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Publications (9 of 9) Show all publications
Pourmand, P., Hedenqvist, M. S., Furo, I. & Gedde, U. W. (2017). Deterioration of highly filled EPDM rubber by thermal ageing in air: Kinetics and non-destructive monitoring. Polymer testing, 64, 267-276
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deterioration of highly filled EPDM rubber by thermal ageing in air: Kinetics and non-destructive monitoring
2017 (English)In: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 64, p. 267-276Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effects of air ageing at different temperatures between 110 and 170 degrees C on cable transit seals based on highly filled EPDM rubber used in nuclear power plants were studied. The changes of the macroscopic mechanical properties (Young's modulus, indentation modulus and strain-at-break) were in accordance with the Arrhenius equation with an activation energy of 110 kJ mol(-1). Profiling to assess the structure and property gradients within aged blocks was performed via IR spectroscopy, micro-indentation, gravimetric analysis of n-heptane-extracted samples and non-invasive portable NMR spectroscopy. A previously developed methodology was used to separate the deterioration into three different processes: polymer oxidation that was diffusion-limited at all temperatures, migration of low-molar-mass species to the surrounding media and anaerobic changes to the polymer network. The methodology allowed the assessment of the kinetics (rate as a function of time and temperature) of the different processes. It was noticed that polymer oxidation yielded more crosslinking at higher temperatures than at lower temperatures. The data obtained by both the portable NMR (a non-invasive method) and the indentation modulus profiling showed correlations with strain-at-break data, indicating their usefulness as condition monitoring methods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2017
Keywords
EPDM rubber, Air ageing, Structure and property profiling, Portable NMR, Deterioration mechanism separation, Condition monitoring
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-220844 (URN)10.1016/j.polymertesting.2017.10.019 (DOI)000418221500032 ()
Note

QC 20180111

Available from: 2018-01-11 Created: 2018-01-11 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Elwinger, F., Pourmand, P. & Furo, I. (2017). Diffusive Transport in Pores. Tortuosity and Molecular Interaction with the Pore Wall. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 121(25), 13757-13764
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diffusive Transport in Pores. Tortuosity and Molecular Interaction with the Pore Wall
2017 (English)In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 121, no 25, p. 13757-13764Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The self-diffusion of neat water, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), octanol, and the molecular components in a water-DMSO solution was measured by H-1 and H-2 NMR diffusion experiments for those fluids imbibed into controlled pore glasses (CPG). Their highly interconnected structure is scaled by pore size and shows invariant pore topology independent of the size. The nominal pore diameter of the explored CPGs varied from 7.5 to 72.9 nm. Hence, the about micrometer mean-square diffusional displacement during the explored diffusion tithes was much larger than the individual pore size, and the experiment yielded the average diffusion coefficient Great care was taken to establish the actual pore: volumes of the CPGs. Transverse relaxation experiments processed by inverse Laplace transformation were performed to verify that the liquids explored filled exactly the available pore volume. Relative to the respective diffusion coefficients obtained in bulk phases, we observe a reduction in the diffusion coefficient that is independent of pore size for the larger pores and becomes stronger toward the smaller pores. Geometric tortuosity governs the behavior at larger pore sizes, while the interaction with pore walls becomes the dominant factor at our smallest pore diameter. Deviation from the trends predicted by the Renkin equation indicates that the interaction with the pore wall is not a just simple steric one but is in part dependent on the specific features of the molecules explored here.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2017
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-211390 (URN)10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b03885 (DOI)000404828600036 ()2-s2.0-85022231474 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20170808

Available from: 2017-08-08 Created: 2017-08-08 Last updated: 2017-11-10Bibliographically approved
Kömmling, A., Jaunich, M., Pourmand, P., Wolff, D. & Gedde, U. W. (2017). Influence of Ageing on Sealability of Elastomeric O-Rings. In: MACROMOLECULAR SYMPOSIA: . Paper presented at International Scientific Conference on PolyMerTec held together with the 15th Meeting on Deformation and Fracture Behaviour of Polymers, JUN 15-17, 2016, Univ Appl Sci Merseburg, Merseburg, GERMANY. Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 373(1), Article ID UNSP 1600157.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Ageing on Sealability of Elastomeric O-Rings
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2017 (English)In: MACROMOLECULAR SYMPOSIA, Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2017, Vol. 373, no 1, article id UNSP 1600157Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

At BAM, which is the federal institute for materials research and testing in Germany, it is one of our tasks to evaluate the safety of casks designed for transport and/or storage of radioactive material. This includes the assessment of the service lifetime of elastomeric seals that are part of the container lid system with regard to the requirements for long-term safety (40 years and more) of the containers. Therefore, we started an accelerated ageing programme with selected rubbers often used for seals (HNBR, EPDM and FKM) which are aged at four different temperatures (75 degrees C, 100 degrees C, 125 degrees C and 150 degrees C) up to 1.5 years. In order to assess sealability, O-rings are aged in compression by 25% (corresponding to the compression during service) between plates as well as in flanges that allow leakage rate measurements. For comparison, uncompressed O-rings are aged as well. Further methods characterising seal performance are compression stress relaxation (CSR) reflecting the loss of sealing force of a compressed seal over time, and compression set (CS) which represents the recovery behaviour of a seal after release from compression. Additionally, hardness is measured for information about the change of mechanical properties. The experimental results indicate that while hardness, CSR and CS show considerable degradation effects, the leakage rate stays relatively constant or even decreases until shrinkage combined with the loss of resilience of the aged seal leads to leakage. This demonstrates that static leakage rate, which is the only available direct seal performance criterion, has only limited sensitivity towards the degradation of the seal material. CS data is extrapolated using time-temperature shifts and Arrhenius graphs. An exemplary CS of 50% would be reached after approx. 1.2, 17 and 29 years at 60 degrees C for HNBR, EPDM and FKM respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2017
Keywords
compression, degradation, leakage, lifetime, rubber
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-211028 (URN)10.1002/masy.201600157 (DOI)000404021100019 ()2-s2.0-85021164997 (Scopus ID)
Conference
International Scientific Conference on PolyMerTec held together with the 15th Meeting on Deformation and Fracture Behaviour of Polymers, JUN 15-17, 2016, Univ Appl Sci Merseburg, Merseburg, GERMANY
Note

QC 20170712

Available from: 2017-07-12 Created: 2017-07-12 Last updated: 2017-07-12Bibliographically approved
Pourmand, P., Hedenqvist, M. S. & Gedde, U. W. (2016). Condition monitoring and characterization of deformations in EPDM seals used in nuclear power plants. Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 251
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Condition monitoring and characterization of deformations in EPDM seals used in nuclear power plants
2016 (English)In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 251Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2016
National Category
Organic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-242700 (URN)000431905706260 ()
Note

QC 20190220

Available from: 2019-02-20 Created: 2019-02-20 Last updated: 2019-02-20Bibliographically approved
Linde, E., Verardi, L., Pourmand, P., Fabiani, D. & Gedde, U. W. (2015). Non-destructive condition monitoring of aged ethylene-propylene copolymer cable insulation samples using dielectric spectroscopy and NMR spectroscopy. Polymer testing, 46, 72-78
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-destructive condition monitoring of aged ethylene-propylene copolymer cable insulation samples using dielectric spectroscopy and NMR spectroscopy
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2015 (English)In: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 46, p. 72-78Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The causes of changes in dielectric response as a result of thermal and irradiative ageing of cable insulation of ethylene propylene copolymer rubber containing 38 wt.% filler were investigated. Samples were aged in three different combinations of irradiation dose rate and temperature, 0.42 kGy h(-1) at 85 degrees C, and 1.58 kGy h(-1) at 55 and 85 degrees C, and subsequently studied by dielectric spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy using a portable spectrometer, and tensile testing. The extractable mass fraction and density were determined and related to the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity at 100 kHz. The ageing led to an increase in the dielectric permittivity, stiffness, density and degree of oxidation, together with a decrease in both strain-at-break and relaxation time, as revealed by NMR spectroscopy. Except for the strain-at-break, the properties changed in a linear fashion with increasing imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity at 100 kHz, with particularly good agreement with respect to the density. As these properties are affected by the degree of oxidation, the results show that both NMR using a portable spectrometer and dielectric spectroscopy can be used as condition monitoring techniques to detect the degree of oxidation in complex systems such as filled copolymers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Ethylene propylene rubber, Radiation ageing, Thermal ageing, Dielectric response, Portable NMR spectrometer, Condition monitoring
National Category
Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-174932 (URN)10.1016/j.polymertesting.2015.07.002 (DOI)000361160100012 ()2-s2.0-84937207340 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, SSM 202-593
Note

QC 20151019

Available from: 2015-10-19 Created: 2015-10-09 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Pourmand, P. (2014). Thermo-oxidative profiling of EPDM seals used in nuclear power plants. Paper presented at 248th National Meeting of the American-Chemical-Society (ACS), AUG 10-14, 2014, San Francisco, CA. Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 248
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermo-oxidative profiling of EPDM seals used in nuclear power plants
2014 (English)In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 248Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-162002 (URN)000349167405757 ()
Conference
248th National Meeting of the American-Chemical-Society (ACS), AUG 10-14, 2014, San Francisco, CA
Note

QC 20150330

Available from: 2015-03-30 Created: 2015-03-20 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Pourmand, P., Wang, L. & Dvinskikh, S. V. (2011). Assessment of moisture protective properties of wood coatings by a portable NMR sensor. JCT Research, 8(5), 649-654
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of moisture protective properties of wood coatings by a portable NMR sensor
2011 (English)In: JCT Research, ISSN 1547-0091, E-ISSN 2168-8028, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 649-654Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have evaluated the potential of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy based on small portable magnets for in situ assessment of moisture protective properties of wood coatings. Low field (1)H NMR with a unilateral permanent magnet was used to monitor and map the local moisture content (MC) of wood specimens uncoated or coated with various types of commercial paint systems. The MC beneath a coating layer was measured with a penetration depth up to 5 mm and with a depth resolution of 0.2 mm. The method is quick, noninvasive, simple to perform, and does not require removing wooden parts from the structure.

Keywords
Wood coating, Wood, Durability, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Portable permanent magnet
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-39505 (URN)10.1007/s11998-011-9348-8 (DOI)000294115200012 ()2-s2.0-80055094787 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20110926

Available from: 2011-09-26 Created: 2011-09-12 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Pourmand, P., Hedenqvist, M. S., Furó, I. & Gedde, U. W.Deterioration of highly filled EPDM rubber exposed to thermal ageing in air: kinetics and non-destructive monitoring.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deterioration of highly filled EPDM rubber exposed to thermal ageing in air: kinetics and non-destructive monitoring
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The effects of thermal ageing on EPDM cable transit seals were investigated. Samples were aged in air at 110, 120, 150 and 170 °C, and evaluated with tensile testing, indenter modulus profiling, oxidation profiling (using IR spectroscopy), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy profiling. The ageing resulted in an increase in the indenter modulus, the degree of oxidation and in a decrease in the NMR transverse relaxation time, T2. Diffusion-limited oxidation (DLO) occurred with a large oxidation gradient close to the sample surface. The portable NMR MOUSE (non-invasive method) was used to obtain detailed degradation profiles, up to a depth of 5 mm of the aged samples. The results indicated a deterioration process that was attributed to several mechanisms, i.e. oxidation, anaerobic crosslinking and migration of oil extender. By combining the data acquired from the profiling, separation and quantification of these three contributing mechanisms was determined. Additionally, it was shown that the portable NMR data correlated well with the strain at break data, highlighting the potential use of the portable NMR for condition monitoring.

Keywords
Ethylene propylene rubber, Thermal ageing, Portable NMR spectroscopy, Modulus profiling, Condition monitoring
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-213010 (URN)
Projects
Long-term performance of polymeric materials in nuclear power plants
Note

QC 20170829

Available from: 2017-08-27 Created: 2017-08-27 Last updated: 2017-08-29Bibliographically approved
Linde, E., Verardi, L., Pourmand, P., Davide, F. & Gedde, U.Non-destructive condition monitoring of aged ethylene-propylenecopolymer cable insulation samples using dielectric spectroscopy and NMR spectroscopy.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-destructive condition monitoring of aged ethylene-propylenecopolymer cable insulation samples using dielectric spectroscopy and NMR spectroscopy
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The causes of changes in dielectric response as a result of thermal and irradiative ageingof a cable insulation of ethylene propylene copolymer rubber containing 38 wt.% filler wereinvestigated. Samples were aged in three different combinations of irradiation dose rate andtemperature, 0.42 kGy h–1 at 85 °C, and 1.58 kGy h–1 at 55 and 85 °C, and subsequentlystudied by dielectric spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy using a portable spectrometer andtensile testing. The extractable mass fraction and density were determined, and related to theimaginary part of the dielectric permittivity at 100 kHz. The ageing led to an increase in thedielectric permittivity, stiffness, density and degree of oxidation, together with a decrease inboth strain-at-break and relaxation time, as revealed by NMR spectroscopy. Except for thestrain-at-break, the properties changed in a linear fashion with increasing imaginary part ofthe dielectric permittivity at 100 kHz, with a particularly good agreement with respect to thedensity. As these properties are affected by the degree of oxidation, the results show that bothNMR using a portable spectrometer and dielectric spectroscopy can be used as conditionmonitoring techniques to detect the degree of oxidation in complex systems such as filledcopolymers.

Keywords
Ethylene propylene rubber, Radiation ageing, Thermal ageing, Dielectric response, Portable NMR spectrometer, Condition monitoring
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168192 (URN)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-05-27 Created: 2015-05-27 Last updated: 2015-05-29Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3049-7225

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