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Sadik, D.-P., Colmenares, J., Tolstoy, G., Peftitsis, D., Bakowski, M., Rabkowski, J. & Nee, H.-P. (2016). Short-Circuit Protection Circuits for Silicon Carbide Power Transistors. IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), 63(4), 1995-2004, Article ID ITIED.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Short-Circuit Protection Circuits for Silicon Carbide Power Transistors
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2016 (English)In: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, ISSN 0278-0046, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 1995-2004, article id ITIEDArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An experimental analysis of the behavior under short-circuit conditions of three different siliconcarbide (SiC) 1200-V power devices is presented. It is found that all devices take up a substantial voltage, which is favorable for detection of short circuits. A transient thermal device simulation was performed to determine the temperature stress on the die during a short-circuit event, for the SiC MOSFET. It was found that, for reliability reasons, the short-circuit time should be limited to values well below Si IGBT tolerances. Guidelines toward a rugged design for short-circuit protection (SCP) are presented with an emphasis on improving the reliability and availability of the overall system. A SiC device driver with an integrated SCP is presented for each device-type, respectively, where a shortcircuit detection is added to a conventional driver design in a simple way. The SCP driver was experimentally evaluated with a detection time of 180 ns. For all devices, short-circuit times well below 1 µs were achieved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2016
Keywords
BJT Bipolar junction transistor (BJT), Driver circuits, Failure analysis, Fault detection, Fault protection, JFET Power MOSFET, Semiconductor device reliability, Short-circuit current, Silicon Carbide (SiC), Wide band gap semiconductors, driver circuits, failure analysis, fault detection, fault protection, junction field-effect transistor (JFET), power MOSFET, semiconductor device reliability, short-circuit current, silicon carbide (SiC), wide-bandgap semiconductors
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-185456 (URN)10.1109/TIE.2015.2506628 (DOI)000372645900001 ()2-s2.0-84963729279 (Scopus ID)
Funder
VINNOVA, 76454
Note

QC 20160419

Available from: 2016-04-19 Created: 2016-04-19 Last updated: 2017-05-29Bibliographically approved
Tolstoy, G., Ranstad, P., Colmenares, J., Giezendanner, F. & Nee, H.-P. (2015). Dual control used in series-loaded resonant converter with SiC devices. In: Power Electronics and ECCE Asia (ICPE-ECCE Asia), 2015 9th International Conference on: . Paper presented at Power Electronics and Applications (EPE’15 ECCE-Europe), 2015 17th European Conference on (pp. 495-501). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dual control used in series-loaded resonant converter with SiC devices
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2015 (English)In: Power Electronics and ECCE Asia (ICPE-ECCE Asia), 2015 9th International Conference on, IEEE , 2015, p. 495-501Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the performance of silicon carbide (SiC) switches in a series-loaded resonant (SLR) converter with dual control (DuC). It is shown that the SiC metal oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) with DuC increases the overall efficiency of the SLR converter compared to frequency modulation (FM). For the SiC bipolar junction transistors (BJT), the loss reduction with DuC instead of FM is not as dramatic as for the MOSFET case. Regardless of which transistor type used, the switching losses are around 20 % of the total losses at around 25 kHz. With DuC an almost constant switching frequency is used over the full voltage range compared to FM were the switching frequency increases by 13 %. Additionally a reduction of capacitive snubbers is achieved with DuC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2015
Keywords
MOSFET;bipolar transistors;frequency control;frequency modulation;resonant power convertors;semiconductor switches;silicon compounds;snubbers;wide band gap semiconductors;BJT;DuC;FM;MOSFET;SLR converter;SiC;bipolar junction transistor;capacitive snubber;constant switching frequency;dual control;frequency control;frequency modulation;metal oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor;series-loaded resonant converter;silicon carbide device;silicon carbide switch;switching loss;Frequency modulation;MOSFET;Silicon carbide;Snubbers;Switching frequency;Switching loss;Voltage control;Capacitive snubbers;Resonant converter control;SiC devices;Soft switching
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-182754 (URN)10.1109/ICPE.2015.7167831 (DOI)000382948300074 ()2-s2.0-84961880181 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Power Electronics and Applications (EPE’15 ECCE-Europe), 2015 17th European Conference on
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20160317

Available from: 2016-02-23 Created: 2016-02-23 Last updated: 2016-10-24Bibliographically approved
Tolstoy, G., Ranstad, P., Colmenares, J., Giezendanner, F. & Nee, H.-P. (2015). Experimental evaluation of SiC BJTs and SiC MOSFETs in a series-loaded resonant converter. In: Power Electronics and Applications (EPE’15 ECCE-Europe), 2015 17th European Conference on: . Paper presented at Power Electronics and Applications (EPE’15 ECCE-Europe), 2015 17th European Conference on (pp. 1-9). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental evaluation of SiC BJTs and SiC MOSFETs in a series-loaded resonant converter
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2015 (English)In: Power Electronics and Applications (EPE’15 ECCE-Europe), 2015 17th European Conference on, IEEE , 2015, p. 1-9Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

SiC devices such as MOSFETs and BJTs have proven themselves to be contenders to improve the efficiency of resonant converters. The losses of the full-bridge inverter are well below 1% of the rated power at switching frequencies up to 200 kHz, making it possible to reach even higher frequencies. An experimental setup is built and two different full-bridge inverters are tested. One is built with SiC MOSFETs and no additional anti-parallel diodes and one with SiC BJTs and SiC Schottky diodes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2015
Keywords
Schottky diodes;bridge circuits;elemental semiconductors;invertors;power MOSFET;power bipolar transistors;resonant power convertors;efficiency improvement;full-bridge inverter losses;series-loaded resonant converter;silicon carbide BJT;silicon carbide MOSFET;silicon carbide Schottky diodes;Frequency modulation;Loss measurement;MOSFET;Resonant frequency;Silicon carbide;Snubbers;Zero voltage switching;Converter control;High frequency power converter;Resonant converter;Silicon Carbide (SiC);Soft switching
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-182755 (URN)10.1109/EPE.2015.7309472 (DOI)000377101803093 ()2-s2.0-84965046356 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Power Electronics and Applications (EPE’15 ECCE-Europe), 2015 17th European Conference on
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20160317

Available from: 2016-02-23 Created: 2016-02-23 Last updated: 2016-07-06Bibliographically approved
Colmenares, J., Peftitsis, D., Rabkowski, J., Sadik, D.-P., Tolstoy, G. & Nee, H.-P. (2015). High-Efficiency 312-kVA Three-Phase Inverter Using Parallel Connection of Silicon Carbide MOSFET Power Modules. IEEE transactions on industry applications, 51(6), 4664-4676
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-Efficiency 312-kVA Three-Phase Inverter Using Parallel Connection of Silicon Carbide MOSFET Power Modules
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2015 (English)In: IEEE transactions on industry applications, ISSN 0093-9994, E-ISSN 1939-9367, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 4664-4676Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the design process of a 312-kVA three-phase silicon carbide inverter using ten parallel-connected metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor power modules in each phase leg. The design processes of the gate-drive circuits with short-circuit protection and power circuit layout are also presented. Measurements in order to evaluate the performance of the gate-drive circuits have been performed using a double-pulse setup. Moreover, electrical and thermal measurements in order to evaluate the transient performance and steady-state operation of the parallel-connected power modules are shown. Experimental results showing proper steady-state operation of the power converter are also presented. Taking into account measured data, an efficiency of approximately 99.3% at the rated power has been measured for the inverter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2015
Keywords
Inverter, metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs), parallel connection, power module, silicon carbide (SiC)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-180146 (URN)10.1109/TIA.2015.2456422 (DOI)000365415700033 ()2-s2.0-84957922544 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20160113

Available from: 2016-01-13 Created: 2016-01-07 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Tolstoy, G. (2015). High-Efficiency SiC Power Conversion: Base Drivers for Bipolar Junction Transistors and Performance Impacts on Series-Resonant Converters. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-Efficiency SiC Power Conversion: Base Drivers for Bipolar Junction Transistors and Performance Impacts on Series-Resonant Converters
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis aims to bring an understanding to the silicon carbide (SiC) bipolar junction transistor (BJT). SiC power devices are superior to the silicon IGBT in several ways. They are for instance, able to operate with higher efficiency, at higher frequencies, and at higher junction temperatures. From a system point of view the SiC power device could decrease the cost and complexity of cooling, reduce the size and weight of the system, and enable the system to endure harsher environments.

The three main SiC power device designs are discussed with a focus on the BJT. The SiC BJT is compared to the SiC junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and the metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). The potential of employing SiC power devices in applications, ranging from induction heating to high-voltage direct current (HVDC), is presented.

The theory behind the state-of-the-art dual-source (2SRC) base driver that was presented by Rabkowski et al. a few years ago is described. This concept of proportional base drivers is introduced with a focus on the discretized proportional base drivers (DPBD). By implementing the DPBD concept and building a prototype it is shown that the steady-state consumption of the base driver can be reduced considerably.

 The aspects of the reverse conduction of the SiC BJT are presented. It is shown to be of importance to consider the reduced voltage drop over the base-emitter junction.

Last the impact of SiC unipolar and bipolar devices in series-resonant (SLR) converters is presented. Two full-bridges are designed and constructed, one with SiC MOSFETs utilizing the body diode for reverse conduction during the dead-time, and the second with SiC BJTs with anti-parallel SiC Schottky diodes. It is found that the SiC power devices, with their absence of tail current, are ideal devices to fully utilize the soft-switching properties that the SLR converters offer. The SiC MOSFET benefits from its possibility to utilize reverse conduction with a low voltage drop. It is also found that the size of capacitance of the snubbers can be reduced compare to state-of-the-art silicon technology. High switching frequencies of 200 kHz are possible while still keeping the losses low. A dead-time control strategy for each device is presented. The dual control (DuC) algorithm is tested with the SiC devices and compared to frequency modulation (FM).

The analytical investigations presented in this thesis are confirmed by experimental results on several laboratory prototype converters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. p. xiv, 71
Series
TRITA-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2015:024
Keywords
Silicon Carbide, Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT), Resonant converter, Series-resonant converter (SLR), Base drive circuits, High- Efficiency Converters, High-Frequency Converters
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168163 (URN)978-91-7595-601-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-06-12, H1, Teknikringen 33, KTH, Stockholm, 09:45 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20150529

Available from: 2015-05-29 Created: 2015-05-27 Last updated: 2020-01-22Bibliographically approved
Tolstoy, G., Peftitsis, D., Rabkowski, J., Palmer, P. R. & Nee, H.-P. (2014). A Discretized Proportional Base Driver for Silicon Carbide Bipolar Junction Transistors. IEEE transactions on power electronics, 29(5), 2408-2417
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Discretized Proportional Base Driver for Silicon Carbide Bipolar Junction Transistors
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2014 (English)In: IEEE transactions on power electronics, ISSN 0885-8993, E-ISSN 1941-0107, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 2408-2417Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Silicon carbide (SiC) bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) require a continuous base current in the on-state. This base current is usually made constant and is corresponding to the maximum collector current and maximum junction temperature that is foreseen in a certain application. In this paper, a discretized proportional base driver is proposed which will reduce, for the right application, the steady-state power consumption of the base driver. The operation of the proposed base driver has been verified experimentally, driving a 1200-V/40-A SiC BJT in a dc-dc boost converter. In order to determine the potential reduction of the power consumption of the base driver, a case with a dc-dc converter in an ideal electric vehicle driving the new European drive cycle has been investigated. It is found that the steady-state power consumption of the base driver can be reduced by approximately 60%. The total reduction of the driver consumption is 3459 J during the drive cycle, which is slightly more than the total on-state losses for the SiC BJTs used in the converter.

Keywords
Bipolar junction transistor (BJT), base driver, discretized base driver, driver, proportional base driver, proportional driver, silicon carbide (SiC)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-141277 (URN)10.1109/TPEL.2013.2274331 (DOI)000329991500027 ()2-s2.0-84893146106 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140213

Available from: 2014-02-13 Created: 2014-02-13 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Tolstoy, G., Ranstad, P., Colmenares, J., Giezendanner, F., Rabkowski, J. & Nee, H.-P. (2014). An experimental analysis on how the dead-time of SiC BJT and SiC MOSFET impacts the losses in a high-frequency resonant converter. In: 2014 16th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, EPE-ECCE Europe 2014: . Paper presented at 2014 16th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, EPE-ECCE Europe 2014, Lappeenranta, Finland, 26 August 2014 through 28 August 2014 (pp. 6911042). IEEE conference proceedings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An experimental analysis on how the dead-time of SiC BJT and SiC MOSFET impacts the losses in a high-frequency resonant converter
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2014 (English)In: 2014 16th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, EPE-ECCE Europe 2014, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 6911042-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Active control of the dead-time in a SLR converter is in this paper shown to be of great importance. The efficiency of the full-bridge will increase if the dead-time control is made in the right way. Different control algorithms are shown to work well for different power switches. For the SiC MOSFET and the SiC BJT the control algorithms are tested experimentally.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2014
Keywords
Silicon Carbid (SiC)
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-166546 (URN)10.1109/EPE.2014.6911042 (DOI)000361460005028 ()2-s2.0-84923870193 (Scopus ID)978-147993015-9 (ISBN)
Conference
2014 16th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, EPE-ECCE Europe 2014, Lappeenranta, Finland, 26 August 2014 through 28 August 2014
Note

QC 20150511

Available from: 2015-05-11 Created: 2015-05-11 Last updated: 2015-10-16Bibliographically approved
Sadik, D.-P., Colmenares, J., Peftitsis, D., Tolstoy, G., Rabkowski, J. & Nee, H.-P. (2014). Analysis of short-circuit conditions for silicon carbide power transistors and suggestions for protection. In: 2014 16th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, EPE-ECCE Europe 2014: . Paper presented at 2014 16th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, EPE-ECCE Europe 2014, Lappeenranta, Finland, 26 August 2014 through 28 August 2014 (pp. 6910789). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of short-circuit conditions for silicon carbide power transistors and suggestions for protection
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2014 (English)In: 2014 16th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, EPE-ECCE Europe 2014, IEEE , 2014, p. 6910789-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An experimental analysis of the behavior under short-circuit conditions of three different Silicon Carbide (SiC) 1200 V power devices is presented. It is found that all devices take up a substantial voltage, which is favorable for detection of short-circuits. A suitable method for short-circuit detection without any comparator is demonstrated. A SiC JFET driver with an integrated short-circuit protection (SCP) is presented where a short-circuit detection is added to a conventional driver design in a simple way. Experimental tests of the SCP driver operating under short-circuit condition and under normal operation are performed successfully.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2014
Keywords
Silicon Carbide (SiC), Fault handling strategy, JFET, MOSFET, BJT, Power semiconductor device, Protection device, Faults, Robustness, Safety, Wide bandgap devices
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering; SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-166534 (URN)10.1109/EPE.2014.6910789 (DOI)000361460001041 ()2-s2.0-84923870198 (Scopus ID)978-147993015-9 (ISBN)
Conference
2014 16th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, EPE-ECCE Europe 2014, Lappeenranta, Finland, 26 August 2014 through 28 August 2014
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20150511

Available from: 2015-05-11 Created: 2015-05-11 Last updated: 2016-02-26Bibliographically approved
Tolstoy, G., Larsson, B., Wallmark, O., Norrga, S. & Nee, H.-P. (2014). Elimination of vector changes due to sector changes with DTC. In: 2014 16th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, EPE-ECCE Europe 2014: . Paper presented at 2014 16th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, EPE-ECCE Europe 2014, Lappeenranta, Finland, 26 August 2014 through 28 August 2014 (pp. 6910748). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elimination of vector changes due to sector changes with DTC
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2014 (English)In: 2014 16th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, EPE-ECCE Europe 2014, IEEE , 2014, p. 6910748-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper it has been investigated if there is a possibility to reduce the switching frequency for a two-level inverter by improving the direct torque control (DTC) algorithm by adding a non-switching condition when a new sector is entered. It is believed that the DTC switching table can be improved by adding a non-switching condition when sector change occurs. This will reduce the number of switching actions by up to 12 per electrical rotation without interfering with the electrical machine performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2014
Keywords
Control of drive, Direct tourque and flux control
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-166470 (URN)10.1109/EPE.2014.6910748 (DOI)000361460000066 ()2-s2.0-84923917096 (Scopus ID)978-147993015-9 (ISBN)
Conference
2014 16th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, EPE-ECCE Europe 2014, Lappeenranta, Finland, 26 August 2014 through 28 August 2014
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20150511

Available from: 2015-05-11 Created: 2015-05-11 Last updated: 2015-10-16Bibliographically approved
Colmenares, J., Peftitsis, D., Tolstoy, G., Sadik, D.-P., Nee, H.-P. & Rabkowski, J. (2014). High-efficiency three-phase inverter with SiC MOSFET power modules for motor-drive applications. In: : . Paper presented at 2014 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, ECCE 2014, Pittsburgh, PA, SEP 14-18, 2014 (pp. 468-474). IEEE conference proceedings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-efficiency three-phase inverter with SiC MOSFET power modules for motor-drive applications
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2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the design process of a 312 kVA three-phase silicon carbide inverter using ten parallel-connected metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor power modules in each phase-leg. The design processes of the gate-drive circuits with short-circuit protection and the power circuit layout are also presented. Electrical measurements in order to evaluate the performance of the gate-drive circuits have been performed using a double-pulse setup. Experimental results showing the electrical performance during steady-state operation of the power converter are also shown. Taking into account measured data, an efficiency of approximately 99.3% at the rated power has been estimated for the inverter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2014
Keywords
AC motors, Digital storage, Electric drives, Electric power systems, Electron beam lithography, Field effect transistors, Metals, MOS devices, MOSFET devices, Semiconducting silicon, Silicon carbide, Electrical measurement, Electrical performance, Gate drive circuits, Motor drive applications, Parallel-connected, Short-circuit protection, Steady-state operation, Three-phase inverter, Electric inverters
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-174817 (URN)10.1109/ECCE.2014.6953431 (DOI)000411444300064 ()2-s2.0-84934312282 (Scopus ID)9781479956982 (ISBN)
Conference
2014 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, ECCE 2014, Pittsburgh, PA, SEP 14-18, 2014
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20151211

Available from: 2015-12-11 Created: 2015-10-07 Last updated: 2020-03-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7922-3407

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