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Honeth, N. (2019). Distributed Topology Inference for Power System Applications: Algorithms and architectures utilising industry standards. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributed Topology Inference for Power System Applications: Algorithms and architectures utilising industry standards
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The electrical transmission and distribution system is undergoing unprecedented changes to meet the need for a carbon emission-free global energy system. An expected increase in the portion of end-user energy use in the form of electricity and need to integrate renewable energy sources into the power grid on a large scale require major changes in how power grids are operated and controlled.The systems and methods used to monitor, control and protect the power grid have developed in a context where the net power flow could be assumed to originate at large centralised power stations and be transmitted, distributed and delivered to end-users. The operation and control systems still largely follow a centralised and hierarchical structure with a control centre extending a multitude of connections out to automation systems over the geographical span of the grid. With the large-scale integration of distributed generation in the power system and the interconnection of grid infrastructures to facilitate inter-area trade of electricity, many of the premises on which traditional control systems were developed are currently changing. As more distributed generation capacity is integrated into parts of the power grid, efficient methods for determination of the electrical connectivity, the grid topology, become essential components for the development of all other control systems. The systems on which these methods are implemented must interoperate seamlessly with existing and future infrastructure. One effort to address this is an internationally coordinated standardisation process for power systems management and information exchange. The resulting standards, for example, IEC 61850 and IEC 61970, provide a framework for the development of new architectures and methods with a high level of interoperability whilst remaining applicable to the wide variety of equipment and applications that will be required. This thesis aims to test the hypothesis that distributing the application logic closer to the substation automation systems directly connected to the electrical process, provides a suitable architecture which can acquire system-wide knowledge of grid topologies without the assistance of a central entity. To achieve this, three research objectives are identified; proposing of novel control system architectures, utilising state-of-the-art structured data and equipment in substation automation systems and finally to develop a distributed topology inference algorithm utilising minimum prior knowledge of the grid it is acting within.The results firstly demonstrate the use of multi-agent systems as a distributed control and monitoring architecture. Secondly, the result demonstrates the application of relevant standardised IEC 61850 data models and interfaces for data exchange, and how they can be integrated into such architectures. Thirdly, the development of work on a multi-agent systems architecture and algorithm for distributed topology analysis of power grids is described and a formal description of the topology inference algorithm is given. Finally, a validation for the algorithm using a reference power grid model is presented.

Abstract [sv]

Det elektriska transmissions- och distributionssystemet genomgår oöverträffade förändringar för att möta behovet av ett globalt energisystem utan koldioxidutsläpp. En förväntad ökning av andelen energikrav för slutanvändare i form av el och behovet av att integrera förnybara energikällor i elnätet i stor skala kräver stora förändringar i hur elnätet drivs och styrs.De system och metoder som används för att övervaka, styra och skydda kraftnätutrustningen har utvecklats i ett sammanhang där nettoeffektflödet kan antas härröra från stora centraliserade kraftverk och överföras, distribueras och levereras till slutanvändare. Operations- och styrsystemen följer fortfarande i stor utsträckning en centraliserad och hierarkisk struktur med endriftcentral som navpunkt med en mängd anslutningar ut till automationssystem över nätets geografiska utbredning. Med den omfattande integrationen av distribuerad elproduktion på olika punkter i elsystemet samt sammankopplingen av elnätinfrastrukturer för att underlätta elhandeln mellan områden, förändras m˙anga av de premisser som traditionella drift- och styrsystem utvecklats under.Eftersom mer distribuerad produktionskapacitet integreras i olika delar av elnätet, blir effektiva metoder för bestämning av den elektriska anslutningen, dvs. elnättopologin, nödvändiga komponenter för utvecklingen av alla andra styrsystem. De system på vilka dessa metoder genomförs m˙aste kunna samverka sömlöst med befintlig och framtida infrastruktur. Ett pågående arbete med att bemöta detta är en internationellt samordnad standardiseringsprocess för styrning av energisystem och informationsutbyte. De resulterande standarderna, till exempel IEC 61850 och IEC 61970 Common Infromation Model, utgör ett ramverk för utvecklingen av nya arkitekturer och metoder med hög driftskompatibilitet medan de fortfarande är tillämpbara på ett brett spektrum av utrustning och applikationer som framgent kommer att krävas.Denna avhandling syftar till att testa hypotesen att en arkitektur där applikationslogiken distribueras närmare ställverksautomationssystem som är direkt kopplade till elöverföringsprocessen, utgör en lämplig arkitektur som kan förvärva systembred kunskap om elnättopologier utan hjälp av en central enhet. För att uppn˙a detta har tre forskningsmål identifierats; föreslå nya styrsystemsarkitekturer, utnyttja state-of-the-art strukturerad data och utrustning i ställverksautomationssystem och slutligen utveckla en distribueradtopologiinferensalgoritm som behöver minsta möjliga förkunskaper om det nät som det verkar inom.Resultaten demonstrerar för det första användningen av multi-agent-system som en distribuerad kontroll- och övervakningsarkitektur. För det andra visar resultatet att tillämpliga standardiserade IEC 61850 datamodeller och gränssnitt används för datautbyte och hur de kan integreras i sådana arkitekturer. För det tredje beskrivs utvecklingen av arbetet med en multi-agent systemarkitektur och algoritm för distribuerad topologianalys av elnät och en formell beskrivning av topologiinferensalgoritmen ges. Slutligen presenteras en validering för algoritmen med hjälp av en referenskraftnätmodell.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2019:67
Keywords
substation automation systems, IEC 61850, electrical topology, electrical engineering
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-259343 (URN)978-91-7873-298-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-10-04, Ångdomen, Osquars backe 31, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-09-13 Created: 2019-09-12 Last updated: 2019-09-13Bibliographically approved
Honeth, N. & Nordström, L. (2017). Distributed Topology Inference for Electric Power Grids. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 13(6), 3206-3215
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributed Topology Inference for Electric Power Grids
2017 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 3206-3215Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes an algorithm, including a multiagent-based system architecture, for distributed inference of power grid topologies. The core algorithm is based on processing measurement time series, or fingerprints, using statistical correlation to determine the connectivity between nodes. Notably, the method and proposed system architecture is completely distributed. The solution has been developed with contemporary IEC 61850 compliant substation automation systems in mind. This paper includes a presentation of the theoretical foundation for the distributed topology inference algorithm as well as the proposed system architecture. A case study utilizing the RBTS bus 4 model is included to demonstrate the capabilities of the method under static as well as transient situations. Furthermore, the results and analysis of the performance and scalability of the algorithm are presented. The main contribution of this paper is an application to infer the electrical connectivity of power grids without central functionality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Keywords
Electrical engineering, electrical topology, IEC 61850, multiagent systems (MASs), real-time operation, overlay networks, substation automation
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-243553 (URN)10.1109/TII.2017.2740933 (DOI)000418128400043 ()2-s2.0-85028508586 (Scopus ID)
Funder
VINNOVA
Note

QC 20180207

Available from: 2019-02-07 Created: 2019-02-07 Last updated: 2019-09-12Bibliographically approved
Hohn, F., Honeth, N. & Nordström, L. (2016). Directional definite-time earth fault protection based on virtual polarisation and COTS components. In: IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting: . Paper presented at 2016 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, PESGM 2016, 17 July 2016 through 21 July 2016. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Directional definite-time earth fault protection based on virtual polarisation and COTS components
2016 (English)In: IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, IEEE, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper comprises the development of a directional definite-time earth fault protection based on virtual polarisation and Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) components. The earth fault protection is intended to be sensitive for high-resistive and remote faults. The challenge of those type of faults is the low magnitude of the zero-sequence voltage measured at the relay location, which is often used as the polarising quantity for directional sensing. A conventional approach is to use a current transformer (CT) in the neutral-to-ground path of a wye-connected power transformer at the corresponding substation. Since this approach exposes some additional costs and efforts in terms of CT installations and engineering, a virtual polarisation approach has been implemented, which has been introduced by the IEEE Power System Relay Committee. Thus a reliable polarising quantity is gained. The platform architecture has been design based on standardised hardware and software products, considered as COTS components. This effort has been made in order to yield a cost-efficient solution as well as to reduce the time-to-market of the development process. In the end the functional performance of the protection system has been tested utilising a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) approach.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2016
Keywords
COTS, EtherCAT, EtherLAB, Ethernet networks, Model-based design, Power system protection, Virtual polarisation, Cost engineering, Electric equipment protection, Electric transformers, Embedded systems, Hardware, Polarization, Power transformers, Product design, Software packages, Transformer protection, Model- based designs, Electric power system protection
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-202150 (URN)10.1109/PESGM.2016.7741216 (DOI)000399937900152 ()2-s2.0-85002193719 (Scopus ID)9781509041688 (ISBN)
Conference
2016 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, PESGM 2016, 17 July 2016 through 21 July 2016
Note

QC 20170310

Available from: 2017-03-10 Created: 2017-03-10 Last updated: 2017-06-19Bibliographically approved
Armendariz, M., Brodén, D., Honeth, N. & Nordström, L. (2015). A Method to Identify Exposed Nodes in Low Voltage Distribution Grids with High PV Penetration. In: IEEE (Ed.), IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting 2015, Denver, CO. July 26-30, 2015.: . Paper presented at Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2015 IEEE. IEEE Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Method to Identify Exposed Nodes in Low Voltage Distribution Grids with High PV Penetration
2015 (English)In: IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting 2015, Denver, CO. July 26-30, 2015. / [ed] IEEE, IEEE Press, 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The impact of introducing distributed energyresources at the low voltage side of the distribution grid iscurrently raising new challenges for utilities. In particular, thehigh penetration of photovoltaic panels (PVs) in radial grids isincreasing the active power losses in the branches and thevoltage level at some of the nodes. Principally nodes next to PVarray installations. This paper presents a methodology based ondesign of experiments (DOE) to detect such exposed nodes andbranches, together with the identification of the main scenariosthat cause such problems, characterized by: season, type of day,solar radiation and outdoor temperature levels. Themethodology is simulated on a LV network based on the Cigrebenchmark Grid with real utility data. The exposed nodes areclassified for each feeder from most to least problematic andshowed (as expected) sensitivity to seasonality (summertime),characterized by high solar radiation and outdoor temperatures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2015
Series
IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, ISSN 1944-9925
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-165048 (URN)10.1109/PESGM.2015.7286296 (DOI)000371397502214 ()2-s2.0-84956859621 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2015 IEEE
Funder
SweGRIDS - Swedish Centre for Smart Grids and Energy StorageEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Note

QC 20160405

Available from: 2015-04-22 Created: 2015-04-22 Last updated: 2017-04-05Bibliographically approved
Wu, Y., Honeth, N., Nordström, L. & Shi, Z. (2015). Software Merging Unit based IED Functional Test Platform. In: : . Paper presented at 2015 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting, July 26-30, 2015, Denver, CO, USA. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Software Merging Unit based IED Functional Test Platform
2015 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In Substation Automation Systems, application functions such as monitoring, control, and protection are deployed in intelligent electronic devices (IEDs). Before the IEDs are installed in the substation, functions are tested by the manufactures to ensure that the functions operate properly as designed. A conventional function test platform is made of amplifiers with copper wire connection to the IEDs. It has drawbacks such as high cost, limited flexibility, and limited number of signal channels. With the introduction of the IEC61850 standard, IEDs are able to obtain measurement from merging units (MU) via the process bus. Consequently, using MUs to replace the amplifier for IED function testing has been studied by several research groups. All of them use hardware MUs or power system simulator embedded MUs. These MUs based test platforms have weakness such as limitation of the number of MUs and lower flexibility in MU performance modification, This paper proposes a novel IED functional test platform using software MU (sMU), which mitigates the above limitations. Thanks to the software approach, different MU performance scenarios can be easily configured instead of using a complicated communications simulator. The sMU based test platform concept has been proved by performing accuracy and operate-time tests with transformer differential protection. Comparing with conventional test platform, sMU based test platform has better results in the accuracy tests and similar performance in the operate-time tests. Therefore, it is feasible to use sMU based platform for IED functional tests.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2015
Series
IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting PESGM, ISSN 1944-9925
National Category
Communication Systems Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-163718 (URN)10.1109/PESGM.2015.7285783 (DOI)000371397500187 ()2-s2.0-84956853557 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-8040-9 (ISBN)
Conference
2015 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting, July 26-30, 2015, Denver, CO, USA
Note

QC 20150413

Available from: 2015-04-10 Created: 2015-04-10 Last updated: 2016-04-04Bibliographically approved
Välja, M., Honeth, N., Buschle, M., Lagerström, R., Sasi, K. K. & Somasundaran, N. (2014). An Archimate based analysis of Microgrid Control Systems Architectures. In: : . Paper presented at 2014 International Conference on Embedded Systems, ICES 2014, Coimbatore, India, 3-5 July 2014 (pp. 297-301).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Archimate based analysis of Microgrid Control Systems Architectures
Show others...
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The architectures containing embedded systems such as microgrid controllers are becoming more complex. While there are several known methodologies for embedded system modeling and design, they mostly cover development related performance issues. There exists a gap in the management of architectures implementing embedded systems for power systems applications. This paper proposes to use enterprise architecture analysis, based on earlier work, to fill that gap. Availability, interoperability and cost analysis are in focus. Enterprise architecture models are important in order to abstract the technical detail for planning and design in order to provide a basis for discussion of technical scalability and cost management amongst stakeholders and technical experts. A microgrid control architecture based example is given to illustrate the analysis possibilities.

National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-157918 (URN)10.1109/EmbeddedSys.2014.6953179 (DOI)2-s2.0-84915749614 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2014 International Conference on Embedded Systems, ICES 2014, Coimbatore, India, 3-5 July 2014
Note

QC 20150113

Available from: 2014-12-17 Created: 2014-12-17 Last updated: 2019-10-24Bibliographically approved
Honeth, N., Nordström, L., Iacovella, S., Vingerhoets, P. & Deconinck, G. (2014). Development of a Laboratory Platform for Distributed Grid Management Applications. In: : . Paper presented at IEEE PES General Meeting, JUL 27-31, 2014, National Harbor, MD. IEEE Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a Laboratory Platform for Distributed Grid Management Applications
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2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper describes practical experiences in the design and implementation of a laboratory platform for developing and evaluating distributed grid management applications. The applications considered here are focused primarily on the implementation of control mechanisms for demand response of a heterogeneous portfolio of loads and distributed energy resources connected at low voltage levels. Lessons learned from the development of interfaces to various devices for integration into complex multi-host distributed control system architectures are described. Additionally, the authors provide reflections on practical aspects of building such systems and propose a set of requirements for the development of larger pilot tests.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2014
Keywords
Laboratories, Autonomous agents, Distributed power generation, Power system management
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-164501 (URN)10.1109/PESGM.2014.6939798 (DOI)000349551504125 ()2-s2.0-84930989515 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-6415-4 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE PES General Meeting, JUL 27-31, 2014, National Harbor, MD
Note

QC 20150417

Available from: 2015-04-17 Created: 2015-04-17 Last updated: 2019-09-12Bibliographically approved
Holm, H., Sommestad, T., Ekstedt, M. & Honeth, N. (2014). Indicators of expert judgement and their significance: An empirical investigation in the area of cyber security. Expert systems (Print), 3(4), 299-318
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indicators of expert judgement and their significance: An empirical investigation in the area of cyber security
2014 (English)In: Expert systems (Print), ISSN 0266-4720, E-ISSN 1468-0394, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 299-318Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In situations when data collection through observations is difficult to perform, the use of expert judgement can be justified. A challenge with this approach is, however, to value the credibility of different experts. A natural and state-of-the art approach is to weight the experts' judgements according to their calibration, that is, on the basis of how well their estimates of a studied event agree with actual observations of that event. However, when data collection through observations is difficult to perform, it is often also difficult to estimate the calibration of experts. As a consequence, variables thought to indicate calibration are generally used as a substitute of it in practice. This study evaluates the value of three such indicative variables: consensus, experience and self-proclamation. The significances of these variables are analysed in four surveys covering different domains in cyber security, involving a total of 271 subjects. Results show that consensus is a reasonable indicator of calibration. The mean Pearson correlation between these two variables across the four studies was 0.407. No significant correlations were found between calibration and experience or calibration and self-proclamation. However, as a side result, it was discovered that a subject that perceives itself as more knowledgeable than others likely also is more experienced.

Keywords
Calibration, Cyber security, Decision support, Expert judgement
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-129256 (URN)10.1111/exsy.12039 (DOI)000342812800001 ()2-s2.0-84908021346 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20141106

Available from: 2013-09-24 Created: 2013-09-24 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Sommestad, T., Holm, H., Ekstedt, M. & Honeth, N. (2014). Quantifying the Effectivenness of Intrusion Detection Systems in Operation through Domain Experts. Journal of Information System Security, 10(2), 3-35
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantifying the Effectivenness of Intrusion Detection Systems in Operation through Domain Experts
2014 (English)In: Journal of Information System Security, ISSN 1551-0123, E-ISSN 1551-0808, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 3-35Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An intrusion detection system (IDS) is a security measure that can help system administrators in enterprise environments detect attacks made against computer networks. In order to be a good enterprise security measure, the IDS solution should be effective when it comes to making system operators aware of on-going cyber-attacks. However, it is difficult and costly to evaluate the effectiveness of IDSs by experiments or observations. This paper describes the result of an alternative approach to studying this topic. The effectiveness of 24 different IDS solution scenarios pertaining to remote arbitrary code exploits is evaluated by 165 domain experts. The respondents’ answers were then combined according to Cooke’s classical method, in which respondents are weighted based on how well they perform on a set of test questions. Results show that the single most important factor is whether either a host-based IDS, or a network-based IDS is in place. Assuming that either one or the other is in place, the most important course of action is to tune the IDS to its environment. The results also show that an updated signature database influences the effectiveness of the IDS less than if the vulnerability that is being exploited is well-known and is possible to patch or not.

Keywords
Intrusion Detection System, Security Architecture, Expert Judgment, Incident Handling, Signature-based Detection
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-165400 (URN)
Note

QC 20150504

Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Honeth, N., Saleem, A. & Nordström, L. (2013). A conceptual study of systems architecture for decentralised topology inference of distribution networks. In: 22nd International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution (CIRED 2013): . Paper presented at 22nd International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution, CIRED 2013; Stockholm; Sweden; 10 June 2013 through 13 June 2013 (pp. 1-4).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A conceptual study of systems architecture for decentralised topology inference of distribution networks
2013 (English)In: 22nd International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution (CIRED 2013), 2013, p. 1-4Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Power system operation and control relies heavily on models for decision making. Determining the topology of electrical distribution networks is a critical part of producing these models and maintaining up-to-date topologies is a resource consuming and challenging task. This paper provides a conceptual study of a methodology and supporting system architecture for real time inference of electrical topology using process and model data from IEC 61850 compliant substation automation devices .The conceptual study aims to provide a discussion of the performance and scalability of such systems based on an analysis scenario. The decentralized topology inference system concept forms the basis for future work in operation and management of active distribution networks accommodating larger integration of distributed energy sources of intermittent nature.

Keywords
Active distribution networks, Distributed energy sources, Electrical distribution networks, Electrical topologies, Operation and management, Performance and scalabilities, Power system operation and controls, Substation automation
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-138596 (URN)10.1049/cp.2013.1232 (DOI)2-s2.0-84897735041 (Scopus ID)978-184919732-8 (ISBN)
Conference
22nd International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution, CIRED 2013; Stockholm; Sweden; 10 June 2013 through 13 June 2013
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20140107

Available from: 2013-12-20 Created: 2013-12-20 Last updated: 2014-09-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6590-6634

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