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Madani Larijani, HatefORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7354-6643
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 35) Show all publications
Su, C., Madani Larijani, H., Liu, H., Wang, R. & Palm, B. (2020). Sea water heat pumps in China: A spatial analysis. Energy Conversion and Management, 203, Article ID 112240.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sea water heat pumps in China: A spatial analysis
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2020 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 203, article id 112240Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fossil fuel based building space heating and cooling contribute to more than 10% total final energy consumption in China. Consequent carbon dioxide and air pollutants emissions bring about atmospheric pressure and associated respiratory diseases. Seawater heat pumps as a candidate sustainable building space heating and cooling solution can alleviate such environmental pressure since China has a long coastline and many coastal cities have the possibility for seawater heat pump implementation. However, stakeholders are still suffering from insufficient understanding of seawater heat pumps feasibility in different coastal cities of China from techno-economic, environmental and geographical perspectives. This paper proposes a systematic method to evaluate seawater heat pump potential in different locations of China considering various local spatial parameters in the source and sink side of the energy system. A key performance indicator system is introduced to quantitatively analyze the relative advantages and disadvantages of applying seawater heat pumps compared with status-quo systems. Quantitative evaluation results show that seawater heat pumps have a higher potential in north Chinese coastal cities from techno-economic point of view when compared with existing heating and cooling systems. Environmentally, seawater heat pumps have to reach a critical seasonal coefficient of performance value to guarantee its potential in carbon emissions saving. In south Chinese coastal cities, seawater heat pumps have to reach a more satisfactory system efficiency and a more competitive system cost in order to exploit its full advantages over status-quo systems from techno-economic perspectives. Environmentally, seawater heat pumps are more attractive than competing technologies in south cities. Also, north Chinese cities are geographically more feasible for seawater heat pumps applications compared with south cities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Seawater, heat pump, China
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-266164 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2019.112240 (DOI)000504504000004 ()2-s2.0-85074705050 (Scopus ID)
Projects
STINT - NSFC
Funder
The Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education (STINT)
Note

QC 20200103

Available from: 2020-01-02 Created: 2020-01-02 Last updated: 2020-03-09Bibliographically approved
Su, C., Madani Larijani, H. & Palm, B. (2019). A Systematic multi-criteria assessment infrastucture for residential building heating technologies in China. In: 11th International Conference on Applied Energy 2019: . Paper presented at 11th International Conference on Applied Energy 2019, Aug 12-15, 2019, Västerås, Sweden. , Article ID 0830.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Systematic multi-criteria assessment infrastucture for residential building heating technologies in China
2019 (English)In: 11th International Conference on Applied Energy 2019, 2019, article id 0830Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

China nowadays faces comprehensive challenges on supplying modern clean space heating to a majority of its citizens. Various building space heating technologies are implemented throughout north and south China. However, investors and policy makers are suffering from a lack of a systematic assessment tool to evaluate which heating technology to choose based on unique local conditions from techno-economic and environmental perspectives. This paper fulfills such research gap by proposing a multi-criteria assessment infrastructure to assist relative stakeholders evaluate potentials of different space heating technologies. The proposed infrastructure is multi-disciplinary and requires to handle a large amount of data from various sources, which can well reflect the feasibility of building space heating technologies systematically.

Keywords
residential building, space heating, multi-criteria infrastructure, system analysis, China
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-266468 (URN)
Conference
11th International Conference on Applied Energy 2019, Aug 12-15, 2019, Västerås, Sweden
Note

QC 20200115

Available from: 2020-01-14 Created: 2020-01-14 Last updated: 2020-04-27Bibliographically approved
Su, C., Madani Larijani, H. & Palm, B. (2019). Building heating solutions in China: A spatial techno-economic and environmental analysis. Energy Conversion and Management, 179, 201-218
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Building heating solutions in China: A spatial techno-economic and environmental analysis
2019 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 179, p. 201-218Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fast urbanization process and promotion of life standard in China requires a great amount of energy input in building heating sector. North China now faces challenges of upgrading existing fossil fuel based high emission district heating systems into more environmental friendly heating systems. South China is discussing to choose proper building heating solutions for new and existing buildings which lack proper heating facilities. Renewable heating technologies such as ground source heat pump and air source heat pump are candidates to upgrade traditional heating solutions such as fossil fuel boilers and electric heaters. In order to find the most feasible building heating solution for different geolocations of China, this paper proposes a spatial data based techno-economic and environmental analysis methodology to fulfill such research gap. Case studies are carried out in two selected cities by using proposed methodology. Evaluation model shows that, heat pumps is quite competitive in south China compared with electric heaters, whereas in north China heat pumps have to reach several preconditions to be competitive with coal boiler district heating system under current techno-economic and environmental situations. In north China, a heat pump should reach a minimum seasonal coefficient of performance of 2.5-3.7 (for ground source heat pump) or 2.7-3.0 (for air source heat pump) to become CO2 and PM2.5 emission neutral as well as economically competitive compared with coal boiler district heating system. The advantage of proposed methodology is its simplicity in execution and could be repeated to other areas as the data required are available.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2019
Keywords
Spatial data analysis, District heating, Electric heating, Heat pump, Building heating solution, China
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-240345 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2018.10.062 (DOI)000451490200017 ()2-s2.0-85055623234 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20181217

Available from: 2018-12-17 Created: 2018-12-17 Last updated: 2019-11-16Bibliographically approved
Sommerfeldt, N. & Madani Larijani, H. (2019). In-depth techno-economic analysis of PV/Thermal plus ground source heat pump systems for multi-family houses in a heating dominated climate. Solar Energy, 190, 44-62
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In-depth techno-economic analysis of PV/Thermal plus ground source heat pump systems for multi-family houses in a heating dominated climate
2019 (English)In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 190, p. 44-62Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The electrification of buildings is a promising pathway to the decarbonization of cities. This is a parametric study of the technical and economic performance of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems with series connected solar PV/thermal (PVT) collectors. The focus is on multi-family houses (MFH) in the heating dominated climate of Sweden, where land restrictions for boreholes or noise restrictions on air heat exchangers limit the heat pump market. System efficiency and lifecycle cost results are generated using a holistic and detailed systems model in TRNSYS with 20 year simulations. The results show that PVT can reduce borehole length by 18% or spacing by 50% while maintaining an equivalent seasonal performance factor to systems without PVT. The cost for PVT + GSHP systems is higher than a traditionally designed PV + GSHP, however this does not take into account the value of the land area saved by PVT, which can be up to 89%. The reduction in land enabled by PVT has the potential to increase penetration of GSHP in MFH and promote solar energy diffusion in high latitude markets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2019
Keywords
Electrify everything, Systems analysis, Solar assisted heat pump, Solar energy, Solar hybrid
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-263366 (URN)10.1016/j.solener.2019.07.080 (DOI)000487167800005 ()2-s2.0-85073701491 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20191118

Available from: 2019-11-18 Created: 2019-11-18 Last updated: 2019-11-19Bibliographically approved
Sommerfeldt, N. & Madani Larijani, H. (2018). A Techno-Economic Comparison between PV and PVT Integrated Ground Source at Pumps for Multi-Family Houses. In: Haberle, A (Ed.), Proceedings of the ISES Eurosun 2018 conference: . Paper presented at 12th International Conference on Solar Energy for Buildings and Industry (ISES EuroSun),Fachhochschule Ostschweiz, Hochschule Technik Rapperswil, Rapperswil, SWITZErland, 10-13 Sept 2018 (pp. 901-910). International Solar Energy Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Techno-Economic Comparison between PV and PVT Integrated Ground Source at Pumps for Multi-Family Houses
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the ISES Eurosun 2018 conference / [ed] Haberle, A, International Solar Energy Society, 2018, p. 901-910Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As the demand for sustainable energy technologies grows, solar photovoltaics (PV) and heat pumps are increasingly being used in buildings. Hybrid PV-thermal (PVT) collectors have been researched for decades, but have not yet had success in the market. This study combines PVT and ground source heat pumps (GSHP) in a series connection for a multi-family house, and compares the technical and economic performance to GSHP and PV+GSHP systems. A complete systems model in TRNSYS is used for the solar heat pump system, and climate and economic boundary conditions come from the Swedish market. The results show that reducing the borehole length and/or spacing with no or a limited loss of efficiency is the greatest benefit of adding PVT, however a fully sized borehole field with PV is found to be the lowest cost design option. In systems with poor efficiency and high auxiliary boiler use, the addition of PVT can be the lowest cost option but is not preferable to the PV+GSHP when space is not a limitation. The reduction in borehole field area for a given heat pump efficiency is notable since many multi-family homes cannot install GSHP due to a lack of drilling space. PVT+GSHP systems could offer a new, low-carbon heating alternative for buildings previously outside of the heat pump market.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Solar Energy Society, 2018
Keywords
Solar heat pump, solar hybrid, systems analysis, green buildings, energy efficiency, TRNSYS
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-255783 (URN)10.18086/eurosun2018.02.19 (DOI)000475550900096 ()978-3-9820408-0-6 (ISBN)
Conference
12th International Conference on Solar Energy for Buildings and Industry (ISES EuroSun),Fachhochschule Ostschweiz, Hochschule Technik Rapperswil, Rapperswil, SWITZErland, 10-13 Sept 2018
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 40936-1
Note

QC 20190812

Available from: 2019-08-12 Created: 2019-08-12 Last updated: 2020-04-30Bibliographically approved
Sommerfeldt, N. & Madani Larijani, H. (2018). Ground Source Heat Pumps for Swedish Multi-Family Houses: Innovative Co-Generation and Thermal Storage Strategies.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ground Source Heat Pumps for Swedish Multi-Family Houses: Innovative Co-Generation and Thermal Storage Strategies
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Ground source heat pumps (GSHP) have a relatively small market share in multi-family houses in part due to the limited land space available for drilling. The rapidly growing market for solar photovoltaics (PV) provides an opportunity for GSHP by acting as a secondary heat source and regenerating the ground via a heat exchanger fixed to the rear of the panel. The hybrid PV/thermal collectors, called PVT, have higher efficiencies than PV only, but also come with a significant additional cost.

The primary objective of this research is to identify the technical and economic potential of PVT integration into multi-family house GSHP systems with borehole energy storage. This is achieved through a comprehensive technology review, dynamic complete systems modeling, construction of a detailed test site, and a qualitative assessment of commercial opportunities.

The results show that PVT collectors can adequately support a significant undersizing of boreholes, but that it is economical only in specific conditions. One is where the heat pump shuts down due to the excessive low source temperatures and runs on the backup auxiliary heater. The savings from drilling and the increase in seasonal performance factor (SPF) is enough to justify the additional cost of the PVT. In cases where a heat pump has been running for several years and the ground temperatures are low, PVT can lift and stabilize temperatures at a lower cost than additional drilling (assuming it is possible to do additional drilling). In cases where land area is not a limitation, the highest efficiency and lowest cost option is to drill a traditionally sized borehole field and install a PV-only system.

Integrating PVT into the GSHP is relatively simple as compared to traditional solar thermal systems. There are no changes to the hot water tank or space heating, only a heat exchanger inserted into the borehole circuit, making integration and retrofitting simple. Enabling a greater number of multi-family houses to install GSHP can reduce energy costs, primary energy demand, and carbon dioxide emissions. The form factor of modern PVT modules is the same as PV and currently qualify for government support, providing opportunities for manufactures and installers to expand their product offerings.

PVT has shown potential to help unlock the Swedish multi-family house market for GSHP and work on detailed configurations, empirical performance, and cost reductions should be the focus of future research.

Abstract [sv]

Bergvärme har en relativt liten marknadsandel i flerfamiljshus, delvis på grund av det begränsade markutrymmet tillgängligt för borrning. Den snabbt växande marknaden för solceller (PV) ger en ny möjlighet för bergvärme genom att kunna fungera som sekundär värmekälla och regenerera marken via en värmeväxlare monterad på baksidan av PV-panelen. Hybrid PV / termiska kollektorer, kallad PVT, har högre effektivitet än PV, men har också ett betydligt högre pris.

Det primära målet för detta forskningsprojekt har varit att identifiera den tekniska och ekonomiska potentialen för PVT-integration i flerfamiljshus med bergvärme-system. Detta uppnås genom en detaljerad teknisk analys, dynamisk modellering av hela systemet, noggrann utformning av testinstallationen och en kvalitativ bedömning av kommersiella möjligheter.

Resultaten visar att PVT-kollektorerna kan kompensera för en betydande underdimensionering av borrhålslagret, men att denna lösning endast är ekonomisk under specifika förhållanden. Ett fall är där värmepumpen periodvis stängs av på grund av låga köldbärartemperaturer och systemet istället körs på direktelvärme. Besparingarna från borrningen och ökningen av årsvärmefaktorn (SPF) är i dessa fall tillräckliga för att motivera extrakostnaden för PVT. I de fall där en värmepump har körts i flera år och marktemperaturerna är låga kan PVT lyfta och stabilisera temperaturerna till en lägre kostnad än ytterligare borrning (om detta över huvud taget är möjligt). I de fall där tillgång till mark inte är en begränsning är det högsta effektivitets- och lägsta kostnadsalternativet att göra ett borrhålslager av traditionellt storlek och bara installera ett vanligt PV system.

Att integrera PVT med bergvärme är relativt enkelt jämfört med traditionella solvärmesystem. Det behövs inga förändringar i varmvattentank eller uppvärmningssystem, endast en PVT-värmeväxlare införd i borrhålskretsen, vilket gör integration och eftermontering enklare. Att möjliggöra för ett större antal flerfamiljshus att installera bergvärme kan minska energikostnaderna, primärenergianvändningen och koldioxidutsläppen. Måtten för moderna PVT-moduler är samma som för PV och PVT kvalificerar för närvarande för statligt stöd, vilket ger möjligheter för tillverkare och installatörer att expandera sina produktutbud.

PVT har visat sig kunna hjälpa till att öppna upp den svenska flerfamiljshusmarknaden för bergvärme och fortsatt forskning bör fokuseras på detaljerade lösningar för utformningen, empirisk bestämning av prestanda och reduktion av kostnaderna.

Keywords
Solar Heat Pump, PVT, Solar Hybrid, Borehole Thermal Energy Storage, TRNSYS, Solvärmepump, PVT, Solhybrid, Termisk Energilagring i Borrhål, TRNSYS
National Category
Energy Engineering Building Technologies
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-272716 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 40936-1
Note

QC 20200429

Available from: 2020-04-27 Created: 2020-04-27 Last updated: 2020-04-29Bibliographically approved
Pressani, M., Sommerfeldt, N. & Madani Larijani, H. (2017). Investigation Of Pv/Thermal Collector Models For Use With Ground Source Heat Pumps In Transient Simulations. In: Martinez, V Gonzalez, J (Ed.), PROCEEDINGS OF THE 11TH ISES EUROSUN 2016 CONFERENCE: . Paper presented at 11th ISES EuroSun Conference,OCT 11-14, 2016,Palma, Spain (pp. 1360-1371). International Solar Energy Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation Of Pv/Thermal Collector Models For Use With Ground Source Heat Pumps In Transient Simulations
2017 (English)In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 11TH ISES EUROSUN 2016 CONFERENCE / [ed] Martinez, V Gonzalez, J, International Solar Energy Society , 2017, p. 1360-1371Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) collectors are commonly designed for use in domestic hot water systems, however it can be interesting to incorporate them into ground source heat pump (GSTIP) systems. Because of the historically narrow use case, many PVT models are created with a collection of assumptions which may not apply to novel collectors designed for use in PVT+GSHP systems. The aims of this study are to review existing PVT collector models for use in TRNSYS, identify any potential error sources, and test for possible improvements. Type 560 is found to be the most promising theoretical model, however two potentially limiting features are identified; the radiation absorption model and the confinement to sheet-and-tube configurations. The absorption is tested using a recreation of Type 560 in Matlab where two alternative models developed specifically for PV modules are compared. The results show a marked increase in power during low angle, low light hours, and a 14.36% increase in electrical energy and a 10.91% for the thermal energy over the course of a day with one of the models. Collector geometry is tested by creating a ID model in EES and comparing it to several geometries in Type 560. A method of packing as many tubes as possible together is shown to give comparable results as the ID model. The results of these simulations will be compared with empirical data from currently ongoing testing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Solar Energy Society, 2017
Keywords
Solar PV/thermal, Transient Simulation, State-of-Art Review, Collector Geometry
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-243629 (URN)10.18086/eurosun.2016.08.19 (DOI)000426895100137 ()
Conference
11th ISES EuroSun Conference,OCT 11-14, 2016,Palma, Spain
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research, MI15.18
Note

QC 20190208

Available from: 2019-02-08 Created: 2019-02-08 Last updated: 2020-04-30Bibliographically approved
Fischer, D., Wolf, T., Wapler, J., Hollinger, R. & Madani Larijani, H. (2017). Model-based flexibility assessment of a residential heat pump pool. Energy, 118, 853-864
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Model-based flexibility assessment of a residential heat pump pool
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2017 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 118, p. 853-864Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents and demonstrates a methodology to explore the flexibility of a heat pump pool. Three points are in the focus of this work: First the procedure to model a pool of residential heat pump systems. Second the study of the response of a large number of heat pumps when the Smart-Grid-Ready interface is used for direct load control. Third a general assessment of flexibility of a pool of heat pump systems. The presented pool model accounts for the diversity in space heating and domestic hot water demands, the types of heat source and heat distribution systems used and system sizing procedures. The model is validated using field test data. Flexibility is identified by sending trigger signals to a pool of 284 SG-Ready heat pumps and evaluating the response. Flexibility is characterized by maximum power, shiftable energy and regeneration time. Results show that flexibility is highly dependent on the ambient temperature and the use of an electric back-up heater. It is found that using SG-Ready-like signals offers significantly higher flexibility than just switching off heat pumps, as it is mostly done today.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Demand side management, Flexibility, Heat pumps, Pooling, Smart grid, Thermal storage, Digital storage, Electric load management, Electric power transmission networks, Electric utilities, Heat storage, Housing, Lakes, Pumps, Smart power grids, Space heating, Heat pump systems, assessment method, control system, demand-side management, heat source, model validation, pump, storage, thermal power
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-202163 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2016.10.111 (DOI)000395048900073 ()2-s2.0-85006087951 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170308

Available from: 2017-03-08 Created: 2017-03-08 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Sommerfeldt, N. & Madani Larijani, H. (2017). Revisiting the techno-economic analysis process for building-mounted, grid-connected solar photovoltaic systems: Part one - Review. Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, 74, 1379-1393
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Revisiting the techno-economic analysis process for building-mounted, grid-connected solar photovoltaic systems: Part one - Review
2017 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 74, p. 1379-1393Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The market for solar photovoltaic systems is growing rapidly into a mature industry, while at the same time policies which have spurred the growth (e.g. feed-in tariffs or net metering) are beginning to fade away. These policies made techno-economic studies relatively simple for engineers, analysts, and owners, however investing in a deregulated market requires more advanced tools than the traditional engineering economics which dominate the literature. The objective of part one in this paper is to catalogue and critique the range of methods and models relevant to techno-economic analysis for PV systems in the context of distributed, grid-connected buildings. This is accomplished by; developing a system modeling framework for prosumer PV investment analysis, reviewing relevant energy, economics, and finance literature to identify mathematical models which can be applied, and cataloging the use of the reviewed techniques in the relevant literature. Also included is a qualitative discussion of the benefits and practicality of the review techniques, where Monte Carlo analysis is highlighted as an exemplary method. This review is useful as a reference for analysts, researchers, and engineers developing PV integration solutions for building energy systems in a post early adopter PV market.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2017
Keywords
Solar PV, Prosumer, Economics, Investment, Modeling
National Category
Software Engineering Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-208714 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2016.11.232 (DOI)000401492900096 ()2-s2.0-85007453567 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 2017-06-12

Available from: 2017-06-12 Created: 2017-06-12 Last updated: 2019-11-19Bibliographically approved
Sommerfeldt, N. & Madani Larijani, H. (2017). Revisiting the techno-economic analysis process for building-mounted, grid-connected solar photovoltaic systems: Part two - Application. Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, 74, 1394-1404
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Revisiting the techno-economic analysis process for building-mounted, grid-connected solar photovoltaic systems: Part two - Application
2017 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 74, p. 1394-1404Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Part One in this two part paper identified Monte Carlo analysis as an improved approach over traditional deterministic techno-economic methods for solar PV prosumers in deregulated markets. In this paper a novel Monte Carlo methodology is described and demonstrated through a case study for the Swedish residential sector, which includes a review of relevant market, climate, and policy conditions, their use in determining inputs, and the probabilistic results. The probability of profitability (PoP) is introduced as an indicator in conjunction with result distributions. The results show that under current policy conditions, Swedish PV investors with well positioned buildings have a 71% chance of making a 3% real return on investment, and virtually no chance of losing their original investment. Without subsidies the PoP drops to 8%. In none of the simulated cases was any of the original investment lost. The PoP is most sensitive to the capital subsidy and the uncertainty of market based, long-term support is less critical to the chances of a successful investment. Given the current market conditions, Swedish PV prosumers can expect a return on investment. The decision to install will also depend on the probability of achieving their desired profitability, which Monte Carlo analysis quantifies well.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2017
Keywords
Solar PV, Techno-economic, Monte Carlo, Investment analysis, Probabilities, Sweden
National Category
Energy Systems Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-208715 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2017.03.010 (DOI)000401492900097 ()2-s2.0-85015440142 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 2017-06-12

Available from: 2017-06-12 Created: 2017-06-12 Last updated: 2019-11-19Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7354-6643

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