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Persson, L., Arvidsson, R., Berglund, M., Cederberg, C., Finnveden, G., Palm, V., . . . Wood, R. (2019). Indicators for national consumption-based accounting of chemicals. Journal of Cleaner Production, 215, 1-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indicators for national consumption-based accounting of chemicals
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 215, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Increased chemical use is causing a growing number of environmental problems and chemical products are pervasive in societies within animal and crop-based agriculture, in industrial processes and in households. National environmental targets, as well as the global chemical-related goals in the 2030 Agenda, call for the monitoring of chemical use and emissions. The growing international trade of goods, where use and regulation of chemical inputs vary highly between countries, complicates measurements. This paper addresses these issues by deriving a set of indicators on chemical use and emissions and connect the global impacts to a country's total consumption, here using the case of Sweden. The indicators are based on a hybrid model combining the multi-regional input-output analysis database EXIOBASE with data from the Swedish System of Economic and Environmental Accounts together with a novel set of environmental extensions. A review of databases is conducted and discussed in relation to the driver-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) framework for indicators. Five indicators are calculated, showing the chemical use and emissions connected to consumption, both within a country and abroad. The indicators are: use of hazardous chemical products, use of pesticides, use of antimicrobial veterinary medicines, emissions of hazardous substances, and of the potential toxicity of these emissions. The results show that the impact of Swedish consumption in terms of use and emissions of hazardous substances is largely taking place outside the Swedish borders. Only 10-24% of the pressure from Swedish consumption is shown to occur within Sweden's borders, depending on the indicator. The use of hazardous chemical products and veterinary medicines related to Swedish consumption primarily takes place in other EU countries, whereas the use of pesticides as well as reported emissions of pollutants occur mainly in countries outside the EU. The results highlight the need for improved international accounting of chemical flows, as well as for strengthened policy frameworks to address cross-border impacts of consumption of hazardous chemical products.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-245886 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.12.294 (DOI)000459358300001 ()2-s2.0-85060347186 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190311

Available from: 2019-03-11 Created: 2019-03-11 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
Dawkins, E., Moran, D., Palm, V., Wood, R. & Bjork, I. (2019). The Swedish footprint: A multi-model comparison. Journal of Cleaner Production, 209, 1578-1592
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Swedish footprint: A multi-model comparison
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 209, p. 1578-1592Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sweden has a large per capita carbon footprint, particularly compared to the levels recommended for maintaining a stable climate. Much of that footprint falls outside Sweden's territory; emissions occurring abroad are "embodied" in imported goods consumed in Sweden. In this study we calculate the total amount and geographical hotspots of the Swedish footprint produced by different multi-regional input-output (MRIO) models, and compare these results in order to gain a picture of the present state of knowledge of the Swedish global footprint. We also look for insights for future model development that can be gained from such comparisons. We first compare a time series of the Swedish carbon footprint calculated by the Swedish national statistics agency, Statistics Sweden, using a single-region model, with data from the EXIOBASE, GTAP, OECD, Eora, and WIOD MRIO databases. We then examine the MRIO results to investigate the geographical distribution of four types of Swedish footprint: carbon dioxide, greenhouse gas emissions, water use and materials use. We identify the hotspot countries and regions where environmental pressures linked to Swedish consumption are highest. We also consider why the results may differ between calculation methods and types of environmental pressure. As might be expected, given the complexity and modelling assumptions, the MRIO models and Statistics Sweden data provide different (but similar) results for each footprint. The MRIO models have different strengths that can be used to improve the national calculations. However, constructing and maintaining a new MRIO model would be very demanding for one country. It is also clear that for a single country's calculation, there will be better and more precise data available nationally that would not have priority in the construction of an MRIO model. Thus, combining existing MRIO data with national economic and environmental data seems to be a promising method for integrated footprint analysis. Our findings are relevant not just for Sweden but for other countries seeking to improve national consumption-based accounts. Based on our analysis we offer recommendations to guide future research and policy making to this end.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2019
Keywords
Footprint, Multi-regional input-output databases, Environmental pressures, Model comparison, Consumption-based accounting, Hotspots
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244096 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.11.023 (DOI)000457351900129 ()2-s2.0-85059297912 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190219

Available from: 2019-02-19 Created: 2019-02-19 Last updated: 2019-02-19Bibliographically approved
Schmidt, S., Sodersten, C.-J., Wiebe, K., Simas, M., Palm, V. & Wood, R. (2019). Understanding GHG emissions from Swedish consumption - Current challenges in reaching the generational goal. Journal of Cleaner Production, 212, 428-437
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding GHG emissions from Swedish consumption - Current challenges in reaching the generational goal
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 212, p. 428-437Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Swedish generational goal is a unique initiative governing all Swedish environmental policy, aiming at solving all major domestic environmental problems for the next generation without increasing environmental damage abroad. Without a good understanding of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Swedish consumption, the formulation of efficient and well targeted policy initiatives to reach the generational goal is difficult. We have analysed the impacts of Swedish consumption in detail, investigating the impacts of different final consumers and different consumption clusters as well as the geographical location of where GHGs are emitted to satisfy Swedish demand. We use environmentally extended multi-regional input-output (EEMRIO) analysis and the database EXIOBASE3 to compute Swedish consumption-based (CB) GHG emissions over a time period of 20 years. Our study shows that total CB GHG emissions fluctuated but remained rather stable over the years. However, the origin of the emissions changed from within Sweden to outside Sweden's borders. CB emissions within Sweden have decreased substantially through a reduction of direct emissions associated with domestic heating and mobility, whereas GHG emissions outside Sweden have increased, especially in China and in the rest of Asia. We show that manufactured products are responsible for a large share of this development, displaying a strong trend toward future increases. This calls for policy measures targeting consumption, especially of manufactured products such as textiles, clothing and furniture that cause large impacts in other countries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2019
Keywords
CB accounting, Generational goal, Sweden, GHG emissions, Footprints, Multi-regional input-output analysis
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244488 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.11.060 (DOI)000457952500037 ()2-s2.0-85059297943 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190321

Available from: 2019-03-21 Created: 2019-03-21 Last updated: 2019-04-04Bibliographically approved
Nordborg, M., Arvidsson, R., Finnveden, G., Cederberg, C., Some, L., Palm, V., . . . Molander, S. (2017). Updated indicators of Swedish national human toxicity and ecotoxicity footprints using USEtox 2.01. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT REVIEW, 62, 110-114
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Updated indicators of Swedish national human toxicity and ecotoxicity footprints using USEtox 2.01
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2017 (English)In: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT REVIEW, ISSN 0195-9255, Vol. 62, p. 110-114Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In a recent paper, Sorme et al. (Environ. Impact Assess. Rev., 56, 2016), took a first step towards an indicator of a national chemical footprint, and applied it to Sweden. Using USEtox 1.01, they calculated national impact potentials for human toxicity and ecotoxicity. The results showed that zinc dominated impacts, both for human toxicity and ecotoxicity. We calculated updated indicators of the Swedish national human toxicity and ecotoxicity footprint using USEtox 2.01. We also compared impact potentials based on USEtox with the mass of chemical emissions. The two model versions produced relatively consistent results. Zinc is still a major contributor to the human toxicity and ecotoxicity impact potentials when-characterized with USEtox 2.01. The mass-based indicator pinpoints somewhat different substances than the impact-based indicators.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Chemical footprint, USEtox, Ecotoxicity, Human toxicity, Zinc, E-PRTR
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-200195 (URN)10.1016/j.eiar.2016.08.004 (DOI)000390628900010 ()2-s2.0-84995910889 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170123

Available from: 2017-01-23 Created: 2017-01-23 Last updated: 2017-01-23Bibliographically approved
Sörme, L., Palm, V. & Finnveden, G. (2016). Using E-PRTR data on point source emissions to air and water-First steps towards a national chemical footprint. Environmental impact assessment review, 56, 102-112
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using E-PRTR data on point source emissions to air and water-First steps towards a national chemical footprint
2016 (English)In: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 56, p. 102-112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a great need for indicators to monitor the use and potential impacts of hazardous chemicals. Today there is a huge lack of data, methods and results and method development and studies should be given urgent priority. The aim of this paper was to develop and test an approach to calculate the potential environmental impacts of chemicals for awhole country using the E-PRTR (European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register) as a database and Sweden as an example. Swedish data from 2008 on emissions to air and water for 54 substances from point sources were retrieved from an open database. The data were transformed and aggregated using USEtox, a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) method for calculating potential human toxicity and ecotoxicity, both from industrial emissions directly and after input-output analysis (IO analysis) to reallocate emissions to product categories. Zinc to air and water contributed most to human toxicity followed by mercury to air. The largest contribution by industry to potential human toxicity came from the metal industry, followed by the paper and paper product industry. For potential ecotoxicity, zinc, fluoranthene and copper contributed themost. The largest contributions by industry came from the paper and paper products manufacturing sector, followed by the basic metals manufacturing sector. The approach used here can be seen as the first step towards a chemical footprint for nations. By adding data from other countries and other sources, a more complete picture can be gained in line with other footprint calculations. Furthermore, diffuse emissions from, for example, transport or emissions of pesticides could also be added for a more holistic assessment. Since the area of chemicals is complicated, it is probably necessary to develop and use several indicators that complement each other. It is suggested that the approach outlined here could be useful in developing a method for establishing a national chemical footprint.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
E-PRTR, Freshwater toxicity, Hazardous chemicals, Human toxicity, Sweden, USEtox
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-181451 (URN)10.1016/j.eiar.2015.09.007 (DOI)000368044600010 ()2-s2.0-84944111768 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160203

Available from: 2016-02-03 Created: 2016-02-02 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Finnveden, G. & Palm, V. (2012). Debatt: Pröva ekonomiska styrmedel i kemipolitiken.. Miljöaktuellt (2012-11-20)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Debatt: Pröva ekonomiska styrmedel i kemipolitiken.
2012 (Swedish)In: Miljöaktuellt, ISSN 0345-763X, no 2012-11-20Article in journal, News item (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Statens naturvårdsverk, 2012
National Category
Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-116100 (URN)
Note

QC 20130502

Available from: 2013-01-15 Created: 2013-01-15 Last updated: 2016-12-01Bibliographically approved
Brolinson, H., Palm, V., Wadeskog, A., Sörme, L., Arushanyan, Y. & Finnveden, G. (2012). Konsumtionsbaserade miljöindikatorer: Underlag för uppföljning av generationsmålet. www.naturvardsverket.se
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Konsumtionsbaserade miljöindikatorer: Underlag för uppföljning av generationsmålet
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2012 (Swedish)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
www.naturvardsverket.se: , 2012. p. 61
Series
Naturvårdsverket rapport, ISSN 0282-7298 ; 6483
Keywords
konsumtionsbaserade miljöindikatorer, miljöpåverkan, kemiska ämnen, utsläpp
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-107197 (URN)978-91-620-6483-9 (ISBN)
Note

QC 20121217

Available from: 2012-12-11 Created: 2012-12-07 Last updated: 2012-12-17Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0994-5014

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