Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Publications (10 of 21) Show all publications
Pasichnyi, O., Levihn, F., Shahrokni, H., Wallin, J. & Kordas, O. (2019). Data-driven strategic planning of building energy retrofitting: The case of Stockholm. Journal of Cleaner Production, 233, 546-560
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data-driven strategic planning of building energy retrofitting: The case of Stockholm
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 233, p. 546-560Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Limiting global warming to 1.5 degrees C requires a substantial decrease in the average carbon intensity of buildings, which implies a need for decision-support systems to enable large-scale energy efficiency improvements in existing building stock. This paper presents a novel data-driven approach to strategic planning of building energy retrofitting. The approach is based on the urban building energy model (UBEM), using data about actual building heat energy consumption, energy performance certificates and reference databases. Aggregated projections of the energy performance of each building are used for holistic city-level analysis of retrofitting strategies considering multiple objectives, such as energy saving, emissions reduction and required social investment. The approach is illustrated by the case of Stockholm, where three retrofitting packages (heat recovery ventilation; energy-efficient windows; and a combination of these) were considered for multi-family residential buildings constructed 1946-1975. This identified potential for decreasing heat demand by 334 GWh (18%) and consequent emissions reduction by 19.6 kt-CO2 per year. The proposed method allows the change in total energy demand from large-scale retrofitting to be assessed and explores its impact on the supply side. It thus enables more precisely targeted and better coordinated energy efficiency programmes. The case of Stockholm demonstrates the potential of rich urban energy datasets and data science techniques for better decision making and strategic planning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2019
Keywords
Urban energy planning, Building energy retrofitting, Urban building energy modelling, High-resolution metered data, Urban energy efficiency, Stockholm
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-257536 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.05.373 (DOI)000479025500044 ()2-s2.0-85067823472 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190918

Available from: 2019-09-18 Created: 2019-09-18 Last updated: 2019-09-18Bibliographically approved
Pasichnyi, O., Wallin, J., Levihn, F., Shahrokni, H. & Kordas, O. (2019). Energy performance certificates — New opportunities for data-enabled urban energy policy instruments?. Energy Policy, 486-499
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy performance certificates — New opportunities for data-enabled urban energy policy instruments?
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, p. 486-499Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy performance certificates (EPC) were introduced in European Union to support reaching energy efficiency targets by informing actors in the building sector about energy efficiency in buildings. While EPC have become a core source of information about building energy, the domains of its applications have not been studied systematically. This partly explains the limitation of conventional EPC data quality studies that fail to expose the essential problems and secure effective use of the data. This study reviews existing applications of EPC data and proposes a new method for assessing the quality of EPCs using data analytics. Thirteen application domains were identified from systematic mapping of 79 papers, revealing increases in the number and complexity of studies and advances in applied data analysis techniques. The proposed data quality assurance method based on six validation levels was tested using four samples of EPC dataset for the case of Sweden. The analysis showed that EPC data can be improved through adding or revising the EPC features and assuring interoperability of EPC datasets. In conclusion, EPC data have wider applications than initially intended by the EPC policy instrument, placing stronger requirements on the quality and content of the data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Building energy efficiency, Data applications, Data quality, Energy performance certificate (EPC), Sweden
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-246466 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2018.11.051 (DOI)000463688200047 ()2-s2.0-85059551772 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190328

Available from: 2019-03-28 Created: 2019-03-28 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
Levihn, F. (2017). CHP and heat pumps to balance renewable power production: Lessons from the district heating network in Stockholm. Paper presented at 2nd International Conference on Smart Energy Systems and 4th Generation District Heating (SES4DH), SEP 27-28, 2016, Aalborg, Denmark. Energy, 137, 670-678
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CHP and heat pumps to balance renewable power production: Lessons from the district heating network in Stockholm
2017 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 137, p. 670-678Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a potential for utilizing a combination of combined heat and power (CHP) plants together with large scale heat pumps in district heating systems to balance intermittent renewable power production. The thought is to use a combination of both power production and consumption to balance both surplus and deficit in the electric power market. Much research has presented different modelling and simulations of such systems. This particular study present lessons and empirics from operating such a system. The DH system in Stockholm is large with over 12 TWh of heat demand annually. Since the 1970s the system has been operated with both CHPs and heat pumps. About 660 MW of heat pumps and 300 MW of electric boilers are currently operational in this system. Both the district heating and district cooling systems are equipped with storage. Besides constituting an empirical example, the paper contributes with input to future modelling of this kind of system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
4GDH, Heat pumps, Combined heat and power, District heating, District cooling, Intermittent renewable power production
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-219346 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2017.01.118 (DOI)000414879400060 ()2-s2.0-85011278198 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2nd International Conference on Smart Energy Systems and 4th Generation District Heating (SES4DH), SEP 27-28, 2016, Aalborg, Denmark
Note

QC 20171205

Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Dimoulkas, I., Amelin, M. & Levihn, F. (2017). District heating system operation in power systems with high share of wind power. Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy, 5(6), 850-862
Open this publication in new window or tab >>District heating system operation in power systems with high share of wind power
2017 (English)In: Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy, ISSN 2196-5625, E-ISSN 2196-5420, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 850-862Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The integration of continuously varying and not easily predictable wind power generation is affecting the stability of the power system and leads to increasing demand for balancing services. In this study, a short-term operation model of a district heating system is proposed to optimally schedule the production of both heat and power in a system with high wind power penetration. The application of the model in a case study system shows the increased flexibility offered by the coordination of power generation, consumption and heat storage units which are available in district heating systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2017
Keywords
Combined heat and power (CHP), District heating systems, Flexible power system operation, Heat storage
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-220217 (URN)10.1007/s40565-017-0344-6 (DOI)000416327000003 ()2-s2.0-85037054066 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20171219

Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2017-12-22Bibliographically approved
Levihn, F. & Nuur, C. (2016). Co-benefits of primary energy conservation, reduced emissions and costs through biomass and waste incineration chp in district heating. International Journal of Energy Production and Management, 1(1), 87-98
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Co-benefits of primary energy conservation, reduced emissions and costs through biomass and waste incineration chp in district heating
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Energy Production and Management, ISSN 2056-3272, E-ISSN 2056-3280, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 87-98Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy utility companies face trade-offs in navigating through today’s environmental challenges. On the one hand, they face intense political, social and environmental pressures to move toward adopting energy systems that incorporate the use of renewable energy resources. By making this transition, they would contribute to carbon reduction and mitigate climate change. On the other hand, they need to coordinate their resources and become efficient when investing in new plants or upgrading existing production systems. This paper seeks to address the gains that utility companies can make when replacing older fossil-fuel-based plants with efficient combined heat and power (CHP) plants. We discuss the system effects from the changes in production of other units when new plants are constructed. Using one of the largest energy utility companies in Sweden, Fortum, as empirical point of departure, we analyzed the company’s transition from using coal and hydrocarbons to an increased use of renewables and waste incineration CHP. Our analysis was based on comprehensive production data on CO2, SOx and NOx emissions. Our findings suggest that primary energy consumption drops when older, less efficient fossil plants are substituted for new efficient CHP plants; this drop includes the effect on remaining production. The benefits in terms of primary energy savings might even be greater than what is achieved in meeting the goal of climate change abatement through reduced CO2 emissions; NOx and SOx emissions are decreased with new biomass CHPs. Waste incineration CHP increases NOx and SOx emissions, when there is less fossil fuel to replace after the use of biomass is extended. In both cases, economic efficiency increase as costs are reduced.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WIT Press, 2016
Keywords
climate change abatement, district heating, environmental impact, primary energy conservation
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-169647 (URN)10.2495/EQ-V1-N1-87-98 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 35894-1
Note

QC 20151208

Available from: 2015-06-19 Created: 2015-06-19 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Levihn, U. & Levihn, F. (2016). The Transition from Product to Solution Selling: The Role and Organization of Employees Engaged in Current Business. Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, 23(3), 207-219
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Transition from Product to Solution Selling: The Role and Organization of Employees Engaged in Current Business
2016 (English)In: Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, ISSN 1051-712X, E-ISSN 1547-0628, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 207-219Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: This research investigates how to manage and organize existing employees when launching a solution sales strategy, specifically addressing whether it is possible to migrate existing sales representatives active in product sales to solution sales, and whether it is possible to combine the roles.

Methodology/approach: A case-based approach was applied to a multinational firm, engaged in business-to-business sales that simultaneously launched a solution sales strategy in 17 countries. In-depth interviews with 29 managers and sales representatives were performed to inductively identify why some countries succeeded in the launch, while others did not.

Findings: Because of fundamental differences in approach between solution and product sales, those countries where the solutions and product businesses were separated performed better. The difference in required capabilities and mindset meant that migrating sales representatives from product to solution sales is problematic.

Research implications: This research offers evidence of differences in mindset and approach between different marketing and sales strategies, extending the conclusions to how these differences affect the possibility of migrating existing sales representatives when launching a new selling strategy. Whether to separate service and product sales has been debated. The present results indicate that separating the current product business from the new solution business facilitates the successful implementation of the new strategy. In the case company, the solutions represent a mixture of product and services, suggesting that the problem is not the difference between products and services, but rather different selling strategies and approaches that require different capabilities.

Practical implications: When launching a solution sales strategy, the solution business should be separated from the current product business at both the organizational and personnel levels. Solution sales necessitates a particular approach and capabilities, making it unadvisable to transfer sales representatives and managers to the new solution business based solely on previous product sales success. Instead, a new skill profile must be developed taking account of the requirements of a demand-driven solution strategy.

Originality/value/contribution: Consensus is lacking as to whether to separate product and service businesses. This article extends the debate to the field of solution sales, demonstrating that separation is needed to succeed in launching a solution sales strategy. Furthermore, this research extends our knowledge of the difference in approaches between different selling strategies, covering the possibility of successfully migrating existing sales representatives to a different selling strategy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2016
Keywords
existing sales personnel, sales force management, solution selling strategies, strategy implementation, industrial marketing, business marketing
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Industrial Engineering and Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-194167 (URN)10.1080/1051712X.2016.1215739 (DOI)000384675800002 ()2-s2.0-84988499825 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20161019

Available from: 2016-10-18 Created: 2016-10-18 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Levihn, F. (2015). Investments, system dynamics, energy management and policy: a solution to the metric problem of bottom-up supply curves. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investments, system dynamics, energy management and policy: a solution to the metric problem of bottom-up supply curves
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Today, issues such as climate change and increased competition for scarce resources puts pressure on society and firms to transform. Change is not easily managed though, especially not when relating to production or consumption of energy carriers such as district heating or electric power. These systems do not only have strong dynamics internally, but dynamics between multiple technological systems must sometimes be considered to effectively manage response and strategies in relation to change.

During the early 1980s, an optimisation model founded on an expert-based approach was developed based on the partial equilibrium model to enable the evaluation of different actions to reach a target. This model — often referred to as marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) or conservation supply curve (CSC) — is used by academia, industry and policymakers globally. The model is applied for causes such as energy conservation and waste management, but also within the climate change context for optimising CO2 reductions and governmental policy. In this context, the model is used by actors such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), International Energy Agency (IEA) and World Bank, and by the consultancy firm McKinsey & Company, who use it extensively in different analysis.

This model has many drawbacks in relation to managing interdependencies between different options, but more specifically the metric used for ranking options with a negative marginal cost has a design flaw leading to biased results. As a solution Pareto optimisation has been suggested, but is problematic given the dynamics within and between energy systems.

The purpose of this compilation dissertation is to improve the ability for industry and policymakers to effectively manage change and reach set targets. In particular it develops our knowledge of how to account for option interdependency within and between technological systems. Furthermore, the ranking problem relating to expert-based least cost integrated planning is addressed.

This dissertation also provides policy and managerial implications relating to the issues of energy conservation, CO2 abatement, and SOx and NOx reduction in relation to the district heating system in Stockholm. Implications are also provided for the interaction with other systems such as the Nordic electric power system.

Abstract [sv]

Klimatfrågan och konkurrens om knappa resurser medför ett förändringstryck på nationer och företag. Att hantera förändringar har aldrig varit enkelt, vilket är tydligt bland företag inom energisektorn såsom el och fjärrvärmeproducenter. Energisystemen dessa företag är del av har stark intern dynamik, men även dynamik mellan olika energisystem är vanligt. Detta måste tas i beaktande när strategier och planer för att hantera förändring utformas.

Under början av 1980-talet skapades en optimeringsmodell baserad på den nationalekonomiska jämviktsmodellen för att kunna utvärdera olika specifika möjligheter att nå ett mål, t.ex. energibesparingar. Denna modell, som idag ofta benämns MACC (Marginal Abatement Cost Curves) eller CSC (Concervation Supply Curves), används idag av akademin, industrin och myndigheter inom områden så som energibesparingar, minskade CO2-utsläpp, sophantering och design av ekonomiska policyinstrument. De icke-akademiska användarna inkluderar FNs klimatorgan IPCC, IEA och Världsbanken. Även konsultfirman McKinsey&Company använder modellen regelbundet i olika studier.

Tyvärr har modellen många begräsningar när det kommer till att hantera dynamiker mellan de specifika åtgärder som identifierats för att nå ett mål. Den allvarligast begränsningen utgörs dock av ett optimeringsfel som leder till felaktiga slutsatser om prioriteringen mellan de åtgärder som har en negativ marginalkostnad. Som en lösning på detta problem har pareto-optimering föreslagits, vilket denna avhandling dock visar är problematiskt på grund av de dynamiker som finns inom och mellan energisystem.

Det övergripande syftet med denna avhandling är att förbättra möjligheten att hantera förändringar och nå uppsatta mål. Specifikt diskuteras hur beroenden mellan olika åtgärder för att nå det satta målet kan hanteras. Avhandlingen adresser även problemet att prioritera mellan åtgärder med negativ marginalkostnad.

Utöver detta bidrar avhandlingen med praktiska implikationer för politiker, myndigheter och företag involverade i fjärrvärmeproduktion i Stockholm. Slutsatser dras kring energibesparingar och minskade utsläpp av CO2, SOx och NOx. Praktiska implikationer ges även för hur system som detta fjärrvärmesystem samverkar och interagerar med det nordiska elsystemet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. p. 56
Series
TRITA-IEO, ISSN 1100-7982 ; 2015:03
Keywords
Investments, Energy Management, Policy, MACC, CSC climate change abatement, energy efficiency and conservation, system dynamics
National Category
Business Administration Economics Energy Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Engineering and Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-161904 (URN)978-91-7595-483-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-05-08, E3, Osquarsbacke 14, KTH, Stockholm, 14:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Investments in energy efficiency and climate change abatement: revising marginal cost curves as an optimization model
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 35894-1
Note

QC 20150414

Available from: 2015-04-14 Created: 2015-03-18 Last updated: 2015-04-14Bibliographically approved
Shahrokni, H., Levihn, F. & Brandt, N. (2014). Big meter data analysis of the energy efficiency potential in Stockholm's building stock. Energy and Buildings, 78, 153-164
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Big meter data analysis of the energy efficiency potential in Stockholm's building stock
2014 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 78, p. 153-164Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The City of Stockholm is making substantial efforts towards meeting its climate change commitments including a GHG emission target of 3 tonnes per capita by 2020 and making its new eco-district Stockholm Royal Seaport a candidate of Clinton Climate Initiative's Climate Positive Program. Towards achieving these policies, this study evaluated the energy efficiency potential in the city, in collaboration with the district heating and electricity utility Fortum. Drawing on their vast billing meter data on the housing stock in Stockholm, a new understanding of energy use in the city emerged. Analysis of the energy efficiency potential of different building vintages revealed that the retrofitting potential of the building stock to current building codes would reduce heating energy use by one third. In terms of market segmentation, the greatest reduction potential in total energy was found to be for buildings constructed between 1946 and 1975. This is due to the large number of buildings constructed during that era and their poor energy performance. However, the least energy-efficient buildings were those built between 1926 and 1945 in contradiction to commonly held beliefs. These findings indicate the need for a shift in public policy towards the buildings with highest retrofitting potential.

Keywords
Retrofitting, Big Data, Climate action planning
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-149188 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.04.017 (DOI)000339133200018 ()2-s2.0-84900461549 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140818

Available from: 2014-08-18 Created: 2014-08-18 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Levihn, F. & Nuur, C. (2014). Biomass and waste incineration CHP: co-benefits of primary energy savings, reduced emissions and costs. Wit Transactions on Ecology and The Environment, 190, 127-138
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomass and waste incineration CHP: co-benefits of primary energy savings, reduced emissions and costs
2014 (English)In: Wit Transactions on Ecology and The Environment, ISSN 1746-448X, E-ISSN 1743-3541, Vol. 190, p. 127-138Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy utility companies face trade-offs in navigating through today’s environmental challenges. On the one hand they face intense political, social and environmental pressures to move towards adopting energy systems that incorporate the use of renewable energy resources. By making this transition they would contribute to carbon reduction and mitigate climate change. On the other hand, they need to coordinate their resources and become efficient when investing in new plants or upgrading existing production systems. This paper seeks to address the gains that utility companies can make when replacing older fossil fuel base- plants with efficient combined heat and power (CHP) plants. We discuss the system effects from the changes in production of other units when new plants are constructed. Using one of the largest energy utility companies in Sweden, Fortum, as empirical point of departure, we analyzed the company’s transition from using coal and hydrocarbons to an increased use of renewables and waste incineration CHP. Our analysis was based on comprehensive production data on CO2, SOx and NOx emissions. Our findings suggest that primary energy consumption drops when older, less efficient fossil plants are substituted for new efficient CHP plants; this drop includes the effect on remaining production. The benefits in terms of primary energy savings might even be greater than what is achieved in meeting the goal of climate change abatement through reduced CO2 emissions; NOx and SOx emissions are decreased with new biomass CHPs. Waste incineration CHP increase NOx and SOx emissions, when there is less fossil fuel to replace after the use of biomass is extended. In both cases, economic efficiency increase as costs are reduced.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WIT Press, 2014
National Category
Energy Engineering Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-142656 (URN)10.2495/EQ140141 (DOI)2-s2.0-84897854238 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 35894-1
Note

QC 20140317

Available from: 2014-03-11 Created: 2014-03-11 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Levihn, F. (2014). CO2 emissions accounting: Whether, how, and when different allocation methods should be used. Energy, 68, 811-818
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CO2 emissions accounting: Whether, how, and when different allocation methods should be used
2014 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 68, p. 811-818Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

CO2 abatement and the transition to sustainable energy systems are of great concern, calling for investments in both old and new technologies. There are many perspectives on how to account for these emissions, not least when it comes to how the roles of different alternative energy production options should be emphasized. Confusion and conflicting interests regarding the appropriate accounting methods for allocating CO2 emissions interfere with effective energy policy and the efficient use of corporate and national resources. Possible investments in the Stockholm district heating network and how they interact with the electric power grid illustrate the influence of different accounting methods on alternative energy production options. The results indicate that, for several abatement options, performance in terms of reduced CO2 emissions might be either improved or degraded depending on whether or how alternative electricity production is accounted for. The results provide guidelines for whether, how, and when different allocation methods are appropriate, guidelines relevant to academia, industrial leaders, and policymakers in multiple areas related to power production and consumption.

Keywords
District heating, Emissions accounting, Power production
National Category
Energy Engineering Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-142659 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2014.01.098 (DOI)000335874300085 ()2-s2.0-84898039009 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Investments in energy efficiency and climate change abatement: revising marginal cost curves as an optimization model
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 35894-1
Note

QC 20140613

Available from: 2014-03-11 Created: 2014-03-11 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7028-0624

Search in DiVA

Show all publications