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Arushanyan, YevgeniyaORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3023-716X
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Publications (10 of 20) Show all publications
Arushanyan, Y., Björklund, A., Eriksson, O., Finnveden, G., Soderman, M. L., Sundqvist, J.-O. & Stenmarck, A. (2017). Environmental Assessment of Possible Future Waste Management Scenarios. Energies, 10(2), Article ID 247.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental Assessment of Possible Future Waste Management Scenarios
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2017 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 247Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Waste management has developed in many countries and will continue to do so. Changes towards increased recovery of resources in order to meet climate targets and for society to transition to a circular economy are important driving forces. Scenarios are important tools for planning and assessing possible future developments and policies. This paper presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) model for environmental assessments of scenarios and waste management policy instruments. It is unique by including almost all waste flows in a country and also allow for including waste prevention. The results show that the environmental impacts from future waste management scenarios in Sweden can differ a lot. Waste management will continue to contribute with environmental benefits, but less so in the more sustainable future scenarios, since the surrounding energy and transportation systems will be less polluting and also because less waste will be produced. Valuation results indicate that climate change, human toxicity and resource depletion are the most important environmental impact categories for the Swedish waste management system. Emissions of fossil CO2 from waste incineration will continue to be a major source of environmental impacts in these scenarios. The model is used for analyzing environmental impacts of several policy instruments including weight based collection fee, incineration tax, a resource tax and inclusion of waste in a green electricity certification system. The effect of the studied policy instruments in isolation are in most cases limited, suggesting that stronger policy instruments as well as combinations are necessary to reach policy goals as set out in for example the EU action plan on circular economy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2017
Keywords
waste management, life cycle assessment (LCA), environmental assessment, scenario assessment, waste policy assessment
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-205135 (URN)10.3390/en10020247 (DOI)000395469200101 ()2-s2.0-85030786958 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170412

Available from: 2017-04-12 Created: 2017-04-12 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Fauré, E., Arushanyan, Y., Ekener, E., Miliutenko, S. & Finnveden, G. (2017). Methods for assessing future scenarios from a sustainability perspective. European Journal of Futures Research, 5(1), Article ID UNSP 17.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methods for assessing future scenarios from a sustainability perspective
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2017 (English)In: European Journal of Futures Research, ISSN 2195-4194, E-ISSN 2195-2248, Vol. 5, no 1, article id UNSP 17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Future scenarios are often used to address long-term challenges characterised by uncertainty and complexity, as they can help explore different alternative future pathways. Scenarios can therefore be a useful tool to support policy and guide action towards sustainability. But what sustainability aspects are put forward in scenarios and how are they assessed? This paper aims to explore how to assess future scenarios, categorised according to Borjeson et al. (Futures 38: 723-739, 2006) i.e. predictive, explorative and normative scenarios. By conducting a literature review and a document analysis, we map tools and methods that are currently used to assess environmental and social sustainability aspects in scenarios. We also draw on experiences from methods for impact assessments of Swedish municipal comprehensive plans, which can be considered as future scenarios. We identify whether some sustainability aspects are less recurrent than others in the reviewed assessments or even left out. We find that there is no single tool that can be used to assess scenarios. Some quantitative tools based on databases may be more suitable for assessing scenarios within a shorter time horizon, whereas qualitative assessment methods might better fit the purpose of long-term transformative scenarios. We also find that assessment frameworks may be useful to guide the assessment, as to what its intended purpose is and which sustainability aspects to include. Finally we discuss whether further assessment tools are needed in order to include a wider array of potential environmental or social consequences of the content of scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2017
Keywords
Future scenarios, Backcasting, Sustainability assessments, Assessment methods, Assessment tools, Environmental, Social
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-220828 (URN)10.1007/s40309-017-0121-9 (DOI)000418373900001 ()2-s2.0-85041582321 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180122

Available from: 2018-01-22 Created: 2018-01-22 Last updated: 2018-11-22Bibliographically approved
Arushanyan, Y. (2016). Environmental Impacts of ICT: Present and Future. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental Impacts of ICT: Present and Future
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

ICT is developing rapidly and is playing an increasingly important role in society. High expectations are placed on ICT in relation to sustainable development. In order to provide basis for decision-making and ensure that ICT is used in the best possible way for enabling sustainable development, the sustainability impacts of ICT need to be studied.

This thesis aims to provide new knowledge on the environmental impacts related to ICT, to explore the potential of ICT to contribute to sustainability, and discuss ways of assessing environmental impacts of ICT. In order to fulfill the aim a literature review of existing LCA studies of ICT was done, an LCA case study of printed and online media was performed, a methodological framework for sustainability assessment of scenarios was developed and then applied for environmental assessment of future ICT societies.

The results show that manufacturing and use phase are the life cycle stages contributing the most to the ICT environmental impacts. For online newspapers online distribution and content production may give significant contribution to the overall impact. User behavior was observed to be crucial for the results of comparisons of ICT solutions with their traditional counterparts.

The following key issues were concluded to influence the environmental risks and opportunities in future ICT societies: energy mix, economic conditions, life styles, technology, and environmental ambitions, incentives and regulation. The potential of ICT for sustainability is affected by these key issues.

A new methodological framework (SAFS) was developed for the assessment of future scenarios (societal level). Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used for assessment on a product level. Application of both methods, their benefits, drawbacks, and challenges of assessment were discussed. Both types of assessments were concluded to be important to support decision-making.

Abstract [sv]

Utveckligen inom informations- och kommunikationsteknologi (IKT) sker snabbt och IKT spelar en allt viktigare roll i samhället. Samtidigt finns stora samhällsutmaningar inom hållbarhetsområdet, och ganska höga förväntningar ställs på IKT att kunna bidra till en hållbar utveckling. Vissa studier hävdar att IKT kan spela en avgörande roll för att stödja olika hållbarhetsstrategier och att IKT kan möjliggöra övergången till en mindre resursintensiv ekonomi. För att ge underlag för beslutsfattande och stödja att IKT används på bästa sätt för att möjliggöra hållbar utveckling, behöver hållbarhetseffekter av IKT studeras. När det gäller miljöpåverkan måste både negativa och positiva, direkta och indirekta effekter beaktas. Det är viktigt att förstå miljöpåverkan genom hela livscykeln för specifika enskilda IKT-lösningar men också att studera IKTs sammanvägda effekter i en mer övergripande kontext, för att identifiera potentiella risker och möjligheter ur miljösynpunkt.  Dessutom behöver IKTs roll när det gäller att stödja möjligheter till miljöförbättringar och motverka risker identifieras.

Denna avhandling syftar till att ge ny kunskap om IKTs miljöpåverkan, att undersöka IKTs potential för att bidra till en hållbar utveckling, och diskutera metoder för bedömning av miljökonsekvenser av IKT samt utmaningar relaterade till den typen av bedömningar. Avhandlingen omfattar en litteraturstudie av tidigare livscykelanalyser (LCA) av IKT, en LCA-studie av traditionella och online tidningar, utveckling av ett ramverk för hållbarhetsbedömning av scenarier samt användningen av det ramverket för en miljöbedömning av framtida IKT-samhällen.

Resultaten visar att andra typer av miljöpåverkan än klimatpåverkan och energi inte är tillräckligt belysta i miljöbedömningar av IKT, vilket skapar en risk för suboptimering och att miljöproblem flyttas från en typ av påverkan till en annan. Tillverknings- och användningsfasen ger upphov till störst miljöpåverkan i IKT-produkters livscykel. För nättidningar visade det sig att distribution och innehållsproduktion kan ge betydande bidrag till den totala miljöpåverkan, beroende på tidningarnas egenskaper och läsarnas beteende. Generellt har användarnas beteenden visat sig vara avgörande för resultaten vid jämförelser mellan IKT-lösningar och deras mer traditionella motsvarigheter.

Ett antal nyckelområden som påverkar uppkomsten av risker och möjligheter när det gäller miljöeffekter i framtida IKT-samhällen har identifierats. De är energimix, ekonomiska förhållanden, livsstilar, teknik, samt miljöambitioner, -incitament och -lagstiftning. Potentialen för IKT att bidra till hållbar utveckling påverkas av dessa nyckelområden, och potentialen skulle troligen inte realiseras helt utan incitament eller miljölagstiftning.

Båda typerna av miljöbedömningar - på produkt och samhällsnivå - är viktiga för att stödja beslutsfattande. En ny metod utvecklades för bedömning av framtidsscenarier (på samhällsnivå) – Sustainability assessment framework for scenarios (SAFS). För miljöbedömning av produkter användes livscykelanalys (LCA). Tillämpningen av båda metoderna, deras fördelar och nackdelar, och utmaningar vid användning av metoderna diskuteras.

Resultat från avhandlingen kan ge underlag rörande möjliga miljöeffekter av IKT idag och i framtiden för diskussion inom IKT-sektorn och bland politiker och beslutsfattare. På så sätt kan diskussioner om hur IKT kan bidra till hållbarhet underlättas. Metodutveckling och diskussion i denna avhandling kan vara av intresse för forskare och praktiker.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. p. x, 48
Series
TRITA-INFRA-FMS, ISSN 1652-5442 ; TRITA-INFRA-FMS-PHD 2016:03
Keywords
Information and communication technology (ICT), Life cycle assessment (LCA), environmental impacts, online media, future scenarios, assessment methodology, Informations- och kommunikationsteknologi (IKT), livscykelanalys (LCA), miljökonsekvenser, online media, framtidsscenarier, bedömningsmetod
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Planning and Decision Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-188133 (URN)978-91-7729-049-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-09-16, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH-Capus, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20160613

Available from: 2016-06-13 Created: 2016-06-06 Last updated: 2016-06-14Bibliographically approved
Finnveden, G., Arushanyan, Y. & Brandao, M. (2016). Exergy as a Measure of Resource Use in Life Cycle Assessment and Other Sustainability Assessment Tools. Resources, 5(3), Article ID 23.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exergy as a Measure of Resource Use in Life Cycle Assessment and Other Sustainability Assessment Tools
2016 (English)In: Resources, E-ISSN 2079-9276, Vol. 5, no 3, article id 23Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A thermodynamic approach based on exergy use has been suggested as a measure for the use of resources in Life Cycle Assessment and other sustainability assessment methods. It is a relevant approach since it can capture energy resources, as well as metal ores and other materials that have a chemical exergy expressed in the same units. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the use of the thermodynamic approach in case studies and to compare the results with other approaches, and thus contribute to the discussion of how to measure resource use. The two case studies are the recycling of ferrous waste and the production and use of a laptop. The results show that the different methods produce strikingly different results when applied to case studies, which indicates the need to further discuss methods for assessing resource use. The study also demonstrates the feasibility of the thermodynamic approach. It identifies the importance of both energy resources, as well as metals. We argue that the thermodynamic approach is developed from a solid scientific basis and produces results that are relevant for decision-making. The exergy approach captures most resources that are considered important by other methods. Furthermore, the composition of the ores is shown to have an influence on the results. The thermodynamic approach could also be further developed for assessing a broader range of biotic and abiotic resources, including land and water.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2016
Keywords
Life Cycle Assessment, resource use, exergy, waste, recycling, metals
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-196442 (URN)10.3390/resources5030023 (DOI)000385526200001 ()2-s2.0-85018908732 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20161129

Available from: 2016-11-29 Created: 2016-11-14 Last updated: 2018-06-27Bibliographically approved
Arushanyan, Y., Ekener, E., Moberg, A. & Coroama, V. C. (2015). A framework for sustainability assessment of ICT futures Scenarios and sustainability impacts of future ICT-societies. In: PROCEEDINGS OF ENVIROINFO AND ICT FOR SUSTAINABILITY 2015: . Paper presented at Joint Conference on 29th International Conference on Informatics for Environmental Protection / 3rd International Conference on ICT for Sustainability (EnviroInfo and ICT4S), SEP 07-09, 2015, Univ Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DENMARK (pp. 1-9). Atlantis Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A framework for sustainability assessment of ICT futures Scenarios and sustainability impacts of future ICT-societies
2015 (English)In: PROCEEDINGS OF ENVIROINFO AND ICT FOR SUSTAINABILITY 2015, Atlantis Press , 2015, p. 1-9Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT) has an influence on all societal sectors and can have both positive and negative consequences. To support ICT for sustainability (ICT4S), we need to learn when and how ICT can enable sustainable development. It is important to take into account all types of potential impacts environmental and social, direct and indirect. Looking at future ICT societies and their potential environmental and social implications is of special interest, as this can provide valuable knowledge for planning and policy-making today to enable ICT4S. A methodological framework for environmental and social assessment of future ICT societies with a consumption perspective was developed as a part of a joint project with researchers at KTH, ICT industry, municipality and county. The overall goal of the project was to develop five different future scenarios for Swedish ICT societies and to assess the risks and opportunities for environmental and social consequences in those scenarios. This paper presents the framework for environmental and social assessment of future scenarios and discusses the challenges experienced and lessons learned in the process of the framework development. The framework is aimed to deal with a broad and complex object and scope of assessment, the inherent uncertainty and data restrictions of future scenarios, and is applying qualitative analysis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Atlantis Press, 2015
Series
ACSR-Advances in Comptuer Science Research, ISSN 2352-538X ; 22
Keywords
sustainability assessment, environmental, social, ICT societies, framework, future scenarios
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179622 (URN)000365044700001 ()978-94-62520-92-9 (ISBN)
Conference
Joint Conference on 29th International Conference on Informatics for Environmental Protection / 3rd International Conference on ICT for Sustainability (EnviroInfo and ICT4S), SEP 07-09, 2015, Univ Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DENMARK
Note

QC 20151221

Available from: 2015-12-21 Created: 2015-12-17 Last updated: 2018-10-09Bibliographically approved
Arushanyan, Y., Moberg, Å., Nors, M., Hohenthal, C. & Pihkola, H. (2014). Environmental Assessment of E-media Solutions Challenges Experienced in Case Studies of Alma Media Newspapers. In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2014 CONFERENCE ICT FOR SUSTAINABILITY: . Paper presented at 2nd International Conference on ICT for Sustainability (ICTS), AUG 24-27, 2014, Stockholm, Sweden (pp. 11-19). Atlantis Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental Assessment of E-media Solutions Challenges Experienced in Case Studies of Alma Media Newspapers
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2014 (English)In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2014 CONFERENCE ICT FOR SUSTAINABILITY, Atlantis Press , 2014, p. 11-19Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The rapid and continuous development of information and communication technology (ICT) in society today is providing new means for various societal activities. To facilitate that new ICT solutions reduce environmental impacts and bring social improvements the potential impacts of those new solutions should be assessed. One way of making environmental assessments is Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This paper presents and discusses challenges in assessing, comparing, communicating and acting on the results of an LCA of traditional media products and of new ICT solutions for media products, based on case studies of three newspapers in their printed and online versions. The case studies revealed the complexity in assessment and comparison of online and printed newspapers due to differences in functions and characteristics, choice and availability of data (specific and generic data, data gaps and quality), methodological choices (functional unit, allocation, scope) and assumptions on reader profile. Often no single answer can be given regarding the best option from an environmental perspective, leading to challenges in communicating the results to different stakeholders. A particular challenge is how to combine easily communicated messages with robust, transparent background information.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Atlantis Press, 2014
Keywords
Life cycle assessment (LCA), electronic media, new media solutions, data, methodological choices, user behaviour, communication
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-159057 (URN)000346245500002 ()2-s2.0-84928011739 (Scopus ID)978-946252022-6 (ISBN)
Conference
2nd International Conference on ICT for Sustainability (ICTS), AUG 24-27, 2014, Stockholm, Sweden
Note

QC 20150122

Available from: 2015-01-22 Created: 2015-01-20 Last updated: 2017-01-16Bibliographically approved
Arushanyan, Y., Ekener-Petersen, E. & Finnveden, G. (2014). Lessons learned: Review of LCAs for ICT products and services. Computers in industry (Print), 65(2), 211-234
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lessons learned: Review of LCAs for ICT products and services
2014 (English)In: Computers in industry (Print), ISSN 0166-3615, E-ISSN 1872-6194, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 211-234Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Application of information and communication technology (ICT) is often expected to result in decreased environmental impacts. Several studies have, however, also addressed the possibilities of negative impacts. It is therefore important to assess environmental impacts of ICT products and services. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool for assessing the potential impacts of a product or service over the whole life-cycle, i.e. from raw material acquisition to waste management via production and use phases. The aim of this paper is to review LCA studies of ICT products and services, including a few Social Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA) studies. Many of the studies have considered consumer products, such as computers and TVs. Other consumer products, such as game consoles and TV peripherals, as well as business products, e.g. related to networks, are however more rarely assessed. Manufacturing and use phase have the highest impact in the life cycle. Use phase seems to be the predominant in energy consumption and global warming for some ICT products but for others, especially energy efficient, low weight products, manufacturing may dominate. Rapid technological development is stressed by several authors as a source of variability of results, impacting the production processes and suppliers as well as the content and energy performance of the actual devices. In the future, conducting LCA on ICT, the research community needs to consider the limitations found in the studies conducted so far. It encompasses, among others, the need to address a broad spectrum of environmental impacts, including human and ecotoxicological impacts; modeling actual e-waste management, covering informal management when relevant; and considering user behavior in a realistic way, accounting for rebound and other indirect effects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keywords
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Information and communication technology (ICT), Environmental impact, Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA), Social impact, Electronic devices
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-137192 (URN)10.1016/j.compind.2013.10.003 (DOI)000331682900001 ()2-s2.0-84888213904 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20140221

Available from: 2013-12-11 Created: 2013-12-11 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Arushanyan, Y., Moberg, Å., Nors, M. & Hohenthal, C. (2014). Media content provided on different platforms –Environmental performance of online and printed versions of Alma Medianewspapers.. Journal of Print and Media Technology Research, 3(1), 7-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Media content provided on different platforms –Environmental performance of online and printed versions of Alma Medianewspapers.
2014 (English)In: Journal of Print and Media Technology Research, ISSN 2223-8905, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 7-31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keywords
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), printed media, electronic media, content production, environmental impact
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-137196 (URN)
Note

QC 20150203

Available from: 2013-12-11 Created: 2013-12-11 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Staffas, L., Tufvesson, L., Svenfelt, Å., Åström, S., Torén, J. & Arushanyan, Y. (2013). Alternative sources for products competing with forest based biofuel, a pre-study.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alternative sources for products competing with forest based biofuel, a pre-study
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2013 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Forest biomass is used for many products including paper based products, sawn wood products and solid fuels. The production of forest derived liquid transportation fuels is currently limited  but predicted to increase.

Biomass is a renewable resource and therefore of high interest for applications such as new innovative materials, liquid and gaseous fuels. The production of various biofuels for transportation is forecast to increase and Sweden has a goal of a fossil-independent transportation system by 2030. Other, non-material, uses of forest biomass include the so called eco system services biodiversity, fishing, hunting, recreation, berry picking etc. which are also competing for forest biomass.

There is currently a net growth of forest in Sweden, which theoretically could allow for an increased use of this resource. However, the amount of forest biomass is not unlimited and its harvest should not exceed its growth. Therefore, forest biomass should be considered as a limited resource and its use should aim to maximize the environmental benefit compared to the use of fossil resources. For this reason, environmental impact evaluations of forest biomass based products should include alternative sources for products competing with this resource.

The pre-study reported herein included: a review of Swedish forestry and the relationships between different types of forest biomass and fuels; a workshop in which the competition for forest biomass was discussed with experts in the area; a theoretical reasoning around indirect effects and biomass potentials; and two case studies in which the theoretical reasoning is applied. Traditional assessments of environmental impacts of products and processes do not include the aspect of resource scarcity or competition for raw materials. In the case of bioethanol this has been shown to affect the results of such evaluation andthe same thing applies also to other forest biomass based fuels.

The main conclusion of the study is that alternative sources for products competing with forest biomass should be taken into account when assessing the environmental impacts of forest biomass derived products. This is, however, complex as indirect effects are difficult to predict and depend on numerous factors including market situations, financial instruments, legislation and policies etc. Nevertheless, the question is important for the development of biobased substitutes for fossil derived products .

Publisher
p. 91
Series
IVL Svenska miljöinstitutet ; B 2134
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-149360 (URN)
Note

QC 20150220

Available from: 2014-08-20 Created: 2014-08-20 Last updated: 2015-02-20Bibliographically approved
Hohenthal, C., Moberg, Å., Arushanyan, Y., Ovaskainen, M., Nors, M. & Koskimäki, A. (2013). Environmental performance of Alma Media's online and print products. Finland: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental performance of Alma Media's online and print products
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2013 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Alma media ordered a research study from VTT and Centre for Sustainable Communications (CESC) at KTH, in order to evaluate the environmental performance of specific Alma Media products. The report covers the results of the life cycle assessments for printed newspapers; Aamulehti, Iltalehti and Kauppalehti as well as online newspapers; Aamulehti.fi, Iltalehti.fi and Kauppalehti.fi. With the help of a life cycle assessment the potential environmental impacts related to a defined product life cycle is evaluated, taking into account raw material acquisition, production, use, and endof-life treatment. Thus, various kinds of environmental impacts were considered.The results indicate that the environmental performance of printed and online versions of Alma Media’s newspapers includes different types of environmental impacts, and that these are distributed differently in the value chain and geographically. The majority of the impacts of printed newspapers occur from paper and printing manufacturing, which are located in Finland. On the other hand, environmental impacts related to online newspapers are to a large extent dependent on the manufacturing of electronic devices used for reading the online content. These impacts occur in other countries and at the suppliers not directly related to Alma Media. With few readers of the online versions the content production may also be a considerable part of the overall potential environmental impact. The actions to take towards improvements will need to be different related to the value chain. Furthermore, Alma Media as a media company can have a key role in sharing environmental information in order to improve user practices and stakeholder practices along the value chain. The study covered a number of environmental impacts, which was important because the environmental impacts for online and printed newspapers were clearly different. The study also pointed out the importance in being careful when assessing impact categories where there may be substantial data gaps and where there are greater uncertainties related to the assessment of impacts, e.g. toxicity impact categories. Comparisons between print and online versions are not simple, as print and online versions provide different types of information and the readers use them in different ways. Furthermore, the printed and online newspapers from Alma Media may not replace each other, but rather complement each other which can mean adding up environmental impacts from printed and online versions. The functional unit chosen is very decisive regarding the environmental performance of printed and online media, if they are to be related to each other. Using different kinds of perspectives through functional units gives more information and increased knowledge.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Finland: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2013. p. 117
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-124266 (URN)
Note

QC 20130710

Available from: 2013-06-28 Created: 2013-06-28 Last updated: 2014-02-20Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3023-716X

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