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Publications (10 of 19) Show all publications
Olofsson, K., Carannante, V., Ohlin, M., Frisk, T., Kushiro, K., Takai, M., . . . Wiklund, M. (2018). Acoustic formation of multicellular tumor spheroids enabling on-chip functional and structural imaging. Lab on a Chip, 18(16), 2466-2476
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acoustic formation of multicellular tumor spheroids enabling on-chip functional and structural imaging
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2018 (English)In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 18, no 16, p. 2466-2476Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Understanding the complex 3D tumor microenvironment is important in cancer research. This microenvironment can be modelled in vitro by culturing multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS). Key challenges when using MCTS in applications such as high-throughput drug screening are overcoming imaging and analytical issues encountered during functional and structural investigations. To address these challenges, we use an ultrasonic standing wave (USW) based MCTS culture platform for parallel formation, staining and imaging of 100 whole MCTS. A protein repellent amphiphilic polymer coating enables flexible production of high quality and unanchored MCTS. This enables high-content multimode analysis based on flow cytometry and in situ optical microscopy. We use HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma, A498 and ACHN renal carcinoma, and LUTC-2 thyroid carcinoma cell lines to demonstrate (i) the importance of the ultrasound-coating combination, (ii) bright field image based automatic characterization of MTCS, (iii) detailed deep tissue confocal imaging of whole MCTS mounted in a refractive index matching solution, and (iv) single cell functional analysis through flow cytometry of single cell suspensions of disintegrated MTCS. The USW MCTS culture platform is customizable and holds great potential for detailed multimode MCTS analysis in a high-content manner.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2018
National Category
Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-234606 (URN)10.1039/c8lc00537k (DOI)000442265100012 ()30033460 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85051357097 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Stockholm County CouncilSwedish Cancer SocietySwedish Childhood Cancer FoundationSwedish Research CouncilSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research
Note

QC 20180914

Available from: 2018-09-14 Created: 2018-09-14 Last updated: 2018-09-14Bibliographically approved
Ohlin, M., Iranmanesh, I. S., Christakou, A. E. & Wiklund, M. (2015). Temperature-controlled MPa-pressure ultrasonic cell manipulation in a microfluidic chip. Lab on a Chip, 15(16), 3341-3349
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temperature-controlled MPa-pressure ultrasonic cell manipulation in a microfluidic chip
2015 (English)In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 15, no 16, p. 3341-3349Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We study the temperature-independent impact on cell viability of relevant physical parameters during long-term, high-acoustic-pressure ultrasonic exposure in a microfluidic chip designed for ultrasonic-standing-wave trapping and aggregation of cells. We use a light-intensity method and 5 mum polymer beads for accurate acoustic pressure calibration before injecting cells into the device, and we monitor the viability of A549 lung cancer cells trapped during one hour in an ultrasonic standing wave with 1 MPa pressure amplitude. The microfluidic chip is actuated by a novel temperature-controlled ultrasonic transducer capable of keeping the temperature stable around 37 °C with an accuracy better than ±0.2 °C, independently on the ultrasonic power and heat produced by the system, thereby decoupling any temperature effect from other relevant effects on cells caused by the high-pressure acoustic field. We demonstrate that frequency-modulated ultrasonic actuation can produce acoustic pressures of equally high magnitudes as with single-frequency actuation, and we show that A549 lung cancer cells can be exposed to 1 MPa standing-wave acoustic pressure amplitudes for one hour without compromising cell viability. At this pressure level, we also measure the acoustic streaming induced around the trapped cell aggregate, and conclude that cell viability is not affected by streaming velocities of the order of 100 mum s(-1). Our results are important when implementing acoustophoresis methods in various clinical and biomedical applications.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-166828 (URN)10.1039/c5lc00490j (DOI)000358609500011 ()26156858 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84938342105 (Scopus ID)
Note

Updated from "Manuscript" to "Article". QC 20150814

Available from: 2015-05-19 Created: 2015-05-19 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Ohlin, M. (2015). Ultrasonic Fluid and Cell Manipulation. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ultrasonic Fluid and Cell Manipulation
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

During the last decade, ultrasonic manipulation has matured into an important tool with a wide range of applications, from fundamental cell biological research to clinical and industrial implementations. The contactless nature of ultrasound makes it possible to manipulate living cells in a gentle way, e.g., for positioning, sorting, and aggregation. However, when manipulating cells using ultrasound, especially using high acoustic amplitudes, a great deal of heat can be generated. This constitutes a challenge, since the viability of cells is dependent on a stable physiological temperature around 37°C.

     In this Thesis we present applications of ultrasonic manipulation of fluids, particles, and cells in temperature-controlled micrometer-sized devices fabricated using well established etching techniques, directly compatible with high-resolution fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, we present ultrasonic manipulation in larger up to centimeter-sized devices optimized for fluid mixing and cell lysis. In the present work, two new ultrasonic manipulation platforms have been developed implementing temperature control. These platforms are much improved with increased performance and usability compared to previous platforms. Also, two new ultrasonic platforms utilizing low-frequency ultrasound for solubilization and cell lysis of microliter-volumed and milliliter-volumed samples have been designed and implemented.

     We have applied ultrasound to synchronize the interaction between large numbers of immune, natural killer cells, and cancer cells to study the cytotoxic response, on a single cell level. A heterogeneity was found among the natural killer cell population, i.e., some cells displayed high cytotoxic response while others were dormant. Furthermore, we have used temperature-controlled ultrasound to form up to 100, in parallel, solid cancer HepG2 tumors in a glass-silicon multi-well microplate. Next, we investigated the immune cells cytotoxic response against the solid tumors. We found a correlation between the number of immune cells compared to the size of the tumor and the cytotoxic outcome, i.e., if the tumor could be defeated.

            Finally, the effect of high acoustic pressure amplitudes in the MPa-range on cell viability has been studied in a newly developed platform optimized for long-term stable temperature control, independent on the applied ultrasound power. Lastly, we present two applications of ultrasonic fluid mixing and lysis of cells. One platform is optimized for small microliter-sized volumes in plastic disposable chips and another is optimized for large milliliter-sized volumes in plastic test tubes. The latter platform has been implemented for clinical sputum sample solubilization and cell lysis for genomic DNA extraction for subsequent pathogen detection

Abstract [sv]

Ultraljudsmanipulering har under de senaste tio åren mognat och utvecklats till ett verktyg med ett brett användningsområde. Idag kan man finna applikationer inom allt från cellbiologisk grundforskning till industri samt sjukvård. Ultraljudsmanipuleringens kontaktlösa natur gör det till en varsam metod för att manipulera celler, till exempel inom positionering, sortering och aggregering. När ultraljud med hög amplitud används kan värmeutvecklingen, som är oundviklig, bli ett problem. För att kunna säkerställa hög cellviabilitet krävs temperaturkontroll som kan hålla en fysiologisk, stabil temperatur på 37°C.

     I denna avhandling presenterar vi tillämpningar av temperaturkontrollerad ultraljudsmanipulering i mikrometerstora anordningar fabricerade med väletablerade etsningstekniker.  Dessa anordningar är optimerade för att vara fullt kompatibla med högupplöst fluorescensmikroskopi.  Vi demonstrerar även ultraljudsmanipulering i centimeterstora anordningar optimerade för omrörning och blandning av vätskor samt lysering av celler. Två nya plattformar för ultraljudsmanipulering med inbyggd temperaturkontroll har utvecklats. Dessa två plattformar erbjuder ökad prestanda, flexibilitet samt även användarvänlighet. Utöver dessa plattformar har ytterligare två anordningar för lågfrekvent ultraljudssolubilisering och cellysering av mikroliter- och milliliterstora prover konstruerats.

     I denna avhandling har vi tillämpat ultraljud för att synkronisera interaktionen mellan populationer utav immunceller (natural killer-celler) och cancerceller för att på cellnivå studera det cytotoxiska gensvaret. Vi fann en heterogenitet hos immuncellspopulationen. Det manifesterade sig i en fördelning av immuncellerna, från celler med stort cytotoxiskt gensvar till inaktiva immunceller. Vi har dessutom använt temperaturkontrollerad ultrasljudsmanipulering för att skapa solida cancertumörer utav HepG2-cancerceller, upp till 100 stycken parallellt, i en multihåls-mikrotiterplatta bestående av glas och kisel. Med hjälp av dessa tumörer har vi studerat det cytotoxiska gensvaret från immuncellerna. Vi fann att förhållandet mellan antalet immunceller och storleken på tumören bestämde utfallet, det vill säga om tumören kunde bekämpas.

     Vi presenterar dessutom effekten utav högamplitudsultraljudsexponering av cancerceller i en plattform speciellt designad för höga tryckamplituder med implementerad ultraljudseffektsoberoende temperaturkontroll. Slutligen presenterar vi två tillämpningar av ultraljud för vätskeblandning och cellysering. Den första tillämpningen är anpassad för små volymer i plastchip för engångsbruk och den andra är optimerad för större volymer i plastprovrör. Den senare tillämpningen är speciellt framtagen för ultraljudssolubilisering och cellysering utav kliniska sputumprover för att möjliggöra DNA-extrahering för detektion av smittämnen.     

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. p. ix, 68
Series
TRITA-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2015:24
Keywords
3D cell culture, Acoustic streaming, Acoustofluidics, Cell manipulation, High-resolution imaging, Multi-well, Microplate, Natural killer cell, Piezo, Radiation force, Solid tumor, Solubilization, Spheroid, Standing wave, Temperature control, Transducer, Trapping, Ultrasonic
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Research subject
Physics; Biological Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-166779 (URN)978-91-7595-559-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-06-12, AlbaNova FD5, Roslagstullsbacken 21, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20150522

Available from: 2015-05-22 Created: 2015-05-18 Last updated: 2015-05-26Bibliographically approved
Christakou, A., Ohlin, M., Önfelt, B. & Wiklund, M. (2015). Ultrasonic three-dimensional on-chip cell culture for dynamic studies of tumor immune surveillance by natural killer cells. Lab on a Chip, 15(15), 3222-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ultrasonic three-dimensional on-chip cell culture for dynamic studies of tumor immune surveillance by natural killer cells
2015 (English)In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 15, no 15, p. 3222-31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We demonstrate a simple method for three-dimensional (3D) cell culture controlled by ultrasonic standing waves in a multi-well microplate. The method gently arranges cells in a suspension into a single aggregate in each well of the microplate and, by this, nucleates 3D tissue-like cell growth for culture times between two and seven days. The microplate device is compatible with both high-resolution optical microscopy and maintenance in a standard cell incubator. The result is a scaffold- and coating-free method for 3D cell culture that can be used for controlling the cellular architecture, as well as the cellular and molecular composition of the microenvironment in and around the formed cell structures. We demonstrate the parallel production of one hundred synthetic 3D solid tumors comprising up to thousands of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells, we characterize the tumor structure by high-resolution optical microscopy, and we monitor the functional behavior of natural killer (NK) cells migrating, docking and interacting with the tumor model during culture. Our results show that the method can be used for determining the collective ability of a given number of NK cells to defeat a solid tumor having a certain size, shape and composition. The ultrasound-based method itself is generic and can meet any demand from applications where it is advantageous to monitor cell culture from production to analysis of 3D tissue or tumor models using microscopy in one single microplate device.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-171262 (URN)10.1039/c5lc00436e (DOI)000358022900015 ()26126574 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84948403565 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research
Note

QC 20150728

Available from: 2015-07-28 Created: 2015-07-27 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Christakou, A. E., Ohlin, M., Önfelt, B. & Wiklund, M. (2014). Solid tumor spheroid formation by temperature-controlled high voltage ultrasound in a multi-well microdevice. In: 18th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, MicroTAS 2014: . Paper presented at 18th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, MicroTAS 2014, 26 October 2014 through 30 October 2014 (pp. 573-575). Chemical and Biological Microsystems SocietyChemical and Biological Microsystems Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solid tumor spheroid formation by temperature-controlled high voltage ultrasound in a multi-well microdevice
2014 (English)In: 18th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, MicroTAS 2014, Chemical and Biological Microsystems SocietyChemical and Biological Microsystems Society , 2014, p. 573-575Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the present work we demonstrate effective 3D growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cell spheroids in parallel in a multi-well microdevice actuated with high voltage ultrasound in a temperature-controlled system. We compare the spheroid formation during continuous ultrasound exposure for one week where we formed spheroids in 59% of the wells, with the spheroid formation without ultrasound actuation, where we obtained 0% spheroids. Furthermore, we present an application of the tumor spheroids for investigating natural killer (NK) cells behavior against solid tumors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Chemical and Biological Microsystems SocietyChemical and Biological Microsystems Society, 2014
Keywords
Microchip, Multi-well, Natural killer cells, Solid tumor, Spheroid, Ultrasound, Temperature control, Tumors, Multi wells, Solid tumors, Ultrasonics
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-174813 (URN)2-s2.0-84941633758 (Scopus ID)9780979806476 (ISBN)
Conference
18th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, MicroTAS 2014, 26 October 2014 through 30 October 2014
Note

QC 20151210

Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-10-07 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Wiklund, M., Christakou, A. E., Ohlin, M., Iranmanesh, I., Frisk, T., Vanherberghen, B. & Önfelt, B. (2014). Ultrasound-Induced Cell-Cell Interaction Studies in a Multi-Well Microplate. Micromachines, 5(1), 27-49
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ultrasound-Induced Cell-Cell Interaction Studies in a Multi-Well Microplate
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2014 (English)In: Micromachines, ISSN 2072-666X, E-ISSN 2072-666X, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 27-49Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This review describes the use of ultrasound for inducing and retaining cell-cell contact in multi-well microplates combined with live-cell fluorescence microscopy. This platform has been used for studying the interaction between natural killer (NK) cells and cancer cells at the level of individual cells. The review includes basic principles of ultrasonic particle manipulation, design criteria when building a multi-well microplate device for this purpose, biocompatibility aspects, and finally, two examples of biological applications: Dynamic imaging of the inhibitory immune synapse, and studies of the heterogeneity in killing dynamics of NK cells interacting with cancer cells.

Keywords
ultrasound, lab-on-a-chip, acoustofluidics, acoustic trapping, natural killer cells
National Category
Nano Technology Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-144959 (URN)10.3390/mi5010027 (DOI)000333674700003 ()2-s2.0-84902585350 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research EU, FP7, Seventh Framework ProgrammeSwedish Research Council
Note

QC 20140505

Available from: 2014-05-05 Created: 2014-05-05 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Ohlin, M., Christakou, A. E., Frisk, T., Önfelt, B. & Wiklund, M. (2013). Influence of acoustic streaming on ultrasonic particle manipulation in a 100-well ring-transducer microplate. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 23(3), 035008
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of acoustic streaming on ultrasonic particle manipulation in a 100-well ring-transducer microplate
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 035008-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We characterize and quantify the performance of ultrasonic particle aggregation and positioning in a 100-well microplate. We analyze the result when operating a planar ultrasonic ring transducer at different single actuation frequencies in the range 2.20-2.40 MHz, and compare with the result obtained from different schemes of frequency-modulated actuation. Compared to our previously used wedge transducer design, the ring transducer has a larger contact area facing the microplate, resulting in lower temperature increase for a given actuation voltage. Furthermore, we analyze the dynamics of acoustic streaming occurring simultaneously with the particle trapping in the wells of the microplate, and we define an adaptive ultrasonic actuation scheme for optimizing both efficiency and robustness of the method. The device is designed as a tool for ultrasound-mediated cell aggregation and positioning. This is a method for high-resolution optical characterization of time-dependent cellular processes at the level of single cells. In this paper, we demonstrate how to operate our device in order to optimize the scanning time of 3D confocal microscopy with the aim to perform high-resolution time-lapse imaging of cells or cell-cell interactions in a highly parallel manner.

Keywords
Radiation Force, Acoustophoresis, Chip, Cell, Devices
National Category
Engineering and Technology Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-119451 (URN)10.1088/0960-1317/23/3/035008 (DOI)000314816800009 ()2-s2.0-84878090655 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2011-5230EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Note

QC 20130315

Available from: 2013-03-15 Created: 2013-03-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Christakou, A. E., Ohlin, M., Vanherberghen, B., Khorshidi, M. A., Kadri, N., Frisk, T., . . . Önfelt, B. (2013). Live cell imaging in a micro-array of acoustic traps facilitates quantification of natural killer cell heterogeneity. Integrative Biology, 5(4), 712-719
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Live cell imaging in a micro-array of acoustic traps facilitates quantification of natural killer cell heterogeneity
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2013 (English)In: Integrative Biology, ISSN 1757-9694, E-ISSN 1757-9708, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 712-719Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Natural killer (NK) cells kill virus-infected or cancer cells through the release of cytotoxic granules into a tight intercellular contact. NK cell populations comprise individual cells with varying sensitivity to distinct input signals, leading to disparate responses. To resolve this NK cell heterogeneity, we have designed a novel assay based on ultrasound-assisted cell-cell aggregation in a multiwell chip allowing high-resolution time-lapse imaging of one hundred NK-target cell interactions in parallel. Studying human NK cells' ability to kill MHC class I deficient tumor cells, we show that approximately two thirds of the NK cells display cytotoxicity, with some NK cells being particularly active, killing up to six target cells during the assay. We also report that simultaneous interaction with several susceptible target cells increases the cytotoxic responsiveness of NK cells, which could be coupled to a previously unknown regulatory mechanism with implications for NK-mediated tumor elimination.

Keywords
Nk Cells, Education, Cytotoxicity, Lymphocytes, Secretion
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-121500 (URN)10.1039/c3ib20253d (DOI)000316692700008 ()2-s2.0-84878096273 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research Swedish Research CouncilScience for Life Laboratory - a national resource center for high-throughput molecular bioscience
Note

QC 20130506

Available from: 2013-05-06 Created: 2013-04-29 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Wiklund, M., Christakou, A. E., Iranmanesh, I., Ohlin, M., Russom, A. & Önfelt, B. (2013). On-chip acoustic sample preparation for cell studies and diagnostics. In: Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics: Volume 19, 2013. Paper presented at 21st International Congress on Acoustics, ICA 2013 - 165th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America; Montreal, QC; Canada; 2 June 2013 through 7 June 2013 (pp. 1-3). Acoustical Society of America (ASA)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On-chip acoustic sample preparation for cell studies and diagnostics
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2013 (English)In: Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics: Volume 19, 2013, Acoustical Society of America (ASA), 2013, p. 1-3Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We describe a novel platform for acoustic sample preparation in microchannels and microplates. The utilized method is based on generating a multitude of acoustic resonances at a set of different frequencies in microstructures, in order to accurately control the migration and positioning of particles and cells suspended in fluid channels and chambers. The actuation frequencies range from 30 kHz to 7 MHz, which are applied simultaneously and/or in sweeps. We present two devices: A closed microfluidic chip designed for pre-alignment, size-based separation, isolation, up-concentration and lysis of cells, and an open multi-well microplate designed for parallel aggregation and positioning of cells. Both devices in the platform are compatible with high-resolution live-cell microscopy, which is used for fluorescence-based optical characterization. Two bioapplications are demonstrated for each of the devices: The first device is used for size-selective cell isolation and lysis for DNA-based diagnostics, and the second device is used for quantifying the heterogeneity in cytotoxic response of natural killer cells interacting with cancer cells.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Acoustical Society of America (ASA), 2013
Series
Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics, ISSN 1939-800X ; 19
Keywords
Acoustic resonance, Bioapplications, Cytotoxic response, Different frequency, Microfluidic chip, Natural killer cells, Optical characterization, Sample preparation
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-134244 (URN)10.1121/1.4800637 (DOI)2-s2.0-84878982614 (Scopus ID)
Conference
21st International Congress on Acoustics, ICA 2013 - 165th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America; Montreal, QC; Canada; 2 June 2013 through 7 June 2013
Note

QC 20131121

Available from: 2013-11-21 Created: 2013-11-20 Last updated: 2013-11-21Bibliographically approved
Wiklund, M., Green, R. & Ohlin, M. (2012). Acoustofluidics 14: Applications of acoustic streaming in microfluidic devices. Lab on a Chip, 12(14), 2438-2451
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acoustofluidics 14: Applications of acoustic streaming in microfluidic devices
2012 (English)In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 12, no 14, p. 2438-2451Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

In part 14 of the tutorial series "Acoustofluidics - exploiting ultrasonic standing wave forces and acoustic streaming in microfluidic systems for cell and particle manipulation", we provide a qualitative description of acoustic streaming and review its applications in lab-on-a-chip devices. The paper covers boundary layer driven streaming, including Schlichting and Rayleigh streaming, Eckart streaming in the bulk fluid, cavitation microstreaming and surface-acoustic-wave-driven streaming.

National Category
Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-99105 (URN)10.1039/c2lc40203c (DOI)000305532600002 ()2-s2.0-84862207850 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20120717Available from: 2012-07-17 Created: 2012-07-13 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7023-4772

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