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Chen, T., Eklund, A., Iacocca, E., Rodriguez, S., Malm, B. G., Åkerman, J. & Rusu, A. (2015). Comprehensive and Macrospin-Based Magnetic Tunnel Junction Spin Torque Oscillator Model-Part I: Analytical Model of the MTJ STO. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 62(3), 1037-1044
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comprehensive and Macrospin-Based Magnetic Tunnel Junction Spin Torque Oscillator Model-Part I: Analytical Model of the MTJ STO
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2015 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 1037-1044Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) spin torque oscillators (STOs) have shown the potential to be used in a wide range of microwave and sensing applications. To evaluate the potential uses of MTJ STO technology in various applications, an analytical model that can capture MTJ STO's characteristics, while enabling system-and circuit-level designs, is of great importance. An analytical model based on macrospin approximation is necessary for these designs since it allows implementation in hardware description languages. This paper presents a new macrospin-based, comprehensive, and compact MTJ STO model, which can be used for various MTJ STOs to estimate the performance of MTJ STOs together with their application-specific integrated circuits. To adequately present the complete model, this paper is divided into two parts. In Part I, the analytical model is introduced and verified by comparing it against measured data of three different MTJ STOs, varying the angle and magnitude of the magnetic field, as well as the DC biasing current. The proposed analytical model is suitable for being implemented in Verilog-A and used for efficient simulations at device, circuit, and system levels. In Part II, the full Verilog-A implementation of the analytical model with accurate phase noise generation is presented and verified by simulations.

Keywords
Analytical model, macrospin, magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), spin torque oscillator (STO)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-163459 (URN)10.1109/TED.2015.2390411 (DOI)000350332000051 ()2-s2.0-84923687907 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2009-4190
Note

QC 20150408

Available from: 2015-04-08 Created: 2015-04-07 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Chen, T., Eklund, A., Iacocca, E., Rodriguez, S., Malm, B. G., Åkerman, J. & Rusu, A. (2015). Comprehensive and Macrospin-Based Magnetic Tunnel Junction Spin Torque Oscillator Model-Part II: Verilog-A Model Implementation. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 62(3), 1045-1051
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comprehensive and Macrospin-Based Magnetic Tunnel Junction Spin Torque Oscillator Model-Part II: Verilog-A Model Implementation
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2015 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 1045-1051Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The rapid development of the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) spin torque oscillator (STO) technology demands an analytical model to enable building MTJ STO-based circuits and systems so as to evaluate and utilize MTJ STOs in various applications. In Part I of this paper, an analytical model based on the macrospin approximation has been introduced and verified by comparing it with the measurements of three different MTJ STOs. In Part II, the full Verilog-A implementation of the proposed model is presented. To achieve a reliable model, an approach to reproducing the phase noise generated by the MTJ STO has been proposed and successfully employed. The implemented model yields a time domain signal, which retains the characteristics of operating frequency, linewidth, oscillation amplitude, and DC operating point, with respect to the magnetic field and applied DC current. The Verilog-A implementation is verified against the analytical model, providing equivalent device characteristics for the full range of biasing conditions. Furthermore, a system that includes an MTJ STO and CMOS RF circuits is simulated to validate the proposed model for system-and circuit-level designs. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed model opens the possibility to explore STO technology in a wide range of applications.

Keywords
Analytical model, macrospin, magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), spin torque oscillator (STO)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-163460 (URN)10.1109/TED.2015.2390676 (DOI)000350332000052 ()2-s2.0-84923688220 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2009-4190
Note

QC 20150408

Available from: 2015-04-08 Created: 2015-04-07 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Chen, T., Eklund, A., Redjai Sani, S., Rodriguez, S., Malm, B. G., Åkerman, J. & Rusu, A. (2015). Integration of GMR-based spin torque oscillators and CMOS circuitry. Solid-State Electronics, 111, 91-99
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of GMR-based spin torque oscillators and CMOS circuitry
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2015 (English)In: Solid-State Electronics, ISSN 0038-1101, E-ISSN 1879-2405, Vol. 111, p. 91-99Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper demonstrates the integration of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) spin torque oscillators (STO) with dedicated high frequency CMOS circuits. The wire-bonding-based integration approach is employed in this work, since it allows easy implementation, measurement and replacement. A GMR STO is wire-bonded to the dedicated CMOS integrated circuit (IC) mounted on a PCB, forming a (GMR STO + CMOS IC) pair. The GMR STO has a lateral size of 70 nm and more than an octave of tunability in the microwave frequency range. The proposed CMOS IC provides the necessary bias-tee for the GMR STO, as well as electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection and wideband amplification targeting high frequency GMR STO-based applications. It is implemented in a 65 nm CMOS process, offers a measured gain of 12 dB, while consuming only 14.3 mW and taking a total silicon area of 0.329 mm2. The measurement results show that the (GMR STO + CMOS IC) pair has a wide tunability range from 8 GHz to 16.5 GHz and improves the output power of the GMR STO by about 10 dB. This GMR STO-CMOS integration eliminates wave reflections during the signal transmission and therefore exhibits good potential for developing high frequency GMR STO-based applications, which combine the features of CMOS and STO technologies.

Keywords
CMOS, Giant magnetoresistance, Integration, On-chip bias-tee, Spin torque oscillator, Wire bonding
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-170209 (URN)10.1016/j.sse.2015.05.037 (DOI)000358294500016 ()2-s2.0-84930627106 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150629

Available from: 2015-06-29 Created: 2015-06-29 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Chen, T. (2015). Spin Torque Oscillator Modeling, CMOS Design and STO-CMOS Integration. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spin Torque Oscillator Modeling, CMOS Design and STO-CMOS Integration
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Spin torque oscillators (STOs) are microwave oscillators with an attractive blend of features, including a more-than-octave tunability, GHz operating frequencies, nanoscale size, nanosecond switching speed and full compatibility with CMOS technology. Over the past decade, STOs' physical phenomena have been explored to a greater extent, their performance has been further improved, and STOs have already shown great potential for a wide range of applications, from microwave sources and detectors to neuromorphic computing. This thesis is devoted to promoting the STO technology towards its applications, by means of implementing the STO's electrical model, dedicated CMOS integrated circuits (ICs), and STO-CMOS IC integration.

An electrical model, which can capture magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) STO's characteristics, while enabling system- and circuit-level designs and performance evaluations, is of great importance for the development of MTJ STO-based applications. A comprehensive and compact analytical model, which is based on macrospin approximations and can fulfill the aforementioned requirements, is proposed. This model is fully implemented in Verilog-A, and can be used for efficient simulations of various MTJ STOs. Moreover, an accurate phase noise generation approach, which ensures a reliable model, is proposed and successfully used in the Verilog-A model implementation. The model is experimentally validated by three different MTJ STOs under different bias conditions.

CMOS circuits, which can enhance the limited output power of MTJ STOs to levels that are required in different applications, are proposed, implemented and tested. A novel balun-low noise amplifier (LNA), which can offer sufficient gain, bandwidth and linearity for MTJ STO-based magnetic field sensing applications, is proposed. Additionally, a wideband amplifier, which can be connected to an MTJ STO to form a highly-tunable microwave oscillator in a phase-locked loop (PLL), is also proposed. The measurement results demonstrate that the proposed circuits can be used to develop MTJ STO-based magnetic field sensing and microwave source applications.

The investigation of possible STO-CMOS IC integration approaches demonstrates that the wire-bonding-based integration is the most suitable approach. Therefore, a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) STO is integrated with its dedicated CMOS IC, which provides the necessary functions, using the wire-bonding-based approach. The RF characterization of the integrated GMR STO-CMOS IC system under different magnetic fields and DC currents shows that such an integration can eliminate wave reflections. These findings open the possibility of using GMR STOs in magnetic field sensing and microwave source applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. p. xxvi, 81
Series
TRITA-ICT ; 2015:19
Keywords
STO technology, microwave oscillator, analytical model, macrospin approximation, Verilog-A model, high frequency CMOS circuits, balun-LNA, STO-IC integration
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176890 (URN)978-91-7595-750-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-12-07, Sal C, Isafjordsgatan 22, Kista, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20151112

Available from: 2015-11-12 Created: 2015-11-11 Last updated: 2015-11-12Bibliographically approved
Chen, T., Dürrenfeld, P., Rodriguez, S., Åkerman, J. & Rusu, A. (2014). A highly tunable microwave oscillator based on MTJ STO technology. Microwave and optical technology letters (Print), 56(9), 2092-2095
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A highly tunable microwave oscillator based on MTJ STO technology
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2014 (English)In: Microwave and optical technology letters (Print), ISSN 0895-2477, E-ISSN 1098-2760, Vol. 56, no 9, p. 2092-2095Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article presents a fully ESD-protected, highly tunable microwave oscillator based on magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) spin torque oscillator (STO) technology. The oscillator consists of a compact MTJ STO and a 65 nm CMOS wideband amplifier, which amplifies the RF signal of the MTJ STO to a level that can be used to drive a PLL. The (MTJ STO+amplifier IC) pair shows a measured quality factor (Q) of 170 and a wide tunability range from 3 to 7 GHz, which demonstrate its potential to be used as a microwave oscillator in multiband, multistandard radios.

Keywords
spin torque oscillator, CMOS, microwave, wideband, highly tunable
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-149496 (URN)10.1002/mop.28511 (DOI)000339439000033 ()2-s2.0-84903286907 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20140822

Available from: 2014-08-22 Created: 2014-08-22 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Chen, T., Rodriguez, S., Åkerman, J. & Rusu, A. (2014). An Inductorless Wideband Balun-LNA for Spin Torque Oscillator-based Field Sensing. In: Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS), 2014 21st IEEE International Conference on: . Paper presented at The 21st IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS),December 7-10, 2014 Marseille, France (pp. 36-39). IEEE conference proceedings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Inductorless Wideband Balun-LNA for Spin Torque Oscillator-based Field Sensing
2014 (English)In: Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS), 2014 21st IEEE International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 36-39Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a wideband inductorless Balun-LNA targeting spin torque oscillator-based magnetic field sensing applications. The LNA consistsof a CS stage combined with a cross-coupled CG stage, which offers wideband matching, noise/distortion cancellation and gain boosting, simultaneously. The Balun-LNA is implemented in a 65 nm CMOS technology, and it is fully ESD-protected and packaged. Measurement results show a bandwidth of 2 GHz - 7 GHz, a voltage gain of 20 dB, an IIP3 of +2 dBm, and a maximum NF of 5 dB. The LNA consumes 3.84 mW from a 1.2 V power supply and occupies a total silicon area of 0.0044 mm2. The measurement results demonstrate that the proposed Balun-LNA is highly suitable for the STO-based field sensing applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2014
Keywords
Gain, Impedance matching, Magnetic tunneling, Noise measurement, Sensors, Wideband
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-157778 (URN)10.1109/ICECS.2014.7049915 (DOI)2-s2.0-84925447228 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-4243-5 (ISBN)
Conference
The 21st IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS),December 7-10, 2014 Marseille, France
Note

QC 20150210

Available from: 2014-12-15 Created: 2014-12-15 Last updated: 2015-11-12Bibliographically approved
Chen, T. (2014). CMOS High Frequency Circuits for Spin Torque Oscillator Technology. (Licentiate dissertation). Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CMOS High Frequency Circuits for Spin Torque Oscillator Technology
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Spin torque oscillator (STO) technology has a unique blend of features, including but not limited to octave tunability, GHz operating frequency, and nanoscaled size, which makes it highly suitable for microwave and radar applications. This thesis studies the fundamentals of STOs, utilizes the state-of-art STO's advantages, and proposes two STO-based microwave systems targeting its microwave applications and measurement setup, respectively.

First, based on an investigation of possible STO applications, the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) STO shows a great suitability for microwave oscillator in multi-standard multi-band radios. Yet, it also imposes a large challenge due to its low output power, which limits it from being used as a microwave oscillator. In this regard, different power enhancement approaches are investigated to achieve an MTJ STO-based microwave oscillator. The only possible approach is to use a dedicated CMOS wideband amplifier to boost the output power of the MTJ STO. The dedicated wideband amplifier, containing a novel Balun-LNA, an amplification stage and an output buffer, is proposed, analyzed, implemented, measured and used to achieve the MTJ STO-based microwave oscillator. The proposed amplifier core consumes 25.44 mW from a 1.2 V power supply and occupies an area of 0.16 mm2 in a 65 nm CMOS process. The measurement results show a S21 of 35 dB, maximum NF of 5 dB, bandwidth of 2 GHz - 7 GHz. This performance, as well as the measurement results of the proposed MTJ STO-based microwave oscillator, show that this microwave oscillator has a highly-tunable range and is able to drive a PLL.

The second aspect of this thesis, firstly identifies the major difficulties in measuring the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) STO, and hence studying its dynamic properties. Thereafter, the system architecture of a reliable GMR STO measurement setup, which integrates the GMR STO with a dedicated CMOS high frequency IC to overcome these difficulties in precise characterization of GMR STOs, is proposed. An analysis of integration methods is given and the integration method based on wire bonding is evaluated and employed, as a first integration attempt of STO and CMOS technologies. Moreover, a dedicated high frequency CMOS IC, which is composed of a dedicated on-chip bias-tee, ESD diodes, input and output networks, and an amplification stage for amplifying the weak signal generated by the GMR STO, is proposed, analyzed, developed, implemented and measured. The proposed dedicated high frequency circuits for GMR STO consumes 14.3 mW from a 1.2 V power supply and takes a total area of 0.329 mm2 in a 65 nm CMOS process. The proposed on-chip bias-tee presents a maximum measured S12 of -20 dB and a current handling of about 25 mA. Additionally, the proposed dedicated IC gives a measured gain of 13 dB with a bandwidth of 12.5 GHz - 14.5 GHz. The first attempt to measure the (GMR STO+IC) pair presents no RF signal at the output. The possible cause and other identified issues are given.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. p. xiii, 84
Series
TRITA-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610 ; 2014:01
Keywords
microwave integrated circuit, CMOS, spin torque oscillator, Balun-LNA, wideband amplifier, on-chip bias-tee, multi-standard multi-band radios
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-139588 (URN)978-91-7501-972-7 (ISBN)
Presentation
2014-01-30, Sal/Hall E, Forum, KTH-ICT, Isafjordsgatan 39, Kista, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20140114

Available from: 2014-01-15 Created: 2014-01-15 Last updated: 2014-01-15Bibliographically approved
Chen, T. (2014). Spin Torque Oscillator-based Integrated Solutions for Magnetic Field Sensing and Wireless Communication Applications. In: Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS), 2014 21st IEEE International Conference on: . Paper presented at The 21st IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits, and Systems (ICECS)7-10 Dec. 2014 (pp. W005). IEEE conference proceedings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spin Torque Oscillator-based Integrated Solutions for Magnetic Field Sensing and Wireless Communication Applications
2014 (English)In: Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS), 2014 21st IEEE International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. W005-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The emerging spin torque oscillator (STO) technology is a compelling microwave oscillator with an extremely wide frequency tunable range. However, due to the drawbacks of this early-stage technology, very limited progress has been achieved in employing the STO in practical applications. This paper presents three suitable applications of the state-of-the-art STO, covering magnetic field sensing and wireless communcations, which can greatly benefit from the advantages of the STO. Furthermore, the possible and suitable STO-based integrated solutions for achieving these applications are introduced.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2014
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-157779 (URN)978-1-4799-4243-5 (ISBN)
Conference
The 21st IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits, and Systems (ICECS)7-10 Dec. 2014
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2014-12-15 Created: 2014-12-15 Last updated: 2015-12-14Bibliographically approved
Chen, T., Rodriguez, S., Alarcon, E. & Rusu, A. (2012). A 2 GHz - 8.7 GHz Wideband Balun-LNA with Noise Cancellation and Gain Boosting. In: PRIME 2012: Proceedings of the 8th Coference on Ph.D. Research in Microelectronics and Electronics, 2012. Paper presented at 8th Coference on Ph.D. Research in Microelectronics and Electronics (PRIME), Aachen, June 12-15, 2012 (pp. 59-62). IEEE conference proceedings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A 2 GHz - 8.7 GHz Wideband Balun-LNA with Noise Cancellation and Gain Boosting
2012 (English)In: PRIME 2012: Proceedings of the 8th Coference on Ph.D. Research in Microelectronics and Electronics, 2012, IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, p. 59-62Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A wideband Balun-LNA covering the operation frequency range of magnetic tunnel junction Spin Torque Oscillator is presented. The LNA is a combination of common-source and cross-coupled common-gate stages, which provides wideband matching and noise cancellation, as well as gain boosting. The internal feedback introduced by the cross-coupling allows an additional degree of freedom to select transistor sizes and bias by decoupling the impedance matching, noise, and gain imbalance trade-offs which are present in similar topologies. Two LNAs using the proposed technique are designed in 65nm CMOS. The LNAs have a simulated bandwidth of  2 GHz - 8.7 GHz, gain of 16 dB, IIP3 of -3.5 dBm,  and NF < 3.8 dB while consuming 3.72 mW from a 1.2 V power supply.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2012
Keywords
Decision support systems, Hafnium, Inductors, MOS devices, Noise measurement, Radio frequency
National Category
Engineering and Technology Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-116464 (URN)2-s2.0-85007301689 (Scopus ID)978-3-8007-3442-9 (ISBN)
Conference
8th Coference on Ph.D. Research in Microelectronics and Electronics (PRIME), Aachen, June 12-15, 2012
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20130114

Available from: 2013-02-04 Created: 2013-01-18 Last updated: 2015-11-12Bibliographically approved
Chen, T., Rodriguez, S. & Rusu, A. (2012). Wideband Amplifier Design for Magnetic Tunnel JunctionBased Spin Torque Oscillators. In: Proc. of GigaHertz Symposium 2012. Paper presented at The GigaHertz Symposium, Stockholm, March 6-7, 2012.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wideband Amplifier Design for Magnetic Tunnel JunctionBased Spin Torque Oscillators
2012 (English)In: Proc. of GigaHertz Symposium 2012, 2012Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Spin torque oscillator (STO) is a novel current-control-oscillator (CCO), based on two spintronic effects: spin momentum transfer torque and magneto-resistance (MR). It features large tunability, miniature size, high integration level, high quality factor, high operation frequency, etc., which makes it a promising technology for microwave and radar applications. However, the STO is still an immature technology, which requires intensive research for improving the spectrum purity and the output power performance [1]. This paper proposes a wideband amplifier targeting magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) type of STO device, which compensates the low output power of the STO.

    The MTJ STO devices can cover a large part of ultra-wideband (UWB) from 3 - 8 GHz and provide an output power from -60 dBm to -40 dBm by tuning the bias DC current and the magnetic field [2][3]. One important and potential application of STO device is a local oscillator (LO) in an RF transceiver. To achieve this task, the amplifier requires a gain of 45 - 65 dB. In addition, the source impedance of different MTJ STO devices varies from a dozen to several hundred Ohms, which makes the amplifier design challenging. An universal amplifier, which fulfills the extracted design requirements, is proposed. It is composed of two types of Balun-LNAs depending on the MR of STO devices as the input stages, a broadband limiting amplifier chain and an output buffer. A combination of a common source (CS) stage and a cross-coupled common gate (CG) stage is employed for the input Balun-LNA in the low impedance case while a cascoded CS stage is used in the high impedance case. The output of both LNAs is connected to a limiting amplifier chain, which provides enough voltage gain. An output buffer is used as the output stage to convert the balanced output to single-ended output and to match the output impedance to 50 Ohms.

    The proposed wideband amplifier for MTJ STO is implemented in a 65nm CMOS process with   1.2 V supply. In the band of interest, it exhibits 55 dB gain with a maximum noise figure (NF) of    4.5 dB in the small MR case, and a 59 dB gain with a maximum NF of 3 dB in the large MR case. Besides the low noise performance and the high gain, the simulation results of the proposed amplifier also show that it has low power consumption and moderate impedance matching in the frequency range of 3 - 8 GHz, which is suitable for MTJ STO applications.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-111640 (URN)
Conference
The GigaHertz Symposium, Stockholm, March 6-7, 2012
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20130115

Available from: 2013-01-15 Created: 2013-01-14 Last updated: 2013-01-15Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1686-7923

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