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Guarin, A., Khan, A., Butt, A. A., Birgisson, B. & Kringos, N. (2016). An extensive laboratory investigation of the use of bio-oil modified bitumen in road construction. Construction and Building Materials, 106, 133-139
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An extensive laboratory investigation of the use of bio-oil modified bitumen in road construction
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2016 (English)In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 106, p. 133-139Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several roads in Iceland with bio-oil modified surface dressings exhibited severe distresses such as bleeding, binder drain down, and eventually as surface dressing sticking to tires. Samples from six road sections were evaluated in the laboratory to determine the causes of the failure. Binders with and without bio-oil, rapeseed oil and fish oil, were evaluated through a comprehensive rheological and chemical characterization. Both oils, exhibited solubility issues with the bitumen; consequently, the oils covered the aggregates, preventing bonding between binder and stones. It appears that fish oil worked a little better than rapeseed oil for binder modification.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Binder rheological and chemical characterization, Bio-oil modified bitumen, Fish oil, Fluxed bitumen, Rapeseed oil
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-180911 (URN)10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.12.009 (DOI)000370103400014 ()2-s2.0-84951177325 (Scopus ID)
External cooperation:
Note

QC 20160128. QC 20160319

Available from: 2016-01-28 Created: 2016-01-25 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Butt, A. A., Birgisson, B. & Kringos, N. (2016). Considering the benefits of asphalt modification using a new technical LCA framework. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 22(5), 597-607
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Considering the benefits of asphalt modification using a new technical LCA framework
2016 (English)In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, ISSN 1392-3730, E-ISSN 1822-3605, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 597-607Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
Abstract [en]

Asphalt mixtures properties can be enhanced by modifying it with additives. Even though the immediatebenefits of using polymers and waxes to modify the binder properties are rather well documented, the effects of suchmodification over the lifetime of a road are seldom considered. To investigate this, a newly developed open technical lifecycle assessment (LCA) framework was used to determine production energy and emission limits for the asphaltadditives. The LCA framework is coupled to a calibrated mechanics based computational framework that predicts the intimepavement performance. Limits for production energy of wax and polymers were determined for the hypotheticalcase studies to show how LCA tools can assist the additives manufacturers to modify their production procedures andhelp road authorities in setting ‘green’ limits to get a real benefit from the additives over the lifetime of a road. From thedetailed case-studies, it was concluded that better understanding of materials will lead to enhanced pavement design andcould help in the overall reduction of energy usage and emissions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2016
Keywords
life cycle assessment, asphalt binder additives, bitumen healing, calibrated mechanics based pavement design model, polymer, wax.
National Category
Environmental Sciences Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering; Materials Science and Engineering; Transport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-102762 (URN)10.3846/13923730.2014.914084 (DOI)000376794400002 ()2-s2.0-84940706774 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160418

Available from: 2012-09-25 Created: 2012-09-25 Last updated: 2019-10-09Bibliographically approved
Butt, A. A. & Birgisson, B. (2015). Assessment of the attributes based life cycle assessment framework for road projects. Structure and Infrastructure Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of the attributes based life cycle assessment framework for road projects
2015 (English)In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Number of life cycle assessment (LCA) tools has been suggested for pavements. However, very few have been adopted by the road authorities. Key reasons for this lack of implementation have been the tendency for very broad LCA analyses that include system boundaries considerably beyond the more natural system boundaries associated with road design, construction and maintenance as well as the lack of available LCA tools that have attributes that reflect key road properties. In this paper, a new attributesbased pavement LCA framework is evaluated for use on real road materials. Aggregates from two different sources and the effect of using a warm mix asphalt additive (WMAA) in asphalt mixtures were investigated in the laboratory. Different pavement design alternatives were generated using the laboratory data and analyzed using the road LCA framework. Asphalt production and material transportation were found to be the most energy consuming processes. The results presented showed that having actual pavement material properties as the key attributes in LCA enables a pavement focused assessment of environmental impacts associated with different design options and, LCA can help in decision support by evaluating environmental impacts of different design alternatives in a project planning/design stage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2015
Keywords
Pavement management, Life cycles, Decision support systems, Roads & highways, Performance characteristics.
National Category
Environmental Engineering Civil Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-171417 (URN)10.1080/15732479.2015.1086388 (DOI)000379180200013 ()2-s2.0-84945232698 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160413

Available from: 2015-07-30 Created: 2015-07-30 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Butt, A. A., Toller, S. & Birgisson, B. (2015). Life Cycle Assessment for the GreenProcurement of Roads: A Way Forward. Journal of Cleaner Production, 90, 163-170
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life Cycle Assessment for the GreenProcurement of Roads: A Way Forward
2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 90, p. 163-170Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology can be used to assess the environmental impacts of a road system over its entire life time. However, it is very important to align the potentials and limitations of such tools with their intended purpose. For the LCA to be useful for the decision support in a procurement situation, it should therefore be important to have a clear understanding of the technical features (attributes) that build up the life cycle phases. In this paper, different types of decisions situations are outlined based on at what level of complexity (network or specific project) and at what stage within the planning process (early planning or late planning/design) the decision is to be made, and relevant methodological choices for these decision situations are discussed. Further, the attributes that are important to consider in an asphalt road LCA that seeks to serve as a decision support in a procurement situation are suggested and technical features for these attributes are outlined with focus on Energy and GreenHouse Gas emissions. It can be concluded that in order to aid the implementation of green procurement, it would help if the attributes of the system are defined in a transparent manner and consistently calculated. It is, however, also important that the attributes should mirror the material properties used in a pavement design and therefore be closely linked to the performance of the road in its life time. It is also recommended to report the feedstock energy in the road LCAs.

Keywords
Life cycle assessment (LCA), green procurement, attributes, roads, energy
National Category
Construction Management Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering; Transport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-156014 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.11.068 (DOI)000350084000018 ()2-s2.0-84922966021 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150218

Available from: 2014-11-17 Created: 2014-11-17 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Butt, A. A., Mirzadeh, I., Toller, S. & Birgisson, B. (2014). Life Cycle Assessment Framework for Asphalt Pavements: Methods to Calculate and Allocate Energy of Binder and Additives. The international journal of pavement engineering, 15(4), 290-302
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life Cycle Assessment Framework for Asphalt Pavements: Methods to Calculate and Allocate Energy of Binder and Additives
2014 (English)In: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268X, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 290-302Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The construction, maintenance and disposal of asphalt pavements may lead to considerable environmental impacts, in terms of energy use and emissions during the life of the pavement. In order to enable quantification of the potential environmental impacts due to construction, maintenance and disposal of roads, an open life cycle assessment (LCA) framework for the asphalt pavements is presented in this paper. Emphasis was placed on the calculation and allocation of energy used for binder and additives at the project level. It was concluded from this study that when progressing from LCA to its corresponding life cycle cost, the feedstock energy of the binder becomes highly relevant as the cost of the binder will be reflected in its alternative value as fuel. Regarding additives like wax, a framework for energy allocation was suggested. The suggested project level LCA framework was demonstrated in a limited case study of a Swedish asphalt pavement. It was concluded that the asphalt production and transporting materials were the two most energy-consuming processes, emitting most greenhouse gases depending on the fuel type and electricity mix.

Keywords
Life Cycle Assessment, feedstock energy, asphalt binder additives, mass-energy flows
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering; Transport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-49783 (URN)10.1080/10298436.2012.718348 (DOI)000329962900002 ()2-s2.0-84893032210 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150624

Available from: 2012-02-29 Created: 2011-11-29 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Butt, A. A. (2014). Life Cycle Assessment of Asphalt Roads: Decision Support at the Project Level. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life Cycle Assessment of Asphalt Roads: Decision Support at the Project Level
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Transport infrastructures such as roads are assets for the society as they not only ensure mobility but also strengthen society’s economy. Considerable amount of energy and materials, that include bitumen, aggregates and asphalt, are required to build and maintain roads. Improper utilization of energy and/or use of materials may lead to more waste and higher costs. The impact on the environment cannot be neglected either. Life cycle assessment (LCA) as a method can be used to assess the environmental impacts of a road system over its entire life time. Studying the life cycle perspective of roads can help us improve the technology in order to achieve a system that has a lower impact on the environment. There are number of LCA tools available. However, implementation of such tools is still unseen in real road projects. This clearly indicates that there are gaps which are needed to be filled in order to bring these tools into practice. An open road LCA framework was developed for the asphalt roads in order to help in decision support at the late project planning stage such as that related to the green procurement. The framework takes into account the construction, maintenance and end of life phases and focuses on energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Threshold values for the production of some additives were also determined to show how LCA tools can help material suppliers to improve the road materials production processes and the road authorities to set limits on the use of different materials based on the environmental criteria. Additive consideration and feedstock energy in road LCAs were also identified as gaps that were looked in detail. The attributes that are important to consider in an asphalt road LCA that seeks to serve as a decision support in a procurement situation are described.

A brief literature review was carried out that focused on project LCAs, and specifically those considering pavements, as this level is assumed to be appropriate for questions relevant in a procurement situation. Following the different standards; road LCAs developed all over the world have generated a lot of knowledge and the studies have been different from each other such as in terms of goals and system boundaries. Hence, the patterns observed have been very different from study to study. It was also difficult to assess the decision support level for which the various LCA frameworks or tools were developed. It is important to define system boundaries based on where in the system the decision support is needed. For LCA to be useful for decision support in a procurement situation, it is important to have a clear understanding of the attributes that constitute the life cycle phases and how data of high quality for them are obtained. The level of consistency and transparency of road LCAs becomes increasingly important in pre-procurement and procurement situations. The key attributes used in a road LCA should mirror the material properties used in a pavement design and therefore be closely linked to the performance of the road in its life cycle.

From the different case studies, it was found that asphalt production and transportation of materials are usually highest in the energy and GHG emissions chain. It is highly favorable to have the quarry site, the asphalt plant and the construction site not far from each other and to use the electricity that has been produced in an efficient way. Based on the laboratory test results, it is shown that the effects of chemical warm mix asphalt additives (WMAA)s must be evaluated on a case by case basis since WMAA interaction with the aggregate surface mineralogy appears to play a significant role and thus affects its long term structural behavior. Using the material properties obtained from the Superpave indirect tensile test (IDT) results, pavement thickness design was done in which Arlanda aggregate based asphalt mixtures resulted in thinner pavements as compared to Skärlunda aggregate based asphalt mixtures for the same design life period. Energy (feedstock and expended) saving and reduction in GHG emissions were also seen with addition of WMAA, for both aggregate type cases, based on the data used. Importantly, the results presented illustrate the importance of a systems based LCA approach for evaluating the sustainability for different design and construction options. In this context, having actual pavement material properties as the key attributes in the LCA enables a pavement focused assessment of environmental costs associated with different design options.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. p. vi, 61
Series
TRITA-TSC-PHD ; 14:006
Keywords
Asphalt roads; life cycle assessment; feedstock energy; warm mix asphalt additives; green procurement; decision support; laboratory investigation; pavement design.
National Category
Civil Engineering Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering; Transport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-156016 (URN)978-91-87353-48-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-12-11, Kollegiesalen (the old chapel), Brinellvägen 8, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20141118

Available from: 2014-11-18 Created: 2014-11-17 Last updated: 2014-11-18Bibliographically approved
Mirzadeh, I., Butt, A. A., Toller, S. & Birgisson, B. (2014). Life cycle cost analysis based on the fundamental cost contributors for asphalt pavements. Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 10(12), 1638-1647
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life cycle cost analysis based on the fundamental cost contributors for asphalt pavements
2014 (English)In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980, Vol. 10, no 12, p. 1638-1647Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A life cycle costing system should include the key variables that drive future costs in order to provide a framework for reducing the risk of under- or overestimating the future costs for maintenance and rehabilitation activities. In Sweden, price of oil products is mostly affected by the global economy rather than by the national economy. Whereas the price index of oil products has had a high fluctuation in different time periods, the cost fluctuation related to labour and equipment has been steady and followed the consumer price index (CPI). Contribution of the oil products was shown to be more than 50% of the total costs regarding construction and rehabilitation of asphalt pavements in Sweden. Consequently, it was observed that neither Swedish road construction price index (Vagindex) nor CPI has properly reflected the price trend regarding the asphalt pavement construction at the project level. Therefore, in this study, a framework is suggested in which energy- and time-related costs are treated with different inflation indices in order to perform a better financial risk assessment regarding future costs.

Keywords
user cost, rehabilitation, road and highways, maintenance, life cycle cost
National Category
Construction Management
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering; Transport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-126485 (URN)10.1080/15732479.2013.837494 (DOI)000348941700002 ()2-s2.0-84908049055 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150302

Available from: 2013-08-21 Created: 2013-08-21 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Mirzadeh, I., Butt, A. A., Toller, S. & Birgisson, B. (2012). A Life Cycle Cost Approach based on the Calibrated Mechanistic Asphalt Pavement Design Model. In: : . Paper presented at European Pavement and Asset Management Conference, EPAM, 5–7 Sep.. Malmö, Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Life Cycle Cost Approach based on the Calibrated Mechanistic Asphalt Pavement Design Model
2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) provides cost estimation over the life time of a project and thereby helps road administrations, designers, and contractors with choosing an economical design. Calculation of the costs can be based on a pavement design model, such as the Calibrated Mechanistic model (CM), in order to capture the mechanical behaviour of the asphalt pavement. This study aimed to develop an approach for performing comparative LCCA in order to find the most economical design alternative in terms of the total cost for the pavement design life. The integrated LCCA-CM approach was used to evaluate different design alternatives with different rehabilitation intervals for asphalt pavements. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö, Sweden: , 2012
Keywords
Life Cycle Cost, Calibrated Mechanistic Design Model, Asphalt Pavements
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-91178 (URN)
Conference
European Pavement and Asset Management Conference, EPAM, 5–7 Sep.
Note

QC 20120926

Available from: 2012-03-09 Created: 2012-03-09 Last updated: 2016-12-22Bibliographically approved
Butt, A. A., Mirzadeh, I., Toller, S. & Birgisson, B. (2012). Bitumen Feedstock Energy and Electricity Production in Pavement LCA. Paper presented at ISAP 2012 international Symposium on Heavy Duty Asphalt Pavements and Bridge Deck Pavements, 23-25 May. Nanjing, China
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bitumen Feedstock Energy and Electricity Production in Pavement LCA
2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Asphalt production consumes considerable amount of fuel and electric energy as significant amount of materials (bitumen and aggregates) are blended together for the construction of flexible pavements. Bitumen is used in asphalt as a binder but can also be used as an alternate energy source. Feedstock energy of bitumen becomes relevant in the life cycle cost (LCC) study, as cost of the binder would be reflected in its alternative value as fuel. In this study, a method was suggested to calculate energy content of the bitumen. Importance of choosing electricity not produced in local diesel generators was also demonstrated. Replacing fuel with inefficiently produced electricity for heating the materials in the asphalt plant would result in high environmental impacts. The calculation of feedstock energy and the understanding of efficient energy production and use could be utilized in the life cycle assessment (LCA) of the roads.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nanjing, China: , 2012
Keywords
Feedstock energy, electricity, environmental impact, energy, asphalt
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-91177 (URN)
Conference
ISAP 2012 international Symposium on Heavy Duty Asphalt Pavements and Bridge Deck Pavements, 23-25 May
Note

QC 20121217

Available from: 2012-03-09 Created: 2012-03-09 Last updated: 2012-12-17Bibliographically approved
Butt, A. A. (2012). Life Cycle Assessment of Asphalt Pavements including the Feedstock Energy and Asphalt Additives. (Licentiate dissertation). Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life Cycle Assessment of Asphalt Pavements including the Feedstock Energy and Asphalt Additives
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Roads are assets to the society and an integral component in the development of a nation’s infrastructure. To build and maintain roads; considerable amounts of materials are required which consume quite an amount of electrical and thermal energy for production, processing and laying. The resources (materials and the sources of energy) should be utilized efficiently to avoid wastes and higher costs in terms of the currency and the environment.

In order to enable quantification of the potential environmental impacts due to the construction, maintenance and disposal of roads, an open life cycle assessment (LCA) framework for asphalt pavements was developed. Emphasis was given on the calculation and allocation of energy used for the binder and the additives. Asphalt mixtures properties can be enhanced against rutting and cracking by modifying the binder with additives. Even though the immediate benefits of using additives such as polymers and waxes to modify the binder properties are rather well documented, the effects of such modification over the lifetime of a road are seldom considered. A method for calculating energy allocation in additives was suggested. The different choices regarding both the framework design and the case specific system boundaries were done in cooperation with the asphalt industry and the construction companies in order to increase the relevance and the quality of the assessment.

Case-studies were performed to demonstrate the use of the LCA framework. The suggested LCA framework was demonstrated in a limited case study (A) of a typical Swedish asphalt pavement. Sensitivity analyses were also done to show the effect and the importance of the transport distances and the use of efficiently produced electricity mix. It was concluded that the asphalt production and materials transportation were the two most energy consuming processes that also emit the most GreenHouse Gases (GHG’s). The GHG’s, however, are largely depending on the fuel type and the electricity mix. It was also concluded that when progressing from LCA to its corresponding life cycle cost (LCC) the feedstock energy of the binder becomes highly relevant as the cost of the binder will be reflected in its alternative value as fuel. LCA studies can help to develop the long term perspective, linking performance to minimizing the overall energy consumption, use of resources and emissions. To demonstrate this, the newly developed open LCA framework was used for an unmodified and polymer modified asphalt pavement (Case study B). It was shown how polymer modification for improved performance affects the energy consumption and emissions during the life cycle of a road. From the case study (C) it was concluded that using bitumen with self-healing capacity can lead to a significant reduction in the GHG emissions and the energy usage.  Furthermore, it was concluded that better understanding of the binder would lead to better optimized pavement design and thereby to reduced energy consumption and emissions. Production energy limits for the wax and polymer were determined which can assist the additives manufacturers to modify their production procedures and help road authorities in setting ‘green’ limits to get a real benefit from the additives over the lifetime of a road.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. p. xi, 25
Series
Trita-TSC-LIC, ISSN 1653-445X ; 12:008
Keywords
Life Cycle Assessment; feedstock energy; asphalt binder additives; mass-energy flows; bitumen healing; wax; polymer
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-102763 (URN)978-91-85539-96-3 (ISBN)
Presentation
2012-10-29, B25, Brinellvägen 23, KTH, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20120926

Available from: 2012-09-26 Created: 2012-09-25 Last updated: 2012-09-26Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4270-8993

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