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Chiu, Justin NingWeiORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6982-2879
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Publications (10 of 37) Show all publications
Xu, T., Chiu, J. N., Palm, B. & Sawalha, S. (2019). Experimental investigation on cylindrically macro-encapsulated latent heat storage for space heating applications. Energy Conversion and Management, 182, 166-177
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental investigation on cylindrically macro-encapsulated latent heat storage for space heating applications
2019 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 182, p. 166-177Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The integration of latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) units with heating systems in buildings is regarded as a promising technology for heating load management; however, so far a limited number of experimental studies have been reported that focus on space heating applications on a representative scale. In this study, we develop and test a 0.38 m3 LHTES unit containing cylindrically macro-encapsulated phase change materials (PCMs) with a melting temperature range of 44–53 °C and with gross mass of 154 kg. The unit has been tested with two tank orientations, horizontal and vertical. In the horizontal orientation tests, parametric studies show that increasing the difference between heat transfer fluid (HTF) supply temperatures and phase-change temperatures of PCMs, as well as increasing HTF flowrates, can both reduce the complete melting/solidification and complete charging/discharging time. Non-linear charging/discharging rates in PCMs are observed. The vertical orientation enables the forming of either a stratified or mixed flow regime in the tank. For charging, the stratified flow provides higher charging rates in PCMs compared to the mixed flow. When discharging the unit with a stratified HTF flow at 35 °C, lower HTF flowrates prolong the discharging time during which the released heat sustains an outlet temperature above 45 °C. Finally, comparisons between horizontal and vertical orientation tests reveal that although the vertical orientation can shorten the charging/discharging time by up to 20% for the entire unit to reach an energy density of 30 kWh/m3, it leads to decrease in PCM thermal capacity by at most 8.2%. The speculated cause of this loss is phase segregation suggested by observed fluid motions in PCM cylinders. This study comprehensively characterizes an LHTES unit providing insights to optimizing its operating strategies considering its coupling with space heating systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-241056 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2018.12.056 (DOI)2-s2.0-85059382278 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20190117

Available from: 2019-01-07 Created: 2019-01-07 Last updated: 2019-01-17Bibliographically approved
Abdi, A., Martin, V. & Chiu, J. N. (2019). Numerical investigation of melting in a cavity with vertically oriented fins. Paper presented at 14th International Conference on Energy Storage (EnerSTOCK), APR 25-28, 2018, Cukurova Univ, Adana, TURKEY. Applied Energy, 235, 1027-1040
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical investigation of melting in a cavity with vertically oriented fins
2019 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 235, p. 1027-1040Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates the effect of vertical fins, as an enhancement technique, on the heat transfer rate and energy density of a latent heat thermal energy storage system. This contributes with knowledge on the interaction of heat transfer surface with the storage material for optimizing storage capacity (energy) and power (heat transfer rate). For the assessment, numerical modeling is employed to study the melting process in a two-dimensional rectangular cavity. The cavity is considered heated isothermally from the bottom with surface temperatures of 55 degrees C, 60 degrees C or 70 degrees C, while the other surfaces are insulated from the surrounding. Aluminum and lauric acid are considered as fin/enclosure material and phase change material, respectively. Vertical fins attached to the bottom surface are employed to enhance the charging rate, and a parametric study is carried out by varying the fin length and number of fins. Thus, a broad range of data is provided to analyze the influence of fin configurations on contributing natural convection patterns, as well as the effects on melting time, enhanced heat transfer rate and accumulated energy. The results show that in addition to increasing the heat transfer surface area, the installation of vertically oriented fins does not suppress the natural convection mechanism. This is as opposed to horizontal fins which in previous studies have shown tendencies to reduce the impact of natural convection. This paper also highlights how using longer fins offers a higher rate of heat transfer and a better overall heat transfer coefficient rather than increasing the number of fins. Also, fins do not only enhance the heat transfer performance in the corresponding melting time, but also maintain similar total amount of stored energy as compared to the no-fin case. This paper discusses how this is the result of the enhanced heat transfer allowing a larger portion of sensible heat to be recovered. For example, in the case with long fins, the relative mean power enhancement is about 200% with merely 6% capacity reduction, even though the amount of PCM in the cavity has been reduced by 12% as compared to the no-fin case. Although the basis for these results stems from the principles of thermodynamics, this paper is bringing it forward with design consideration. This is because despite its importance for making appropriate comparisons among heat transfer enhancement techniques in latent heat thermal energy storage, it has not been previously discussed in the literature. In the end, the aim is to accomplish robust storage systems in terms of power and energy density.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2019
Keywords
PCM, Melting, Cavity, Fin, Conduction, Convection
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-246275 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.11.025 (DOI)000458942800083 ()2-s2.0-85056639432 (Scopus ID)
Conference
14th International Conference on Energy Storage (EnerSTOCK), APR 25-28, 2018, Cukurova Univ, Adana, TURKEY
Note

QC 20190325

Available from: 2019-03-25 Created: 2019-03-25 Last updated: 2019-04-04Bibliographically approved
Gunasekara, S. N., Ignatowicz, M., Chiu, J. N. & Martin, V. (2019). Thermal conductivity measurement of erythritol, xylitol, and their blends for phase change material design: A methodological study. Paper presented at 14th International Conference on Energy Storage EnerSTOCK 2018, Adana, Turkey on 25-28 April 2018 at Cukurova University.. International journal of energy research (Print), 43(5), 1785-1801
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermal conductivity measurement of erythritol, xylitol, and their blends for phase change material design: A methodological study
2019 (English)In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 1785-1801Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work presents and discusses a detailed thermal conductivity assessment of erythritol, xylitol, and their blends: 25 mol% erythritol and 80 mol% erythritol using the transient plane source (TPS) method with a Hot Disk Thermal Constants Analyzer TPS‐2500S. Thereby, the thermal conductivities of xylitol, 25 mol% erythritol, 80 mol% erythritol, and erythritol were here found for respectively in the solid state to be 0.373, 0.394, 0.535, and 0.589 W m−1 K−1 and in the liquid state to be 0.433, 0.402, 0.363, and 0.321 W m−1 K−1. These obtained results are comprehensively and critically analyzed as compared to available literature data on the same materials, in the phase change materials (PCMs) design context. This study clearly indicates that these thermal conductivity data in literature have considerable discrepancies between the literature sources and as compared to the data obtained in the present investigation. Primary reasons for these disparities are identified here as the lack of sufficiently transparent and repeatable data and procedure reporting, and relevant standards in this context. To exemplify the significance of such transparent and repeatable data reporting in thermal conductivity evaluations in the PCM design context, here focused on the TPS method, a comprehensive measurement validation is discussed along various residual plots obtained for varying input parameters (ie, the heating power and time). Clearly, the variations in the input parameters give rise to various thermal conductivity results, where choosing the most coherent result requires a sequence of efforts per material, because there are no universally valid conditions. Transparent and repeatable data and procedure reporting are the key to achieve comparable thermal conductivity results, which are essential for the correct design of thermal energy storage systems using PCMs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
erythritol, phase change materials, thermal conductivity, thermal energy storage, transient plane source method, xylitol
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244594 (URN)10.1002/er.4403 (DOI)000461866900010 ()2-s2.0-85063231614 (Scopus ID)
Conference
14th International Conference on Energy Storage EnerSTOCK 2018, Adana, Turkey on 25-28 April 2018 at Cukurova University.
Projects
Energimyndigheten project 34948‐1
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 34948‐1
Note

QC 20190228

Available from: 2019-02-22 Created: 2019-02-22 Last updated: 2019-05-02Bibliographically approved
Fujii, S., Kanematsu, Y., Kikuchi, Y., Nakagaki, T., Chiu, J. N. & Martin, V. (2018). Techno economic analysis of thermochemical energy storage and transport system utilizing "zeolite Boiler": Case study in Sweden. In: Energy Procedia: . Paper presented at 16th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling, DHC 2018, 9 September 2018 through 12 September 2018 (pp. 102-111). Elsevier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Techno economic analysis of thermochemical energy storage and transport system utilizing "zeolite Boiler": Case study in Sweden
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2018 (English)In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier, 2018, p. 102-111Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Thermochemical energy storage and transport system utilizing zeolite steam adsorption and desorption cycle is one of the methods to resolve the mismatch between industrial surplus heat and heat demands. To generate 60°C hot water utilizing zeolite 13X, zeolite boiler employing moving bed and indirect heat exchanger was developed. Pressurized water is heated up and flash steam is injected into the zeolite bed for adsorption. A quasi - 2D model solving heat and mass conservation equations was developed, leading to a performance characterization of this zeolite boiler. The developed simulation model was used to predict performance of a heat charging device employing moving bed as well. Based on this calculation, a case study, heat transporting between a local steel works and a hotel was examined and all corresponding cost were fixed. The Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) results in around 60 €/MWh which is comparable cost against conventional pellet boiler. Sensitivity analysis showed both of cheaper transportation cost and larger zeolite capacity on the one trailer give a comparable impact on the LCOE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Adsorption, District heating, Industrial surplus heat, Techno-Economic analysis, Thermochemical energy storage, Boilers, Cost benefit analysis, Energy storage, Industrial economics, Sensitivity analysis, Zeolites, Adsorption and desorptions, Levelized cost of energies, Mass conservation equations, Performance characterization, Surplus heat, Techno- economic analysis, Transportation cost, Economic analysis
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-236433 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2018.08.174 (DOI)000482873900011 ()2-s2.0-85054078977 (Scopus ID)
Conference
16th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling, DHC 2018, 9 September 2018 through 12 September 2018
Note

QC 20181025

Available from: 2018-10-25 Created: 2018-10-25 Last updated: 2019-09-16Bibliographically approved
Gunasekara, S. N., Ignatowicz, M., Chiu, J. N. & Martin, V. (2018). Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Erythritol, Xylitol and Their Blends for Phase Change Materials Design: a Methodological Study. In: The 14th International Conference on Energy Storage: . Paper presented at The 14th International Conference on Energy Storage- Enerstock2018 Çukurova University, Adana 25 - 28 April 2018 Çukurova University, Adana, Turkey (pp. 364-378). Adana, Turkey: IEA ECES, Article ID 82.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Erythritol, Xylitol and Their Blends for Phase Change Materials Design: a Methodological Study
2018 (English)In: The 14th International Conference on Energy Storage, Adana, Turkey: IEA ECES , 2018, p. 364-378, article id 82Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This work presents and discusses a detailed thermal conductivity assessment of erythritol, xylitol and their blends: 25 mol% erythritol and 80 mol% erythritol using the Transient Plane Source (TPS) method with a Hot Disk Thermal Constants Analyzer TPS-2500S. Their thermal conductivities were here found to be respectively: 0.59; 0.37; 0.39 and 0.54 W/(m·K) in the solid state, and to be 0.32; 0.43; 0.40 and 0.36 W/(m·K) in the liquid state. These obtained results are comprehensively and critically analyzed as compared to available literature data on the same materials, in the phase change materials (PCMs) design context. This study clearly indicates that the literature has considerable discrepancies among their presented thermal conductivities, and also as compared to the values found through the present investigation. Primary reason for these disparities are identified here as the lack of sufficiently transparent and repeatable data and procedure reporting, and relevant standards in this context. To exemplify the significance of such transparent and repeatable data reporting in thermal conductivity evaluations in the PCM design context, here focused on the TPS method, a comprehensive measurement validation is discussed along various residual plots obtained for varying input parameters (i.e., the heating power and time). Clearly, the variations in the input parameters give rise to various thermal conductivity results, where choosing the most coherent result requires a sequence of efforts per material, but there are no universally valid conditions. Transparent and repeatable data and procedure reporting is the key to achieve comparable thermal conductivity results, which are essential for the correct design of thermal energy storage systems using PCMs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Adana, Turkey: IEA ECES, 2018
Keywords
phase change material (PCM), thermal energy storage (TES), thermal conductivity, transient hot plane/disk (TPS) method, erythritol, xylitol
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Energy Technology; Materials Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-233150 (URN)978-975-487-218-7 (ISBN)
Conference
The 14th International Conference on Energy Storage- Enerstock2018 Çukurova University, Adana 25 - 28 April 2018 Çukurova University, Adana, Turkey
Note

QC 20180813

Available from: 2018-08-10 Created: 2018-08-10 Last updated: 2018-08-13Bibliographically approved
Gunasekara, S. N., Stalin, J., Marçal, M., Delubac, R., Karabanova, A., Chiu, J. N. & Martin, V. (2017). Erythritol, Glycerol, their Blends, and Olive Oil, as Sustainable Phase Change Materials. Paper presented at 11th International Renewable Energy Storage Conference, IRES 2017, 14-16 March 2017, Düsseldorf, Germany. Energy Procedia, 135, 249-262
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Erythritol, Glycerol, their Blends, and Olive Oil, as Sustainable Phase Change Materials
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2017 (English)In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 135, p. 249-262Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In searching for new candidates to be used in latent heat storage, it is desirable to explore food-grade materials of renewable origin. Here, erythritol, glycerol, and olive oil have been characterized as PCMs. An assessment of the production process of erythritol (melting between 117-120 °C with an enthalpy around 300 kJ/kg) indicates its renewable aspects as a PCM. In addition, a simplified cost assessment of high-purity erythritol production, using glycerol, indicates a potential cost reductions up to 130-1820 times lower than the current laboratory-grade prices. Glycerol already is cost-effective. However, the glycerol-erythritol system, evaluated using the Temperature-history (T-history) method, did not exhibit phase change suitable for PCMs. Glycerol, and up to 30 mol% erythritol compositions had no phase change due to glass transition; the remainder froze but with large supercooling; and the system underwent thermally activated change. Hence, to realize glycerol or the glycerol-erythritol system as PCMs, further research is needed primarily to device fast-crystallization. Olive oil is a cost-effective food commodity, with potential for further cost reductions by mass-production. An olive oil sample, containing the fatty acids: linoleic, palmitic, oleic, margaric, and stearic was evaluated using the T-history method. This olive oil melted and froze between -4.5 to 10.4 °C and -8 to -11.9 °C respectively, with the respective enthalpies 105 and 97 kJ/kg. As the specific heat (cp) profiles of olive oil displayed two peaks, the composition adjustment of olive oil could yield a eutectic or confirm a polymorph. In either case, olive oil has a potential to be a PCM e.g. in chilling applications, while its properties such as thermal conductivity need to be determined. As a whole, this study exemplifies the potential of renewable organic materials, in pure and blend forms, as sustainable PCMs, making TES with PCMs sustainable.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Netherlands: Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Phase change materials (PCMs); Thermal energy storage (TES); Renewable materials; Cost-effective; Temperature-history (T-history) method
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Energy Technology; Chemical Engineering; Materials Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-212439 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2017.09.517 (DOI)000426692900022 ()2-s2.0-85035150437 (Scopus ID)
Conference
11th International Renewable Energy Storage Conference, IRES 2017, 14-16 March 2017, Düsseldorf, Germany
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 34948-1
Note

QC 20170828

Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Gunasekara, S. N., Chiu, J. N., Martin, V. & Hedström, P. (2017). The Experimental Phase Diagram Study of the Binary Polyols System Erythritol-Xylitol. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 174, 248-262
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Experimental Phase Diagram Study of the Binary Polyols System Erythritol-Xylitol
2017 (English)In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 174, p. 248-262Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A comprehensive phase diagram for the binary polyols system erythritol-xylitol has been mapped with a transparent characterization approach. Here, the phase equilibrium of the system has been studied experimentally using a combination of methods: Temperature-history (T-history), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and linked to Tammann plots. Existing literature has previously shown the system to be a non-isomorphous type forming a simple eutectic, by combining experimental data with theoretical modelling. The present investigation shows that the system’s phase diagram is a partially isomorphous type forming a eutectic, but not a non-isomorphous type forming a simple eutectic. Here, the eutectic was found within 25-30 mol% erythritol and at 77 °C, which differs from the previous studies identifying the eutectic respectively at 25 or 36 mol% erythritol and at 82 °C. The reasons for the differences are hard to deduce since the research approach is not presented as fully transparent from the past studies. In the present study, only the temperature-composition plot of the first melting (of the two components in a physical mix, but not of a single blend) indicated the shape of a simple eutectic in a non-isomorphous system. The cycles after the first melting in contrast started from the real blend, and displayed eutectic and solid-solid phase changes in T-history. These were verified as forming solid solutions with XRD and FESEM. This eutectic melts at a temperature suitable for low-temperature solar heating, but displayed glass transition, supercooling, and thermally activated degradation, thus affecting its practical aspects as a PCM.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Phase change material (PCM), Erythritol-Xylitol phase diagram, Temperature-history (T-history) method, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Eutectic
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Energy Technology; Materials Science and Engineering; Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-212437 (URN)10.1016/j.solmat.2017.08.005 (DOI)000415392500030 ()2-s2.0-85029362402 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 34948-1
Note

QC 20170825

Available from: 2017-08-23 Created: 2017-08-23 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Castro Flores, J. F., Chiu, N. J., Le Corre, O., Lacarrière, B. & Martin, V. (2016). Energetic and exergetic analysis of alternative low-temperature based district heating substation arrangements. International Journal of Thermodynamics, 19(2), 71-80
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energetic and exergetic analysis of alternative low-temperature based district heating substation arrangements
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2016 (English)In: International Journal of Thermodynamics, ISSN 1301-9724, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 71-80Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

District Heating (DH) technology is an efficient and cost-effective solution to provide heating services to the built environment. However, the existing DH technology may not be technically and economically effective to service buildings with low energy demands. Here, low-temperature based district heating (LTDH) can provide a better match between supply and demand in terms of energy quality and quantity. This paper deals with the energy and exergy analyses of a LTDH substation supplying a secondary LTDH network as a subnet of the existing DH system. In order to improve the temperature match, a mix of supply and return streams from the main DH network are used to supply the substation. Based on modelling and simulation, an energy and exergy analysis is employed to compare the performance of two proposed substation configurations to that of a conventional DH substation operating at low temperatures. The results of this analysis show that the proposed LTDH substation reduced the share of energy demand covered by the main DH supply by 20% to 25%. Likewise, by using the flow from the main DH return pipe, the final exergy efficiency of the overall system increased by 5% on average. The exergy destruction occurring at the system components was also identified and compared: during high heat demands the substation heat exchanger is responsible for the largest share of exergy destruction, whereas for low heat demands, it is due to the pumping effort. Based on these results, the proposed system is seen as an effective approach to increase the quality and quantity match between the low-temperature network and the conventional supply.

Keywords
Low-Temperature District Heating; Substation; Performance; Exergy; Temperature Cascading
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-190005 (URN)10.5541/ijot.5000148882 (DOI)000382970100002 ()2-s2.0-84973322315 (Scopus ID)
Projects
SELECT+
Note

QC 20160809

Available from: 2016-07-28 Created: 2016-07-28 Last updated: 2018-06-12Bibliographically approved
Gunasekara, S. N., Kumova, S., Chiu, J. N. & Martin, V. (2016). Experimental Phase Equilibrium Study of Dodecane-Tridecane System for Phase Change Materials Design for Thermal Energy Storage. In: : . Paper presented at International symposium on innovative materials for processes in energy systems (IMPRES) 2016. Elsevier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Phase Equilibrium Study of Dodecane-Tridecane System for Phase Change Materials Design for Thermal Energy Storage
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
phase change material (PCM), C12H26-C13H28 system, phase diagram, Temperature-history method, Tammann plot, minimum-melting
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-213365 (URN)
Conference
International symposium on innovative materials for processes in energy systems (IMPRES) 2016
Projects
Swedish Energy Agency, project 34948-1
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 34948-1
Note

QC 20170830

Available from: 2017-08-29 Created: 2017-08-29 Last updated: 2017-08-30Bibliographically approved
Chiu, J. N. W., Castro Flores, J. F., Martin, V. & Lacarrière, B. (2016). Industrial surplus heat transportation for use in district heating. Energy, 110, 139-147
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial surplus heat transportation for use in district heating
2016 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 110, p. 139-147Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

M-TES (Mobile Thermal Energy Storage) technology is explored in this paper for transportation of industrial surplus heat for use in LTDH (low temperature district heating network). LTDH has promising potential in utilizing low grade heat, on the other hand, 20%–50% of industry generated surplus heat is often released to the ambient environment. M-TES is used to match thermal energy supply and demand that occur at different locations and that are shifted in time. In this paper, design of M-TES is conducted, optimization in operating strategies is performed, sensitivity analysis on levelized cost is studied, and environmental impact of CO2 emissions due to transportation is evaluated. The results of the study show an array of transportation means and storage operating strategies under which M-TES is technically, economically and environmentally sound for transportation of industrial surplus heat for use in LTDH network. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Environomic evaluation, Industrial surplus heat, Low temperature district heating (LTDH), Mobile thermal energy storage (M-TES), Techno-economic analysis, Carbon dioxide, District heating, Economic analysis, Economics, Energy storage, Environmental impact, Heat storage, Sensitivity analysis, Temperature, Thermal energy, Low temperatures, Surplus heat, Industrial economics
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-196148 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2016.05.003 (DOI)000385332200013 ()2-s2.0-84971623126 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Details: 36428-1, Swedish Energy Agency. QC 20161116

Available from: 2016-11-16 Created: 2016-11-14 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6982-2879

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