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Publications (10 of 18) Show all publications
Mohan, N., Törngren, M. & Behere, S. (2017). A Method towards the Systematic Architecting of Functionally Safe Automated Driving- Leveraging Diagnostic Specifications for FSC design. Paper presented at SAE World Congress Experience, WCX 2017, Cobo CenterDetroit, United States, 4 April 2017 through 6 April 2017. SAE technical paper series, 2017-March(March)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Method towards the Systematic Architecting of Functionally Safe Automated Driving- Leveraging Diagnostic Specifications for FSC design
2017 (English)In: SAE technical paper series, ISSN 0148-7191, Vol. 2017-March, no MarchArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With the advent of ISO 26262 there is an increased emphasis on top-down design in the automotive industry. While the standard delivers a best practice framework and a reference safety lifecycle, it lacks detailed requirements for its various constituent phases. The lack of guidance becomes especially evident for the reuse of legacy components and subsystems, the most common scenario in the cost-sensitive automotive domain, leaving vehicle architects and safety engineers to rely on experience without methodological support for their decisions. This poses particular challenges in the industry which is currently undergoing many significant changes due to new features like connectivity, servitization, electrification and automation. In this paper we focus on automated driving where multiple subsystems, both new and legacy, need to coordinate to realize a safety-critical function. This paper introduces a method to support consistent design of a work product required by ISO 26262, the Functional Safety Concept (FSC). The method arises from and addresses a need within the industry for architectural analysis, rationale management and reuse of legacy subsystems. The method makes use of an existing work product, the diagnostic specifications of a subsystem, to assist in performing a systematic assessment of the influence a human driver, in the design of the subsystem. The output of the method is a report with an abstraction level suitable for a vehicle architect, used as a basis for decisions related to the FSC such as generating a Preliminary Architecture (PA) and building up argumentation for verification of the FSC. The proposed method is tested in a safety-critical braking subsystem at one of the largest heavy vehicle manufacturers in Sweden, Scania C.V. AB. The results demonstrate the benefits of the method including (i) reuse of pre-existing work products, (ii) gathering requirements for automated driving functions while designing the PA and FSC, (iii) the parallelization of work across the organization on the basis of expertise, and (iv) the applicability of the method across all types of subsystems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAE International, 2017
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-216543 (URN)10.4271/2017-01-0056 (DOI)2-s2.0-85018386707 (Scopus ID)
Conference
SAE World Congress Experience, WCX 2017, Cobo CenterDetroit, United States, 4 April 2017 through 6 April 2017
Note

QC 20171124

Available from: 2017-11-24 Created: 2017-11-24 Last updated: 2018-02-28Bibliographically approved
Kaznov, V., Svahn, J., Roos, P., Asplund, F., Behere, S. & Törngren, M. (2017). Architecture and Safety for Autonomous Heavy Vehicles: ARCHER. In: Daniel Watzenig, Martin Horn (Ed.), Automated Driving: Safer and More Efficient Future Driving (pp. 571-581). Cham: Springer International Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Architecture and Safety for Autonomous Heavy Vehicles: ARCHER
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2017 (English)In: Automated Driving: Safer and More Efficient Future Driving / [ed] Daniel Watzenig, Martin Horn, Cham: Springer International Publishing , 2017, p. 571-581Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Machines are converging towards autonomy. The transition is driven by safety, efficiency, environmental and traditional ‘robotics automation concerns’ (dirty, dull and dangerous applications). Similar trends are seen in several domains including heavy vehicles, cars and aircraft. This transition is, however, facing multiple challenges including how to gradually evolve from current architectures to autonomous systems, limitations in legislation and safety standards, test and verification methodology and human–machine interaction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2017
Keywords
Autonomy, Safety, Commercial Vehicle, Heavy Vehicle, Adaptive Cruise Control, Reference Architecture, Human Driver
National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Electrical Engineering; Vehicle and Maritime Engineering; Transport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-224328 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-31895-0_27 (DOI)2-s2.0-85068863740 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-31893-6 (ISBN)978-3-319-31895-0 (ISBN)
Note

QC 20180319. QC 20191025

Available from: 2018-03-16 Created: 2018-03-16 Last updated: 2019-10-25Bibliographically approved
Mohan, N., Roos, P., Svahn, J., Törngren, M. & Behere, S. (2017). ATRIUM - Architecting Under Uncertainty for ISO 26262 compliance. In: 2017 11TH ANNUAL IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEMS CONFERENCE (SYSCON): . Paper presented at 11th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon), APR 24-27, 2017, Montreal, CANADA (pp. 786-793). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ATRIUM - Architecting Under Uncertainty for ISO 26262 compliance
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2017 (English)In: 2017 11TH ANNUAL IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEMS CONFERENCE (SYSCON), IEEE , 2017, p. 786-793Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The ISO 26262 is currently the dominant functional safety standard for electrical and electronic systems in the automotive industry. The Functional Safety Concept sub-phase in the standard requires the Preliminary Architectural Assumptions (PAA) for allocation of functional safety requirements. This paper justifies the need for, and defines a process ATRIUM, for consistent design of the PAA. ATRIUM is subsequently applied in an industrial case study for a function enabling highly automated driving at one of the largest heavy vehicle manufacturers in Europe, Scania CV AB. The findings from this study, which contributed to ATRIUM's institutionalization at Scania, are presented. The benefits of ATRIUM include (i) a fast and flexible way to refine the PAA, and a framework to (ii) incorporate information from legacy systems into safety design and (iii) rigorously track and document the assumptions and rationale behind architectural decisions under uncertain information. The contributions of this paper are (i) the analysis of the problem (ii) the process ATRIUM and (iii) findings and the discussion from the case study at Scania.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
Series
Annual IEEE Systems Conference, ISSN 1944-7620
Keywords
ISO 26262, functional safety, HCV, HGV, architectures, automated driving, ATRIUM, decision making, architecting, uncertainty management, risk management
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-210967 (URN)10.1109/SYSCON.2017.7934819 (DOI)000403403400111 ()2-s2.0-85021446492 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-4623-2 (ISBN)
Conference
11th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon), APR 24-27, 2017, Montreal, CANADA
Note

QC 20170712

Available from: 2017-07-12 Created: 2017-07-12 Last updated: 2018-02-28Bibliographically approved
Behere, S. & Törngren, M. (2017). Systems Engineering and Architecting for Intelligent Autonomous Systems. In: Watzenig, Daniel, Horn, Martin (Ed.), Automated Driving: Safer and More Efficient Future Driving (pp. 313-351). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Systems Engineering and Architecting for Intelligent Autonomous Systems
2017 (English)In: Automated Driving: Safer and More Efficient Future Driving / [ed] Watzenig, Daniel, Horn, Martin, Springer, 2017, p. 313-351Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter provides an overview of architecture and systems engineeringfor autonomous driving system, through a set of complementaryperspectives. For practitioners, a short term perspective uses the state of theart to dene a three layered functional architecture for autonomous driving,consisting of a vehicle platform, a cognitive driving intelligence, and o-board supervisory and monitoring services. The architecture is placed withina broader context of model based systems engineering (MBSE), for which wedene four classes of models: Concept of Operations, Logical Architecture,Application Software Components, and Platform Components. These classesaid an immediate or subsequent MBSE methodology for concrete projects.Also for concrete projects, we propose an implementation setup and technologiesthat combine simulation and implementation for rapid testing of autonomousdriving functionality in physical and virtual environments. Futureevolution of autonomous driving systems is explored with a long term perspectivelooking at stronger concepts of autonomy like machine consciousnessand self-awareness. Contrasting these concepts with current engineering practicesshows that scaling to more complex systems may require incorporatingelements of so-called constructivist architectures. The impact of autonomy onsystems engineering is expected to be mainly around testing and verication,while implementations shall continue experiencing an in ux of technologiesfrom non-automotive domains.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-198054 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-31895-0_13 (DOI)2-s2.0-85068846579 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-31895-0 (ISBN)
Note

QC 20161212. QC 20191016

Available from: 2016-12-11 Created: 2016-12-11 Last updated: 2019-10-16Bibliographically approved
Behere, S., Zhang, X., Izosimov, V. & Törngren, M. (2016). A Functional Brake Architecture for Autonomous Heavy Commercial Vehicles. In: SAE 2016 World Congress and Exhibition: . Paper presented at SAE 2016 World Congress and Exhibition, 12 April 2016 through 14 April 2016. SAE International
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Functional Brake Architecture for Autonomous Heavy Commercial Vehicles
2016 (English)In: SAE 2016 World Congress and Exhibition, SAE International , 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Heavy commercial vehicles constitute the dominant form of inland freight transport. There is a strong interest in making such vehicles autonomous (self-driving), in order to improve safety and the economics of fleet operation. Autonomy concerns affect a number of key systems within the vehicle. One such key system is brakes, which need to remain continuously available throughout vehicle operation. This paper presents a fail-operational functional brake architecture for autonomous heavy commercial vehicles. The architecture is based on a reconfiguration of the existing brake systems in a typical vehicle, in order to attain dynamic, diversified redundancy along with desired brake performance. Specifically, the parking brake is modified to act as a secondary brake with capabilities for monitoring and intervention of the primary brake system. A basic fault tree analysis of the architecture indicates absence of single points of failure, and a reliability analysis shows that it is reasonable to expect about an order of magnitude improvement in overall system reliability. Copyright © 2016 SAE International.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAE International, 2016
Keywords
Architecture, Automobiles, Brakes, Fault tree analysis, Fleet operations, Freight transportation, Reliability analysis, Vehicles, Brake performance, Brake systems, Freight transport, Heavy commercial vehicle, Parking brakes, Self drivings, System reliability, Vehicle operations, Commercial vehicles
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-194605 (URN)10.4271/2016-01-0134 (DOI)2-s2.0-85072368379 (Scopus ID)
Conference
SAE 2016 World Congress and Exhibition, 12 April 2016 through 14 April 2016
Note

QC 20161101. QC 20191016

Available from: 2016-11-01 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2019-10-16Bibliographically approved
Behere, S. & Törngren, M. (2016). A Functional Reference Architecture for Autonomous Driving. Information and Software Technology, 73, 136-150
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Functional Reference Architecture for Autonomous Driving
2016 (English)In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 73, p. 136-150Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context

As autonomous driving technology matures towards series production, it is necessary to take a deeper look at various aspects of electrical/electronic (E/E) architectures for autonomous driving.

Objective

This paper describes a functional architecture for autonomous driving, along with various considerations that influence such an architecture. The functionality is described at the logical level, without dependence on specific implementation technologies.

Method

Engineering design has been used as the research method, which focuses on creating solutions intended for practical application. The architecture has been refined and applied over a five year period to the construction of protoype autonomous vehicles in three different categories, with both academic and industrial stakeholders.

Results

The architectural components are divided into categories pertaining to (i) perception, (ii) decision and control, and (iii) vehicle platform manipulation. The architecture itself is divided into two layers comprising the vehicle platform and a cognitive driving intelligence. The distribution of components among the architectural layers considers two extremes: one where the vehicle platform is as "dumb" as possible, and the other, where the vehicle platform can be treated as an autonomous system with limited intelligence. We recommend a clean split between the driving intelligence and the vehicle platform. The architecture description includes identification of stakeholder concerns, which are grouped under the business and engineering categories. A comparison with similar architectures is also made, wherein we claim that the presence of explicit components for world modeling, semantic understanding, and vehicle platform abstraction seem unique to our architecture.

Conclusion

The concluding discussion examines the influences of implementation technologies on functional architectures and how an architecture is affected when a human driver is replaced by a computer. The discussion also proposes that reduction and acceleration of testing, verification, and validation processes is the key to incorporating continuous deployment processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179222 (URN)10.1016/j.infsof.2015.12.008 (DOI)000373537400011 ()2-s2.0-84954271784 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160504

Available from: 2015-12-14 Created: 2015-12-14 Last updated: 2018-12-04Bibliographically approved
Behere, S., Asplund, F., Söderberg, A. & Törngren, M. (2016). Architecture challenges for intelligent autonomous machines: An industrial perspective. In: 13th International conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS-13): . Paper presented at 13th International conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS-13),Padova 15-19 July 2014 (pp. 1669-1681). Springer, 302
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Architecture challenges for intelligent autonomous machines: An industrial perspective
2016 (English)In: 13th International conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS-13), Springer, 2016, Vol. 302, p. 1669-1681Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Machines are displaying a trend of increasing autonomy. This has a far reaching impact on the architectures of the embedded systems within the machine. The impact needs to be clearly understood and the main obstacles to autonomy need to be identified. The obstacles, especially from an industrial perspective, are not just technological butalso relate to system aspects like certification, development processes and product safety. In this paper, we identify and discuss some of the main obstacles to autonomy from the viewpoint of technical specialists working on advanced industrial product development. The identified obstacles cover topics like world modeling, user interaction, complexity and system safety.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016
Series
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, ISSN 2194-5357 ; 302
Keywords
Autonomy, Architecture, Embedded Systems
National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Vehicle and Maritime Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-152534 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-08338-4_120 (DOI)000377956900120 ()2-s2.0-84945905859 (Scopus ID)978-331908337-7 (ISBN)
Conference
13th International conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS-13),Padova 15-19 July 2014
Funder
VINNOVA
Note

QC 20140930

Available from: 2014-09-26 Created: 2014-09-26 Last updated: 2016-07-18Bibliographically approved
Behere, S. (2016). Reference Architectures for Highly Automated Driving. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reference Architectures for Highly Automated Driving
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Highly automated driving systems promise increased road traffic safety, as well as positive impacts on sustainable transportation by means of increased traffic efficiency and environmental friendliness. The design and development of such systems require scientific advances in a number of areas. One area is the vehicle's electrical/electronic (E/E) architecture. The E/E architecture can be presented using a number of views, of which an important one is the functional view. The functional view describes the decomposition of the system into its main logical components, along with the hierarchical structure, the component inter-connections, and requirements. When this view captures the principal ideas and patterns that constitute the foundation of a variety of specific architectures, it may be termed as a reference architecture. Two reference architectures for highly automated driving form the principal contribution of this thesis. The first reference architecture is for cooperative driving. In a cooperative driving situation, vehicles and road infrastructure in the vicinity of a vehicle continuously exchange wireless information and this information is then used to control the motion of the vehicle. The second reference architecture is for autonomous driving, wherein the vehicle is capable of driver-less operation even without direct communication with external entities. The description of both reference architectures includes their main components and the rationale for how these components should be distributed across the architecture and its layers. These architectures have been validated via multiple real-world instantiations, and the guidelines for instantiation also form part of the architecture description. A comparison with similar architectures is also provided, in order to highlight the similarities and differences. The comparisons show that in the context of automated driving, the explicit recognition of components for semantic understanding, world modeling, and vehicle platform abstraction are unique to the proposed architecture. These components are not unusual in architectures within the Artificial Intelligence/robotics domains; the proposed architecture shows how they can be applied within the automotive domain. A secondary contribution of this thesis is a description of a lightweight, four step approach for model based systems engineering of highly automated driving systems, along with supporting model classes. The model classes cover the concept of operations, logical architecture, application software components, and the implementation platforms. The thesis also provides an overview of current implementation technologies for cognitive driving intelligence and vehicle platform control, and recommends a specific setup for development and accelerated testing of highly automated driving systems, that includes model- and hardware-in-the-loop techniques in conjunction with a publish/subscribe bus. Beyond the more "traditional" engineering concepts, the thesis also investigates the domain of machine consciousness and computational self-awareness. The exploration indicates that current engineering methods are likely to hit a complexity ceiling, breaking through which may require advances in how safety-critical systems can self-organize, construct, and evaluate internal models to reflect their perception of the world. Finally, the thesis also presents a functional architecture for the brake system of an autonomous truck. This architecture proposes a reconfiguration of the existing brake systems of the truck in a way that provides dynamic, diversified redundancy, and an increase in the system reliability and availability, while meeting safety requirements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. p. xviii, 50
Series
TRITA-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2105:09
Keywords
Autonomous driving, E/E Architecture, Systems Engineering
National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Machine Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179306 (URN)978-91-7595-757-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-01-22, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20151216

Available from: 2015-12-16 Created: 2015-12-15 Last updated: 2016-01-25Bibliographically approved
Behere, S. (2016). Systems Engineering and Architecting for Intelligent Autonomous Systems.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Systems Engineering and Architecting for Intelligent Autonomous Systems
2016 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This chapter provides insights into architecture and systems engineering for autonomous driving systems, through a set of complementary perspectives. For practitioners, a short term perspective uses the state of the art to define a three layered functional architecture for autonomous driving, consisting of a vehicle platform, a cognitive driving intelligence, and off-board supervisory and monitoring services. The architecture is placed within a broader context of model based systems engineering (MBSE), for which we define four classes of models: Concept of Operations, Logical Architecture, Application Software Components, and Platform Components. These classes aid an immediate or subsequent MBSE methodology for concrete projects. Also for concrete projects, we propose an implementation setup and technologies that combine simulation and implementation for rapid testing of autonomous driving functionality in physical and virtual environments. Future evolution of autonomous driving systems is explored with a long term perspective looking at stronger concepts of autonomy like machine consciousness and self-awareness. Contrasting these concepts with current engineering practices shows that scaling to more complex systems may require incorporating elements of so-called \emph{constructivist} architectures. The impact of autonomy on systems engineering is expected to be mainly around testing and verification, while implementations shall continue experiencing an influx of technologies from non-automotive domains.

National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179225 (URN)
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-12-14 Created: 2015-12-14 Last updated: 2015-12-16Bibliographically approved
Behere, S. & Törngren, M. (2015). A functional architecture for autonomous driving. In: : . Paper presented at First International Workshop on Automotive Software Architectures, May 2015.. ACM Digital Library
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A functional architecture for autonomous driving
2015 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As the Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) of self-driving vehicles increase, it is necessary to investigate the Electrical/Electronic(E/E) system architectures for autonomous driving, beyond proof-of-concept prototypes. Relevant patterns and anti-patterns need to be raised into debate and documented. This paper presents the principal components needed in a functional architecture for autonomous driving, along with reasoning for how they should be distributed across the architecture. A functional architecture integrating all the concepts and reasoning is also presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Digital Library, 2015
Keywords
Autonomous driving; functional architecture; E/E architecture
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-181085 (URN)10.1145/2752489.2752491 (DOI)000380401900002 ()2-s2.0-84975689891 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-3444-0 (ISBN)
Conference
First International Workshop on Automotive Software Architectures, May 2015.
Note

QC 20160223

Available from: 2016-01-28 Created: 2016-01-28 Last updated: 2016-11-22Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8629-0402

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