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Davydenko, A., Karasev, A., Glaser, B. & Jönsson, P. (2019). Direct Reduction of Fe, Ni and Cr from Oxides of Waste Products Used in Briquettes for Slag Foaming in EAF. Materials, 12(20), Article ID 3434.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Direct Reduction of Fe, Ni and Cr from Oxides of Waste Products Used in Briquettes for Slag Foaming in EAF
2019 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 20, article id 3434Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Environmental aspects and the sustainable manufacturing of steels require producers to pay more and more attention to the efficient utilization of materials and waste products during steelmaking. This study is focused on the evaluation of possibilities for the recovery of metals (such as Fe, Ni and Cr) from waste products used for slag foaming in the Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) process. Two types of industrial briquettes were produced by mixing mill-scale from the hot rolling of stainless steels with anthracite and pet-coke, respectively. Thereafter, an assessment of the metal reduction processes in briquettes at high temperatures (1500 degrees C) was made by using laboratory thermo-gravimetric reduction experiments in an argon atmosphere. The amounts of metal, slag and gas obtained from the briquettes were estimated. In addition, the velocity and time for the removal of metal droplets from the liquid slag depending on the size of the metal droplets was estimated. It was found that up to 97% of metal droplets can be removed from the slag during the first 30 min. Moreover, results showed that most of the Cr, Ni and Fe (up to 93-100%) can be reduced from oxides of these metals in briquettes at 1500 degrees C. Moreover, the anthracite and pet-coke in the investigated briquettes have similar reduction capabilities. It was found that up to 330 kg of Fe, 28 kg of Ni and 66 kg of Cr per ton of added briquettes can be recovered from waste products by the industrial application of those briquettes for slag foaming in EAF.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
EAF, stainless steel, slag foaming, waste products, recycling, briquettes
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-265434 (URN)10.3390/ma12203434 (DOI)000498402100156 ()31640112 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85074227936 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20191212

Available from: 2019-12-12 Created: 2019-12-12 Last updated: 2020-01-03Bibliographically approved
Zhao, Z., Chen, X., Glaser, B. & Yan, B. (2019). Experimental Study on the Thermodynamics of the CaO-SiO2-Ce2O3 System at 1873 K. Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, 50(1), 395-406
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Study on the Thermodynamics of the CaO-SiO2-Ce2O3 System at 1873 K
2019 (English)In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 395-406Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The phase relations in the CaO-SiO2-Ce2O3 system under the reducing atmosphere at 1873 K were determined by the conventional equilibrium and quenching method combined with scanning electron microscopy-electron probe microanalysis (SEM-EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements on the quenched samples. Based on these analyses, a large part of the isothermal phase diagram was constructed. Furthermore, the thermodynamic activities of Ce2O3 in the melts at 1873 K were measured by the chemical equilibrium method. Using the measured activity data, an empirical formula to estimate the activity coefficient of Ce2O3 was proposed based on the regular solution model. It was found that, for the melts with the same Ce2O3 contents, the thermodynamic activities of Ce2O3 increase gradually with the rise of basicity (the ratio of CaO to SiO2) of the melts. This implies that, from the thermodynamic point of view, the increase of basicity is favorable to the enrichment and precipitation of Ce-containing mineral phases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2019
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-243939 (URN)10.1007/s11663-018-1471-9 (DOI)000456070300039 ()2-s2.0-85058102659 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190312

Available from: 2019-03-12 Created: 2019-03-12 Last updated: 2019-03-12Bibliographically approved
Yan, B., Liu, Y., Shu, Q., Deng, T. & Glaser, B. (2019). Measurements and Model Estimations of Viscosities of the MnO-CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 Melts. Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, 50(1), 376-384
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurements and Model Estimations of Viscosities of the MnO-CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 Melts
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2019 (English)In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 376-384Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The viscosities of the MnO (0 to 55 mass pct)-CaO-SiO2-MgO (5 mass pct)-Al2O3 (20 mass pct) melts were measured by rotating cylinder method in the temperature range from 1573 K to 1873 K (1300 degrees C to 1600 degrees C). The measurements were carried out in the atmosphere of flowing CO/CO2 gas mixture with a volume ratio of 99/1, and molybdenum crucible and spindle were adopted. The results reveal that MnO is a viscosity reducing component, and the effect of MnO is more notable in the melts with higher ratio of CaO to SiO2. For example, in the melts with the mass ratio of CaO to SiO2 equal to 0.6, the addition of 5 mass pct MnO only slightly reduced the viscosities. Comparatively, the addition of 5 mass pct MnO made the viscosities of the melts with the mass ratio of CaO to SiO2 equal to 1.0 and 1.5 decrease remarkably. Based on the measured data, the viscosities estimation model proposed in our previous study was extended to the system containing MnO, and the model parameters were determined. The model can estimate and predict the viscosities of the aluminosilicate melts containing MnO well, and then some iso-viscosity contours of this system were calculated. From the iso-viscosity contours, it can be seen that MnO is almost equivalent to CaO in reducing the viscosities in the melt with high SiO2 content, while with the decrease of the SiO2 content MnO becomes more effective than CaO.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-243938 (URN)10.1007/s11663-018-1454-x (DOI)000456070300037 ()2-s2.0-85056358202 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190312

Available from: 2019-03-12 Created: 2019-03-12 Last updated: 2019-03-18Bibliographically approved
Martinsson, J., Glaser, B. & Sichen, D. (2019). The structure of foaming BOF-converter slag. Ironmaking & steelmaking, 46(8), 777-781
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The structure of foaming BOF-converter slag
2019 (English)In: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 777-781Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The structure of foaming synthetic BOF-converter slags was studied by freezing the foam and using ocular examination. The foams were generated by CO gas formed due to the reaction between FeO in the slag and carbon in the hot metal. The character of the foams varied a lot with slag composition. Slag with lower viscosity resulted in foams with small gas bubbles, while slag having high viscosity resulted in very big bubbles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2019
Keywords
BOF, foaming slag, emulsion, slag structure
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-263367 (URN)10.1080/03019233.2017.1410950 (DOI)000490481500011 ()2-s2.0-85073878765 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20191118

Available from: 2019-11-18 Created: 2019-11-18 Last updated: 2019-11-18Bibliographically approved
Martinsson, G., Glaser, B. & Sichen, D. (2018). Lime Dissolution in Foaming BOF Slag. Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, 49(6), 3164-3170
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lime Dissolution in Foaming BOF Slag
2018 (English)In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 3164-3170Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper describes the dissolution mechanisms of lime into liquid and foaming slags relevant to the BOF process. Two different master slags are employed, representing two different periods of the converter process: an early stage where the FeO content is fixed to 45 wt pct, and a later stage where the FeO content is fixed to 25 wt pct. For these master slags, the ratio between CaO/SiO2 is varied to examine the effect of basicity on lime dissolution. Calcium silicates are formed and peeled off, or partially peeled off, from the interface between the lime cube and the slag in all cases. The main difference for the dissolutions in pure liquid slag and foaming slag is the controlling step for dissolution. In liquid slag, the controlling mechanism is the removal of the calcium silicate layers, while in foaming slag, the controlling mechanism is the contact area between the lime and the liquid slag phase of the foam. The strong convection in the foam enhance the dissolution process, in some cases, the lime even dissociates into small pieces.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Boston, 2018
Keywords
Calcium silicate, Dissolution, Iron oxides, Lime, Liquids, Silicates, Contact areas, Controlling mechanism, Controlling steps, Converter process, Dissolution mechanism, Dissolution process, Foaming slags, Strong convections, Slags
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-247022 (URN)10.1007/s11663-018-1421-6 (DOI)000451647900022 ()2-s2.0-85055355767 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190626

Available from: 2019-06-26 Created: 2019-06-26 Last updated: 2019-06-26Bibliographically approved
White, J., Lee, J., Hessling, O. & Glaser, B. (2017). Interactions between liquid CaO–SiO2 slags and graphite substrates. In: Advances in Molten Slags, Fluxes, and Salts: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Molten Slags, Fluxes and Salts 2016. Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Molten Slags, Fluxes and Salts, MOLTEN 2016, 22 May 2016 through 25 May 2016 (pp. 565-572). Springer International Publishing AG
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interactions between liquid CaO–SiO2 slags and graphite substrates
2017 (English)In: Advances in Molten Slags, Fluxes, and Salts: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Molten Slags, Fluxes and Salts 2016, Springer International Publishing AG , 2017, p. 565-572Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this study, the spreading and infiltration behavior of slag in contact with different grades of graphite was investigated. The wetting and infiltration of slag into graphite were found to be highly material dependent. Temperature and silica content of the slag also have a major influence on how slag spreads and infiltrates: The higher the temperature and silica content, the greater the slag infiltration, and the faster the rate of spreading. Reactions that generate gaseous products occurred during spreading of slag on graphite was evidenced by the observation of bubble formation. Silicon infiltrated into the graphite substrates much deeper than the slag phase, indicating gas-phase transport of silicon-bearing vapor species. Complete wetting of the interface and reduction of silica in the slag near the interface may lead to passivation by formation of a solid, CaO-rich layer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer International Publishing AG, 2017
Keywords
Dynamic wetting, Graphite, Infiltration, SiO, Slag melting
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-216558 (URN)2-s2.0-85024124425 (Scopus ID)9783319486253 (ISBN)
Conference
10th International Conference on Molten Slags, Fluxes and Salts, MOLTEN 2016, 22 May 2016 through 25 May 2016
Note

Funding details: 235159, Norges Forskningsråd; Funding text: The authors would like to thank Elkem AS and the Norwegian Research Council (project no. 235159) for their financial support.

QC 20171124

Available from: 2017-11-24 Created: 2017-11-24 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Martinsson, J., Glaser, B. & Sichen, D. (2017). Study on apparent viscosity of foaming slag – Cold model and high temperature experiments. In: Advances in Molten Slags, Fluxes, and Salts: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Molten Slags, Fluxes and Salts 2016. Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Molten Slags, Fluxes and Salts, MOLTEN 2016, 22 May 2016 through 25 May 2016 (pp. 431-438). Springer International Publishing AG
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study on apparent viscosity of foaming slag – Cold model and high temperature experiments
2017 (English)In: Advances in Molten Slags, Fluxes, and Salts: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Molten Slags, Fluxes and Salts 2016, Springer International Publishing AG , 2017, p. 431-438Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The apparent viscosities of foaming silicon oil and foaming slag was measured. In both studies, the rotating cylinder method was used for the measurements. Additionally, the movement of particles in foaming silicon oil and the behavior of pig iron droplets in foaming slag was investigated. An increase of the apparent viscosity compared to the dynamic viscosity could be observed. The apparent viscosities decreased with increasing rotation speed of the spindle. The moving particles in the foaming silicon oil gave reasonable information regarding the behavior of particles and droplets in foam. This information are needed to get a better understanding of the behavior of iron droplets in foaming slag. After high temperature experiments, the pig iron droplets were collected and analyzed. Conclusions were made regarding mass transfer between foaming slag and iron droplets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer International Publishing AG, 2017
Keywords
Apparent viscosity, BOF, Emulsion, Foaming slag
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-216575 (URN)2-s2.0-85024126694 (Scopus ID)9783319486253 (ISBN)
Conference
10th International Conference on Molten Slags, Fluxes and Salts, MOLTEN 2016, 22 May 2016 through 25 May 2016
Note

QC 20171101

Available from: 2017-11-01 Created: 2017-11-01 Last updated: 2017-11-01Bibliographically approved
Martinsson, J., Glaser, B. & Sichen, D. (2017). The structure of foaming BOF-converter slag. IRONMAKING & STEELMAKING
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The structure of foaming BOF-converter slag
2017 (English)In: IRONMAKING & STEELMAKINGArticle in journal (Other academic) Published
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-228337 (URN)
Note

QC 20180522

Available from: 2018-05-22 Created: 2018-05-22 Last updated: 2018-05-22Bibliographically approved
Wang, H., Glaser, B. & Sichen, D. (2015). Improvement of Resistance of MgO-Based Refractory to Slag Penetration by In Situ Spinel Formation. Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, 46(2), 749-757
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvement of Resistance of MgO-Based Refractory to Slag Penetration by In Situ Spinel Formation
2015 (English)In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 749-757Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

MgO-in situ spinel substrate was prepared at 1773 K (1500 degrees C) using colloidal alumina suspension and coarse MgO as raw materials. While the addition of 10 mass pct colloidal alumina had limited effect, addition of 20 mass pct colloidal alumina into the MgO matrix improved greatly the resistance of the substrate against the slag penetration at 1873 K (1600 degrees C). The improvement was found to be mainly related to the formation of solid phases, CaO center dot Al2O3 and CaO center dot MgO center dot Al2O3 at the grain boundaries due to slag-spinel reaction. Putting the reacted substrate into contact again with new slag revealed no appreciable new slag penetration. The results showed a potential solution to improve the resistance of MgO-based refractory to slag penetration and to improve steel cleanness.

National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-165207 (URN)10.1007/s11663-014-0277-7 (DOI)000351860300025 ()2-s2.0-84920771306 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150507

Available from: 2015-05-07 Created: 2015-04-24 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Deng, Z., Glaser, B., Bombeck, M. A. & Sichen, D. (2015). Mechanism Study of the Blocking of Ladle Well Due to Sintering of Filler Sand. Steel Research International
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanism Study of the Blocking of Ladle Well Due to Sintering of Filler Sand
2015 (English)In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344XArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present work is aimed at a mechanism study of blocking of ladle well by filler sand. Laboratory experiments are carried out using two different chromite-based filler sands. The interaction between the liquid steel and the sand is also studied by using steels containing different contents of Mn and Al. The reaction between the silica phase and the chromite phase is found to be the main mechanism for the sintering of sand. The reaction results in a liquid oxide phase, which becomes the binding phase between the solid oxide grains. The amount of silica phase and its grain size are found to have great impact on the formation of the liquid oxide phase. Faster formation of the liquid oxide phase leads to more serious sintering of the sand. It is found that liquid steel can hardly infiltrate into sand. On the other hand, the presence of steel considerably increases the amount of liquid phase and enhances the sintering of the sand.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2015
Keywords
Filler sand, Ladle free opening, Liquid steel, Sintering, Chromite, Chromite deposits, Fillers, Ladles, Liquids, Manganese, Sand, Silica, Binding phase, Chromite phase, Laboratory experiments, Liquid oxides, Liquid Phase, Liquid steels, Mechanism studies, Solid oxide
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176191 (URN)10.1002/srin.201500118 (DOI)000373608300009 ()2-s2.0-84933544611 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20151125

Available from: 2015-11-25 Created: 2015-11-02 Last updated: 2020-02-19Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6127-5812

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