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Fahrman, B., Norström, P., Gumaelius, L. & Skogh, I.-B. (2019). Experienced technology teachers' teaching practices. International journal of technology and design education
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experienced technology teachers' teaching practices
2019 (English)In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Teachers' teaching practice plays a key role in the learning process of pupils, and for teaching to be successful, teachers must have knowledge in many different fields. This obviously also applies to teaching the subject technology. However, lower secondary school technology education in Sweden has reportedly been described in terms of teaching not following the curriculum along with widespread uncertainty among teachers regarding how to design their teaching practices. To address this national challenge, we need to understand the existing technology teaching practice. The purpose of this study is therefore to explore the considerations experienced technology teachers make. The study is based on interviews with technology teachers who work in lower secondary school (13--15-year-old pupils). The collected data consist of teacher's statements regarding their own expertise and teaching practice. To visualize the described teaching practice we have analysed collected data through the lens of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). The results show both similarities and differences in the teachers' descriptions. Speaking in terms of PCK, the purpose and teaching focus expressed by the respondents, framed within the category `Orientations to teach technology', vary considerably. However, regarding `instructional strategies', the consensus among those experienced teachers is striking. Experienced technology teachers' teaching practices are proven to provide valuable information about the subject's potential, and the findings offer a basis for the future development of the subject of technology as well as future teacher education and professional development courses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
technology education, experienced teachers, teachers' practice, PCK, lower secondary school
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
Technology and Learning; Education and Communication in the Technological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-246074 (URN)10.1007/s10798-019-09494-9 (DOI)2-s2.0-85060727852 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190318

Available from: 2019-03-12 Created: 2019-03-12 Last updated: 2019-05-10Bibliographically approved
Engström, S., Björkholm, E. & Norström, P. (2017). A project about materials as subject content within technology education. Paper presented at XVII IOSTE. The proceedings of the XVII IOSTE Symposium released in journal ‘Conexão Ciência’. Conexão Ci. | Formiga/MG, 12(2), 8-14
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A project about materials as subject content within technology education
2017 (English)In: The proceedings of the XVII IOSTE Symposium released in journal ‘Conexão Ciência’. Conexão Ci. | Formiga/MG, E-ISSN 1980-7058, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 8-14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Within technology education in compulsory school in Sweden, materials are part of the core contents. What kinds of materials, and which characteristics that should be highlighted is open to interpretation. The study includes three sub-studies: 1/ An analysis of classroom activities during two lessons about materials in primary school, 2/ A Delphi study (Osborne et al. 2003) with experts on materials to gather their thoughts about materials in elementary technology education, and 3/ A review of text books. The purpose of this study is to put light on the field of materials as a content area by investigating what aspects of materials are highlighted in the three contexts. Two teaching sessions were video recorded. The data analysis focused on the content highlighted by teachers and students. Results suggest that the teachers and students highlight different aspects of materials. Nine experts participated in the first round of the Delphi study. All data were coded reflexively and iteratively. Results indicate the following major categories of material-related subject content: materials’ usage, groups of materials, properties, creation and refinement, environmental aspects, and modern materials. The themes identified in the study could be seen as limited and concretized set of content, and thereby a guiding tool for technology teachers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Brasilien: , 2017
Keywords
technology education; materials; subject content; classroom; experts; text books
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-221737 (URN)
Conference
XVII IOSTE
Note

QC 20180206

Available from: 2018-01-24 Created: 2018-01-24 Last updated: 2018-02-06Bibliographically approved
Norström, P. (2016). The Nature of Pre-University Engineering Education (1ed.). In: Marc J. de Vries, Lena Gumaelius, Inga-Britt Skogh (Ed.), Pre-University Engineering Education: (pp. 27-46). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Nature of Pre-University Engineering Education
2016 (English)In: Pre-University Engineering Education / [ed] Marc J. de Vries, Lena Gumaelius, Inga-Britt Skogh, Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2016, 1, p. 27-46Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Engineering has been introduced as a subject area in schools all over the world during the last decades. The purpose and contents vary slightly, but are commonly based on an engineering design process – on methods for systematic problem solving and product development. Skills learnt during this work is thought to be transferable to everyday life, future careers, and other educational areas. Pre-university engineering education should also increase pupils’ interest in technology, science and/or mathematics. Engineering projects in school commonly deal with non-realistic problems, which lead to difficult challenges for teachers and pupils concerning the transfer of skills to contexts outside of school. Great hopes for engineering’s opportunities to improve pupils’ creativity, learning, initiative, collaboration, and autonomy are expressed in curricula, but no conclusive evidence for its effectiveness exists.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2016 Edition: 1
Series
International Technology Education Series ; 14
Keywords
engineering education, technology education, primary school, secondary school, compulsory school
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
Education and Communication in the Technological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-188971 (URN)10.1007/978-94-6300-621-7_3 (DOI)978-94-6300-619-4 (ISBN)978-94-6300-620-0 (ISBN)978-94-6300-621-7 (ISBN)
External cooperation:
Note

QC 20160907

Available from: 2016-06-23 Created: 2016-06-23 Last updated: 2016-09-07Bibliographically approved
Gumaelius, L. & Norström, P. (2015). Difficulties and opportunities when teaching about technological systems in K-12. In: 122nd ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: Making Value for Society. Paper presented at 122nd ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition,Seattle WA, June 14-17, 2015. American Society for Engineering Education
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Difficulties and opportunities when teaching about technological systems in K-12
2015 (English)In: 122nd ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: Making Value for Society, American Society for Engineering Education , 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Socio-technical systems are studied in compulsory school (pupils aged 7–16) in Sweden. The purpose is to increase pupils’ understanding of how technology and society affect one another by highlighting the interaction between technological artefacts, humans, institutions, and society at large. Many teachers find this subject difficult to teach, and therefore avoid it. To rectify this, a course module about socio-technical systems for teachers was instigated at KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. This study was conducted during that course, and shows that teachers are affected by their educational backgrounds in their understanding of the systems; those who are trained in social sciences prioritize different aspects of the systems in their teaching than do those who have started out in the natural sciences. It also shows that the formulation of learning objectives in this area is very difficult for most teachers and few students include goals that relate to more general knowledge in areas such as genderrelated issues, historical aspects or environmental issues. Few of the students showed the ability to create a varied learning environment; searching information on the Internet and writing reports dominate the students’ suggestions. Understanding of socio-technical systems has the potential to bridge the gap between engineering and various aspects of society in education. It is therefore an essential part of technological literacy, and teacher training in the area should be improved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society for Engineering Education, 2015
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
Education and Communication in the Technological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-170142 (URN)2-s2.0-84941994662 (Scopus ID)
Conference
122nd ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition,Seattle WA, June 14-17, 2015
Note

QC 20150804

Paper ID #13331

Available from: 2015-06-27 Created: 2015-06-27 Last updated: 2015-11-04Bibliographically approved
Norström, P. (2015). Knowing how, knowing that, knowing technology. Philosophy & Technology, 28(4), 553-565
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Knowing how, knowing that, knowing technology
2015 (English)In: Philosophy & Technology, ISSN 2210-5433, E-ISSN 2210-5441, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 553-565Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A wide variety of skills, abilities and knowledge are used in technological activities such as engineering design. Together, they enable problem solving and artefact creation. Gilbert Ryle’s division of knowledge into knowing how and knowing that is often referred to when discussing this technological knowledge. Ryle’s view has been questioned and criticised by those who claim that there is only one type, for instance, Jason Stanley and Timothy Williamson who claim that knowing how is really a form of knowing that and Stephen Hetherington who claims that knowing that isknowing how. Neither Ryle himself nor any of his critics have discussed technological knowledge. Exposing both Ryle’s and his critics’ ideas to technological knowledge show that there are strong reasons to keep the knowing how–knowing that dichotomy in technological contexts. The main reasons are that they are justified in different ways, that Stanley’s and Williamson’s ideas have great difficulties to account for learning of technological knowing how through training, and thatknowing that is susceptible to Gettier problems, which technological knowing how is not.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015
Keywords
technological knowledge, epistemology of technology, knowing that, knowing how, Gettier problem
National Category
Philosophy
Research subject
Philosophy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-144615 (URN)10.1007/s13347-014-0178-3 (DOI)2-s2.0-84945254261 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160222

Available from: 2014-04-28 Created: 2014-04-28 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Norström, P. (2015). Technological Experiments in Technology Education. In: Marjolaine Chatoney (Ed.), PATT 29: Plurality and complementarity of approaches in design and technology education. Paper presented at Pupils' Attitudes Towards Technology (PATT) 29 (pp. 322-327). Aix-en-Provence: Service Imprimerie de l'université d'Aix-Marseille
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Technological Experiments in Technology Education
2015 (English)In: PATT 29: Plurality and complementarity of approaches in design and technology education / [ed] Marjolaine Chatoney, Aix-en-Provence: Service Imprimerie de l'université d'Aix-Marseille , 2015, p. 322-327Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In processes of engineering design and innovation, technological experiments are commonly conducted. The methods used are similar to those in the natural sciences, but the objectives are different. Technological experiments commonly deal with context-dependent problems related to function, rather than the uncovering or falsification of general laws. Furthermore, they often include value-laden concepts such as safety and ergonomics which are not part of the natural sciences. In school, experimentation is largely seen as part of the domain of the natural sciences, and the experimental parts of technological work gets little attention. This study is based on findings from a professional development course for teachers in years 7 to 9 in compulsory school in Sweden (pupils aged 13–16). In the course, the use of experiments in education was one of the major themes. The teachers who partook in the course generally found it difficult to formulate technological problems to be examined using experimental methods. During the course, they were to develop their own technology education experiments. These often turned out to be rather plain activities where the results, rather than the process were the important thing. In this paper, the results from the teachers’ actual attempts to design technological experiments and reasons for why experimentation should get a more prominent position in school are discussed. Experimental work is an essential part of research in engineering design and the technological sciences and should therefore be included in technology education, but without turning it into only applied natural science.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aix-en-Provence: Service Imprimerie de l'université d'Aix-Marseille, 2015
Keywords
experiment, engineering design, technology education
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
Education and Communication in the Technological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-163878 (URN)978-2-85399-994-6 (ISBN)
Conference
Pupils' Attitudes Towards Technology (PATT) 29
Note

QC 20150506

Available from: 2015-04-13 Created: 2015-04-13 Last updated: 2015-05-06Bibliographically approved
Fahrman, B., Gumaelius, L. & Norström, P. (2015). Technology education in primary school in Sweden: A study of teachers views on teaching strategies and subject content. In: ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings: . Paper presented at 2015 122nd ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition; Washington Convention Center Seattle; United States. , 122(122nd ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: Making Value for Society)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Technology education in primary school in Sweden: A study of teachers views on teaching strategies and subject content
2015 (English)In: ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings, 2015, Vol. 122, no 122nd ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: Making Value for SocietyConference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-174737 (URN)2-s2.0-84941995455 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2015 122nd ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition; Washington Convention Center Seattle; United States
Note

QC 20151213

Available from: 2015-10-13 Created: 2015-10-07 Last updated: 2015-10-13Bibliographically approved
Hartell, E. & Norström, P. (2015). What is it called and how does it work?: Investigating classroom assessment through teachers' tests in elementrary technology education.. In: Assessment and Social Justice: The 16th Annual AEA- Europe Conference. Paper presented at Association for Educational Assessment –Europe The 16th Annual AEA-Europe Conference Assessment and Social Justice, Glasgow 5–7 November 2015 (pp. 87-88). Glasgow
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What is it called and how does it work?: Investigating classroom assessment through teachers' tests in elementrary technology education.
2015 (English)In: Assessment and Social Justice: The 16th Annual AEA- Europe Conference, Glasgow, 2015, p. 87-88Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Glasgow: , 2015
Keywords
technology education, assessment, classroom assessment, test, teknikdidaktikt, bedömning, klassrumsbedömning, prov
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Education and Communication in the Technological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-182059 (URN)
Conference
Association for Educational Assessment –Europe The 16th Annual AEA-Europe Conference Assessment and Social Justice, Glasgow 5–7 November 2015
Note

QC 20160303

Available from: 2016-02-14 Created: 2016-02-14 Last updated: 2016-06-13Bibliographically approved
Norström, P. (2014). How technology teachers understand technological knowledge. International journal of technology and design education, 24(1), 19-38
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How technology teachers understand technological knowledge
2014 (English)In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 19-38Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Swedish technology teachers’ views of technological knowledge are examined through a written survey and a series of interviews. The study indicates that technology teachers’ understandings of what constitutes technological knowledge and how it is justified vary considerably. The philosophical discussions on the topic are unknown to them. This lack of a proper framework for what constitutes technological knowledge and how it is justified might affect both how curricula are interpreted and how pupils’ knowledge is assessed.

Keywords
technology education, epistemology of technology, technological knowledge
National Category
Philosophy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122495 (URN)10.1007/s10798-013-9243-y (DOI)000331770700002 ()2-s2.0-84877736835 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140224

Available from: 2013-05-23 Created: 2013-05-23 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Norström, P. (2014). Technological knowledge and technology education. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Technological knowledge and technology education
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Technological knowledge is of many different kinds, from experience-based know-how in the crafts to science-based knowledge in modern engineering. It is inherently oriented towards being useful in technological activities, such as manufacturing and engineering design.

The purpose of this thesis is to highlight special characteristics of technological knowledge and how these affect how technology should be taught in school. It consists of an introduction, a summary in Swedish, and five papers:

Paper I is about rules of thumb, which are simple instructions, used to guide actions toward a specific result, without need of advanced knowledge. One off the major advantages of rules of thumb is the ease with which they can be learnt. One of their major disadvantages is that they cannot easily be adjusted to new situations or conditions.

Paper II describes how Gilbert Ryle's distinction between knowing how and knowing that is applicable in the technological domain. Knowing how and knowing that are commonly used together, but there are important differences between them which motivate why they should be regarded as different types: they are learnt in different ways, justified in different ways, and knowing that is susceptible to Gettier type problems which technological knowing how is not.

Paper III is based on a survey about how Swedish technology teachers understand the concept of technological knowledge. Their opinions show an extensive variation, and they have no common terminology for describing the knowledge.

Paper IV deals with non-scientific models that are commonly used by engineers, based on for example folk theories or obsolete science. These should be included in technology education if it is to resemble real technology. Different, and partly contradictory, epistemological frameworks must be used in different school subjects. This leads to major pedagogical challenges, but also to opportunities to clarify the differences between technology and the natural sciences and between models and reality.

Paper V is about explanation, prediction, and the use of models in technology education. Explanations and models in technology differ from those in the natural sciences in that they have to include users' actions and intentions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. p. vi, 52
Series
Theses in philosophy from the Royal Institute of Technology, ISSN 1650-8831 ; 48
Keywords
philosophy of technology, epistemology of technology, technology education, technological knowledge, rule of thumb, explanation
National Category
Philosophy
Research subject
Philosophy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-144875 (URN)978-91-7595-078-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-06-03, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20140512

Available from: 2014-05-12 Created: 2014-04-30 Last updated: 2014-05-12Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7778-2552

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