based Wide-Area Monitoring and Control (WAMC) systems have been recognized as one of the enablers of “Smart Grid”, particularly at the transmission level, due to their capability to improve the real-time situational awareness of the grid. These systems differ from the conventional Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems in that they provide globally synchronized measurements at high resolutions. On the other hand, the WAMC systems also impose several stringent requirements on the underlying ICT systems, including performance, security, and availability, etc. As a result, the functionality of the WAMC applications is heavily, but not exclusively, dependent on the capabilities of the underlying ICT systems. This tight coupling makes it difficult to fully exploit the benefits of the synchrophasor technology without the proper design and configuration of ICT systems to support the WAMC applications. The strain on modern electrical power system operation has led to an ever increasing utilization of new Information Communication Technology (ICT) systems to enhance the reliability and efficiency of grid operation. Among these proposals, Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU)-based Wide-Area Monitoring and Control (WAMC) systems have been recognized as one of the enablers of “Smart Grid”, particularly at the transmission level, due to their capability to improve the real-time situational awareness of the grid. These systems differ from the conventional Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems in that they provide globally synchronized measurements at high resolutions. On the other hand, the WAMC systems also impose several stringent requirements on the underlying ICT systems, including performance, security, and availability, etc. As a result, the functionality of the WAMC applications is heavily, but not exclusively, dependent on the capabilities of the underlying ICT systems. This tight coupling makes it difficult to fully exploit the benefits of the synchrophasor technology without the proper design and configuration of ICT systems to support the WAMC applications.

In response to the above challenges, this thesis addresses the dependence of WAMC applications on the underlying ICT systems. Specifically, two of the WAMC system data quality attributes, latency and completeness, are examined together with their effects on a typical WAMC application, PMU-based wide-area damping systems. The outcomes of this research include quantified results in the form of PMU communication delays and data frame losses, and probability distributions that can model the PMU communication delays. Moreover, design requirements are determined for the wide-area damping systems, and three different delay-robust designs for this WAMC application are validated based on the above results. Finally, a virtual PMU is developed to perform power system and communication network co-simulations.

The results reported by this thesis offer a prospect for better predictions of the performance of the supporting ICT systems in terms of PMU data latency and completeness. These results can be further used to design and optimize the WAMC applications and their underlying ICT systems in an integrated manner. This thesis also contributes a systematic approach to design the wide-area damping system considering the PMU data latency and completeness. Finally, the developed virtual PMU, as part of a co-simulation platform, provides a means to investigate the dependence of WAMC applications on the capabilities of the underlying ICT systems in a cost-efficient manner.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. p. xii, 47
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2013:038
Keywords
Phasor Measurement Units, Wide-Area Monitoring and Control systems, latency, completeness, power system communication, simulation, empirical study
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-129078 (URN)978-91-7501-886-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-11-08, Sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 11:17 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20131015

Available from: 2013-10-15 Created: 2013-09-19 Last updated: 2013-10-15Bibliographically approved
Han, X., Sandels, C., Kun, Z. & Nordström, L. (2013). Modelling Framework and the Quantitative Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources in Future Distribution Networks. International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems, 14(5), 421-431
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling Framework and the Quantitative Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources in Future Distribution Networks
2013 (English)In: International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems, ISSN 2194-5756, E-ISSN 1553-779X, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 421-431Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There has been a large body of statements claiming that the large-scale deployment of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) could eventually reshape the future distribution grid operation in numerous ways. Thus, it is necessary to introduce a framework to measure to what extent the power system operation will be changed by various parameters of DERs. This article proposed a modelling framework for an overview analysis on the correlation between DERs. Furthermore, to validate the framework, the authors described the reference models of different categories of DERs with their unique characteristics, comprising distributed generation, active demand and electric vehicles. Subsequently, quantitative analysis was made on the basis of the current and envisioned DER deployment scenarios proposed for Sweden. Simulations are performed in two typical distribution network models for four seasons. The simulation results show that in general the DER deployment brings in the possibilities to reduce the power losses and voltage drops by compensating power from the local generation and optimizing the local load profiles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
De Gruyter, 2013
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-106234 (URN)10.1515/ijeeps-2013-0007 (DOI)2-s2.0-84888117072 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20131202

Updated from accepted to published.

Available from: 2012-11-30 Created: 2012-11-30 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Wu, Y., Nordström, L., Saleem, A., Zhu, K., Honeth, N. & Armendariz, M. (2013). Perspectives on Peer-to-Peer Data Delivery Architectures for Next Generation Power Systems. In: Smart Grid Management: . Paper presented at ISAP2013 (17th International Conference on Intelligent Systems Applications to Power Systems), Tokyo, Japan, July 1-4,2013.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perspectives on Peer-to-Peer Data Delivery Architectures for Next Generation Power Systems
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2013 (English)In: Smart Grid Management, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Introduction of new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and aggregation of equipment bring in new perspectives in terms of the increasing number of data users. It also brings new data delivery requirements which are difficult to be met by the legacy systems. Off-the-shelf standards and communication technologies are the enablers to push current data delivery solutions to a new level. At this level this new data delivery system can fulfill Quality of Service (QoS) requirements of next generation power system. This paper proposes a comprehensive architecture of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) based overlay-control data delivery system covering all levels of data delivery. The core technology of such an architecture lays on the Intelligent Substation Gateway (ISG), which is employed to provide data delivery service to meet the QoS requirements. Proposed data delivery system brings advantages as autonomy, flexibility, scalability, and efficient to the power system.

Keywords
Smart Grid Applications, Intelligent Substation Gateway, Overlay Network Control, P2P, Data Delivery System
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-124658 (URN)
Conference
ISAP2013 (17th International Conference on Intelligent Systems Applications to Power Systems), Tokyo, Japan, July 1-4,2013
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20130729

Available from: 2013-07-26 Created: 2013-07-26 Last updated: 2013-12-20Bibliographically approved
Bottura, R., Babazadeh, D., Zhu, K., Borghetti, A., Nordström, L. & Nucci, C. A. (2013). SITL and HLA Co-simulation Platforms: Tools for Analysis of the Integrated ICT and Electric Power System. In: 2013 IEEE EUROCON: . Paper presented at IEEE Region 8 Conference EuroCon 2013; Zagreb, Croatia July 1st - 4th, 2013.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SITL and HLA Co-simulation Platforms: Tools for Analysis of the Integrated ICT and Electric Power System
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2013 (English)In: 2013 IEEE EUROCON, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Due to the necessity of developing analysis tools inthe integrated ICT and power system domain, this paperdescribes and compares the architecture and configuration oftwo different co-simulation approaches called SITL and HLACo-simulation platforms. We provide several details on theirimplementation and present their features by means of theresults obtained for two test cases. The paper aims at clarifyingthe type of analysis that can be effectively carried out by usingthe two different platforms. Both platforms make use of thecommunication network simulator OPNET (Optimum NetworkPerformance). One of the two platforms operates in real time, inorder to perform system-in-the-loop (SITL) simulations. Theother platform is based on the interface between OPNET and thepower network simulation environment EMTP (ElectromagneticTransient Program). The interface is based on the application ofthe High-Level Architecture (HLA) standard.

Keywords
Co-simulation, OPNET, EMTP, High level architecture, System in the loop, Smart grid, Opal-RT
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-120105 (URN)10.1109/EUROCON.2013.6625092 (DOI)2-s2.0-84888586810 (Scopus ID)9781467322300 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE Region 8 Conference EuroCon 2013; Zagreb, Croatia July 1st - 4th, 2013
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20140115.

Available from: 2013-03-27 Created: 2013-03-27 Last updated: 2014-01-15Bibliographically approved
Zhu, K., Deo, S., Al-Hammouri, A., Honeth, N., Chenine, M., Babazadeh, D. & Lars, N. (2013). Test platform for synchrophasor based wide-area monitoring and control applications. In: Power and Energy Society General Meeting (PES), 2013 IEEE: . Paper presented at 2013 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, PES 2013; Vancouver, BC; Canada; 21 July 2013 through 25 July 2013 (pp. 6672308). Vancouver: IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Test platform for synchrophasor based wide-area monitoring and control applications
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2013 (English)In: Power and Energy Society General Meeting (PES), 2013 IEEE, Vancouver: IEEE , 2013, p. 6672308-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Synchrophasor technology is considered as a main enabler for the envisioned Smart Grid at the transmission level. Despite some preliminary field test results reported from China Southern Grid, the majority of the synchrophasor applications are still in the engineering or advanced laboratory tests phases. One possible impedance of any real-life adoption of such applicationsis a lack of test platforms that are able to verify the proposed application paradigms in cost efficient manners, and also to demonstrate the interactions between the power system and the supporting ICT systems with sufficient details. In this paper, we report on the continuing research efforts targeting at developing a test platform for the development of the synchrophasor based applications. The platform incorporates a virtual Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU), a real-time simulator for power systems, a real-time simulator for communication networks, and an implementation of an open-source Phasor Data Concentrator. Specifically, this article focuses on the implementation and verification of the virtual PMU, and on the extension of its functionality to incorporate communication over UDP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Vancouver: IEEE, 2013
Series
IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting PESGM, ISSN 1944-9925
Keywords
Cost-efficient, Laboratory test, Phasor data concentrators, Real-time simulator, Research efforts, Synchrophasors, Test platforms, Wide-area monitoring and controls
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-107199 (URN)10.1109/PESMG.2013.6672308 (DOI)000331874300215 ()2-s2.0-84893173930 (Scopus ID)978-147991303-9 (ISBN)
Conference
2013 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, PES 2013; Vancouver, BC; Canada; 21 July 2013 through 25 July 2013
Funder
Vinnova
Note

QC 20131015

Available from: 2012-12-07 Created: 2012-12-07 Last updated: 2014-04-10Bibliographically approved
Honeth, N., Saleem, A., Zhu, K., Vanfretti, L. & Nordström, L. (2012). Decentralized topology inference of electrical distribution networks. In: 2012 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies, ISGT 2012: . Paper presented at 2012 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies, ISGT 2012; Washington, DC; 16 January 2012 through 20 January 2012. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decentralized topology inference of electrical distribution networks
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2012 (English)In: 2012 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies, ISGT 2012, IEEE , 2012Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Power system operation and control relies heavily on models for decision making. Topology is a critical part of producing these models and maintaining up-to-date topologies of electrical distribution networks is a resource consuming and challenging task. This paper proposes a methodology and system architecture for inference of electrical topology using process and model data from IEC 61850 compliant substation automation devices. A system of autonomous intelligent agents communicating via an overlay network is proposed where agents are capable of communicating on the IEC 61850 station bus. An algorithm for topology inference using structured exchange and comparison of process and model information is developed. The capabilities of structured information exchange and interfacing of substation automation devices enables plug-and-play operation of the topology inference requiring minimal prior knowledge of electrical network structure. Decentralized topology inference forms the basis for future work in operation and management of active distribution networks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
Keywords
distribution networks, electrical topology, IEC 61850, multi-agent systems, overlay networks, substation automation.
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-63322 (URN)10.1109/ISGT.2012.6175630 (DOI)2-s2.0-84860864313 (Scopus ID)978-145772158-8 (ISBN)
Conference
2012 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies, ISGT 2012; Washington, DC; 16 January 2012 through 20 January 2012
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20120126

Available from: 2012-01-23 Created: 2012-01-23 Last updated: 2016-04-25Bibliographically approved
Zhu, K., Babazadeh, D., Wu, Y. & Nordström, L. (2012). Design of Robust Wide-Area Damping Controller Based on Synchronized Phasor. In: The 9th International Conference on Advances in Power System Control, Operation & Management (APSCOM 2012), 18 November-21 November 2012, Kowloon Shangri-La Hotel, Hong Kong: Conference Handbook: . Paper presented at The 9th International Conference on Advances in Power System Control, Operation & Management (APSCOM 2012), 18 November-21 November 2012, Hong Kong. Hongkong: Institution of Engineering and Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of Robust Wide-Area Damping Controller Based on Synchronized Phasor
2012 (English)In: The 9th International Conference on Advances in Power System Control, Operation & Management (APSCOM 2012), 18 November-21 November 2012, Kowloon Shangri-La Hotel, Hong Kong: Conference Handbook, Hongkong: Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2012Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hongkong: Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2012
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-102940 (URN)
Conference
The 9th International Conference on Advances in Power System Control, Operation & Management (APSCOM 2012), 18 November-21 November 2012, Hong Kong
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20130617

Available from: 2012-09-28 Created: 2012-09-28 Last updated: 2016-06-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4386-3781

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