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Manolan Kandy, D., Mörtberg, U., Wretling, V., Kuhlefelt, A., Byström, G., Polatidis, H., . . . Balfors, B. (2024). Spatial multicriteria framework for sustainable wind-farm planning – accounting for conflicts. Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, 189, Article ID 113856.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatial multicriteria framework for sustainable wind-farm planning – accounting for conflicts
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2024 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 189, article id 113856Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Considerable pressure is placed on wind power in Sweden due to the country’s goal of generating 100 % of its electricity from fossil free resources. The aim was to develop the REWIND methodological framework to support wind power planning, built on spatial multi-criteria analysis (SMCA). In addition, the purpose was to develop a conflict score as a novel component of this framework, for handling goal conflicts. This framework includes the scoping, design and evaluation stages. It was applied in a case study of Västernorrland County with extensive involvement of stakeholders throughout the process. 

The conflict score allows a separate analysis of trade-offs between factors, highlighting potential conflicts across the landscape to increase transparency. Thus, users are allowed to decide on a threshold on how much conflict among factors should be allowed for areas to qualify as planning alternatives. Critical issues that will need further attention concern quality and availability of data, creation of representative spatial indicators for the factors, weighting methods, and uncertainty analysis. The REWIND framework is open-ended and allows for further development to provide planning support that gives more control of factors and conflicts to be acceptable in real-world planning. Capacity building involving stakeholders in the design of planning alternatives are crucial. In Sweden, it can promote a more proactive planning process in the municipalities, supported by the regional actors, leading to a more predictable permitting process for developers. This will be useful for inclusive wind power planning in any country, since it is applicable on different scales.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2024
Keywords
Wind power planning, spatial multi-criteria analysis, conflict score, Swedish wind power strategy
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-337751 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2023.113856 (DOI)001102911700001 ()2-s2.0-85174742094 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencySwedish Environmental Protection AgencyStandUp
Note

QC 20231129

Available from: 2023-10-08 Created: 2023-10-08 Last updated: 2024-03-18Bibliographically approved
Mörtberg, U., Manolan Kandy, D., Wretling, V. & Kuhlefelt, A. (2023). Regionalt planeringsstöd för vindkraft.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regionalt planeringsstöd för vindkraft
2023 (Swedish)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A transition to a sustainable energy system is urgent due to climate change, on global level and in Sweden. For this transition, wind power plays an important role. According to Swedens national strategy for wind power, the County Administrative Boards were suggested to, in close collaboration with the municipalities, derive expected shares of wind power in order to reach the goal of 100 TWh wind power to year 2040. Simultaneously, wind power can entail social and ecological impacts, among these landscape impacts, noise and flickering shadows, which can affect

residential areas, cultural values and recreation. Also reindeer husbandry can be affected. Ecological impacts can be habitat loss and fragmentation as well as collisions with birds and bats, impacting on biological diversity. Wind power development can also create jobs and thus contribute to local and regional economy. In order to develop useful planning support for wind power planning, the current planning practice and permitting process needs to be investigated concerning which aspects of sustainability that are taken into account, factors that are used, and trade-offs that are made between sustainability goals. In addition, planning support tools need to be developed, that can integrate different sustainability goals and work as a dialogue tool in the planning process. A methodology that can be useful in this context is Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis (SMCA). There are though several challenges associated with using SMCA in real-world planning contexts, where further method development and adaption is needed to increase its applicability. The overall aim of the project “Regional planning support for wind power” (REWIND) was to investigate wind power planning and methods for planning support, to find opportunities for development, where the regional level plays an greater role, providing competence, data, knowledge and coordination. In this way, suggestions can be made on how regional support for wind power planning can be developed to efficiently strengthen municipal planning, acceptance and sustainable regional growth. The project consisted of two interacting parts with a common  final discussion.

The goal for Part 1 in the project was to investigate the current planning practice and legislation through analysis of municipal policy documents and guiding judgements. Thus, we investigated which sustainability aspects and factors that were considered, with a special focus on the spatial dimension. As well, we investigated trade-offs between sustainability goals in planning and court cases. The goal for Part 2 in the project was to develop a methodological   framework for SMCA, as planning support for terrestrial wind power on regional and municipal level in Sweden. The project used a selection of existing methods from SMCA that were adapted and combined with new methods. These were integrated as parts of the REWIND tool, for increased applicability in the planning process. The method development concerned a) a GIS-based tool for more flexible creation and aggregation of the spatial indicators for the factors, b) a new method for weighing of factors, and c) a new method for conflict mapping. The REWIND tool was applied in two case studies in the counties Västernorrland and Västra Götaland, where the methods were tested in collaboration with selected actors.

Finally, Part 1 and 2 were integrated in a common discussion, together with a focus group interview with municipal officials. The interview concerned wind power planning and related sustainability perspectives as well as the possibilities of SMCA to strengthen regional and municipal planning and collaboration. The methodology included both qualitative and quantitative methods, in the form of literature reviews, interviews, focus group discussions, as well as case studies with application and method development of SMCA in dialogue with stakeholders. Scientific literature was reviewed targeting planning of wind power, its preconditions and effects on different sustainability targets, as well as methods and applications of SMCA in planning contexts. Swedish wind power plans and judgements were analysed, to understand which factors were involved and how they were treated, trade-offs between sustainability goals, and problems and opportunities for sustainable wind power planning. From the results, together with interviews for understanding significance and treatment of selected factors, such as the electricity grid, the REWIND framework was developed. It consists of a selection of existing SMCA methods together with new methods developed within the project; for deriving spatial indicators, weighing and conflict mapping. Method development and application was carried out with the help of the case studies in Västernorrland and Västra Götaland counties, including involvement of stakeholders through focus group discussions.

About two-thirds of the Swedish municipalities have  carried out some form of wind power planning, even if these to varying degrees have become outdated. We found that the main themes that are balanced against wind power in wind power plans and judgements are noise, landscapes, cultural environment, outdoor recreation, nature conservation, reindeer husbandry, and defence. Themes that appear to be especially difficult to handle are those that concern reindeer husbandry and defence, but also possibilities to connect to the electricity grid. There is a great variation within wind power planning concerning how the spatial analysis is organised, themes that are included and how they are treated, as well as trade-offs between wind power and other sustainability aspects. The analysis of judgements indicate that the comprehensive plan is often considered in the assessment of permit applications. Thus, more updated and well informed municipal plans would be a help as decision support also in the permitting process. Concerning SMCA, there are several challenges related to its integration in realworld planning contexts. Challenges that emerged through the focus group discussions were, among other, knowledge and data gaps, difficulties in identifying factors and their spatial indicators on different scales, standardisation of spatial indicators, weighing of factors and aggregation of their spatial indicators that to some extent can hide conflicts, and control of the weighing.

The REWIND framework consists of three steps, 1) scoping, 2) design of planning alternatives, and 3) evaluation. The GIS-based REWIND tool was developed to enable creation and change of spatial indicators for the factors. A relatively simple but systematic weighing method was developed, the Ranking-Rating (RR) method, which allows a transparent integration of the stakeholders input with the target to get weights that represent their view on the factors’ importance. In addition, the understanding of the meaning of the weights can increase through comparisons with the planning tree, which gives an instant overview of different dimensions of sustainability. A method for conflict mapping was also developed, in order to enable elimination of areas with high conflict between factors. These new methods were integrated in the REWIND framework.

The general overview of wind power planning that emerged in the study is, that  it can be difficult to handle the complex technical-economic, social and environmental challenges in municipal planning and decision making. Simultaneously, there is a need for a more continuous and proactive wind power planning. Possibilities to strengthen this could be financial support and through regional collaboration processes together with the municipalities, in order to strengthen their capacity for wind power planning. This could include a collaboration platform where municipal

initiatives and planning processes can interact with counties and regions, for knowledge building and exchange of experience. SMCA can be part of such a platform, as a useful tool for integration and trade-off of relevant knowledge and interests, in a systematic and transparent way. This could increase the possibilities to interact with the planning processes for the electricity grid, as well as facilitate knowledge and capacity building including dialogue with key actors of the defence interests, reindeer husbandry, and other. Such a collaboration platform could also strengthen the inter-municipal cooperation as well as the handling of areas of national interest and trade-offs between these. This can contribute to development of a more coordinated and sustainable wind power planning, with potential to, in the long run, form part of a more cohesive landscape planning and sustainable development of the energy system in Sweden.

Publisher
p. 100
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-325860 (URN)978-91-620-7095-3 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyStandUp
Note

QC 20231122

Available from: 2023-04-18 Created: 2023-04-18 Last updated: 2023-11-22Bibliographically approved
Dobbs, C., Haase, D. & Mörtberg, U. (2023). Understanding land use, land cover, and landscape patterns of the world's cities for sustainable biodiversity planning (1ed.). In: C. Nilon and M. Aronson (Ed.), The Routledge Handbook of urban biodiversity: (pp. 20). Taylor & Francis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding land use, land cover, and landscape patterns of the world's cities for sustainable biodiversity planning
2023 (English)In: The Routledge Handbook of urban biodiversity / [ed] C. Nilon and M. Aronson, Taylor & Francis, 2023, 1, p. 20-Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Land use and land cover largely determine the ecosystem functions that can occur, where they occur, and the organisms that enable those. The composition and configuration patterns of land use and land cover will impact urban biodiversity; therefore how we recognize and understand those patterns is relevant towards planning to enhance biodiversity in urban ecosystems. This chapter addresses the past, present, and future of land use and land cover in urban areas by covering three main sections: The history of land use/land cover in urban areas, how biodiversity connects to land use/land cover under a landscape ecology framework, and how planning for sustainability and fulfilment of sustainable development goals can be done by addressing urban biodiversity at a landscape scale. Through concepts, examples, and tools, we expect readers to become immersed in the importance of land use/land cover configuration and composition for urban biodiversity and related ecological processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023 Edition: 1
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-333844 (URN)10.4324/9781003016120-6 (DOI)2-s2.0-85169354377 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Note

QC 20231122

Available from: 2023-08-13 Created: 2023-08-13 Last updated: 2023-11-22Bibliographically approved
Cai, Z., Kwak, Y., Cvetkovic, V., Deal, B. & Mörtberg, U. (2023). Urban spatial dynamic modeling based on urban amenity data to inform smart city planning. Anthropocene, 42, Article ID 100387.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urban spatial dynamic modeling based on urban amenity data to inform smart city planning
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2023 (English)In: Anthropocene, E-ISSN 2213-3054, Vol. 42, article id 100387Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An ideal form of smart city planning would focus on the availability of urban amenities that can meet the basic needs of a resident's material life, civil connections, and humanistic spirit. Previous studies have concentrated on analyzing the spatial distribution of urban services, with less attention on their contribution as local urban amenities. In this study, we propose a spatial dynamic modeling approach based on urban amenities using social media data from Google Place API to provide locational information on potential resident interactions. We use a representative region in Europe (Stockholm County, SE) to simulate and project urban development in the region until 2050. Our circular conceptual framework of spatial information and feedback supports decision-makers in testing possible urban planning scenarios that align with the vision of a smart city. Simulation results reveal the interplay between human-land interactions on a specific spatial-temporal scale, and we analyze scenario outcomes in relation to commercial and residential land uses. Overall, our study provides a new perspective on human-social behavior-driven urban development, through a smart, spatial dynamic model as a planning support system that can enhance realism, and ultimately help realize planned development objectives in the region.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2023
Keywords
Human-land interaction, Human-social behavior, Planning support system, Smart city, Spatial dynamic model, Urban amenities, Urban planning
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary Human Geography
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-331530 (URN)10.1016/j.ancene.2023.100387 (DOI)001013338200001 ()2-s2.0-85160678432 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Region StockholmStandUp
Note

QC 20231009

Available from: 2023-07-11 Created: 2023-07-11 Last updated: 2023-10-09Bibliographically approved
Wretling, V., Balfors, B. & Mörtberg, U. (2022). Balancing wind power deployment and sustainability objectives in Swedish planning and permitting. Energy, Sustainability and Society, 12(1), Article ID 48.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Balancing wind power deployment and sustainability objectives in Swedish planning and permitting
2022 (English)In: Energy, Sustainability and Society, E-ISSN 2192-0567, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 48Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Wind power is a critical renewable energy technology in efforts to achieve the global climate targets. However, local impacts do occur, which demands careful consideration in planning and permitting. Sweden has setan ambition to triple land-based wind power by 2040, and municipalities play a key role in both the planning and permitting process, due to a planning monopoly and veto power in the permitting process. This calls for an investigationof Swedish wind power governance, with a particular focus on recent trends in municipal wind power planning, how wind power is balanced in relation to sustainability objectives in planning and permitting, and insights frompractitioners regarding their capacities and drivers.

Results: The results show that about two-thirds of Swedish municipalities have conducted wind power planning in some form, but this basis for decision-making has become outdated due to a lack of institutional capacity at the municipal level. Secondly, the study finds that many municipalities perceive that there are insufficient incentives for a continued wind power expansion. Lastly, the study sheds light on a large heterogeneity within wind power planning practice concerning how trade-offs between wind power deployment and other sustainability aspects are handled, as well as a lack of coherence between planning and permitting.

Conclusions: It is concluded that the current state of municipal wind power planning raises questions regarding the legitimacy of municipal decision-making in terms of perceived justice among local inhabitants and highlights the need for updated wind power plans. Moreover, to promote local acceptance in the future, formalised financial compensation and strategic initiatives that enable the localisation of electricity-intensive industry within municipalities with large-scale wind power production can be two key components. The results also highlight the need for additional support at the municipal level, including access to critical competence and relevant knowledge to enable trade-offs between the different sustainability considerations in an informed and balanced manner. Finally, regional dialogue with key actors, such as the military, Sami representatives and grid operators, would facilitate the handling of inter-municipal issues, in particular by fostering co-operation regarding inter-municipal wind sites.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2022
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-322629 (URN)10.1186/s13705-022-00376-y (DOI)000903252500001 ()2-s2.0-85145009664 (Scopus ID)
Funder
KTH Royal Institute of TechnologySwedish Energy AgencyStandUp
Note

QC 20230201

Available from: 2022-12-22 Created: 2022-12-22 Last updated: 2024-02-23Bibliographically approved
Gardumi, F., Keppo, I., Howells, M., Pye, S., Avgerinopoulos, G., Lekavičius, V., . . . Mikulić, M. (2022). Carrying out a multi-model integrated assessment of European energy transition pathways: Challenges and benefits. Energy, 258, 124329-124329, Article ID 124329.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carrying out a multi-model integrated assessment of European energy transition pathways: Challenges and benefits
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2022 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 258, p. 124329-124329, article id 124329Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With the publication of the European Green Deal, the European Union has committed to reaching carbon neutrality by 2050. The envisaged reductions of direct greenhouse gases emissions are seen as technically feasible, but if a wrong path is pursued, significant unintended impacts across borders, sectors, societies and ecosystems may follow. Without the insights gained from an impact assessment framework reaching beyond the techno-economic perspective, the pursuit of direct emission reductions may lead to counterproductive outcomes in the long run. We discuss the opportunities and challenges related to the creation and use of an integrated assessment framework built to inform the European Commission on the path to decarbonisation. The framework is peculiar in that it goes beyond existing ones in its scope, depth and cross-scale coverage, by use of numerous specialised models and case studies. We find challenges of consistency that can be overcome by linking modelling tools iteratively in some cases, harmonising modelling assumptions in others, comparing model outputs in others. We find the highest added value of the framework in additional insights it provides on the technical feasibility of decarbonisation pathways, on vulnerability aspects and on unintended environmental and health impacts on national and sub-national scale.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2022
Keywords
Decarbonisation pathways, Impact assessment, Modelling framework, Multi-model, European Green Deal
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-316822 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2022.124329 (DOI)000848556700001 ()2-s2.0-85135500244 (Scopus ID)
Projects
REEEM
Funder
European CommissionStandUp
Note

QC 20220831

Available from: 2022-08-31 Created: 2022-08-31 Last updated: 2022-09-21Bibliographically approved
Engström, R. E., Howells, M. I., Mörtberg, U. & Destouni, G. (2022). Corrigendum: Multi-functionality of nature-based and other urban sustainability solutions: New York City study. Land Degradation and Development, 33(5), 813-814
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Corrigendum: Multi-functionality of nature-based and other urban sustainability solutions: New York City study
2022 (English)In: Land Degradation and Development, ISSN 1085-3278, E-ISSN 1099-145X, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 813-814Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

In the referenced article, Engström R, et al. (2018), the authors would like to report a calculation error. Correcting this error does not alter any of the overarching results or conclusions of the article, but changes the results in the original Table 3 and Figure 3. Two typographical errors were also found in the main article, and are corrected here. The supplementary material has also been updated to reflect these corrections.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley, 2022
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-310417 (URN)10.1002/ldr.4175 (DOI)000767754700011 ()2-s2.0-85126453498 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230612

Available from: 2022-03-30 Created: 2022-03-30 Last updated: 2024-01-30Bibliographically approved
Kåresdotter, E., Page, J., Mörtberg, U., Näsström, H., Chen, S. & Kalantari, Z. (2022). First mile/last mile problems in smart and sustainable cities: A case study in Stockholm County. The Journal of urban technology, 29(2), 115-137
Open this publication in new window or tab >>First mile/last mile problems in smart and sustainable cities: A case study in Stockholm County
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2022 (English)In: The Journal of urban technology, ISSN 1063-0732, E-ISSN 1466-1853, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 115-137Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The first mile/last mile (FM/LM) problem in public transport refers to the spatial accessibility of public transport and is the most important factor determining whether an individual will choose public transport. The FM/LM problem in Stockholm County, Sweden, was evaluated using a Geographic Information System estimating distances to public transport for the years 2019 and 2035. Overall, the population in Stockholm County, have good access to public transport. However, access varies with abilities, with elderly having 50 percent and elderly impaired 15 percent of their area within walking distance to public transport compared with the average citizen. Planned developments can provide good access to public transport, with extensive improvements for the elderly. However, inadequate planning for population increase will likely decrease the perceived public transport accessibility. Apartments and commercial buildings in the study area have high access to public transport. Elderly people have good access within city and regional centers, while access could be improved in other areas. Inclusion of FM/LM in the planning support system used in Stockholm could help mitigate FM/LM problems and extend access to public transport to all people of different abilities. This is vital in creating sustainable mobility networks and achieving sustainable development in smart cities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Informa UK Limited, 2022
Keywords
accessibility, first/last mile problem, public transport, sustainable development, Sustainable mobility
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-307374 (URN)10.1080/10630732.2022.2033949 (DOI)000755631100001 ()2-s2.0-85125238773 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Region StockholmStandUp
Note

QC 20220531

Available from: 2022-01-23 Created: 2022-01-23 Last updated: 2022-06-25Bibliographically approved
Adem Esmail, B., Cortinovis, C., Suleiman, L., Albert, C., Geneletti, D. & Mörtberg, U. (2022). Greening cities through urban planning: A literature review on the uptake of concepts and methods in Stockholm. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 127584
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Greening cities through urban planning: A literature review on the uptake of concepts and methods in Stockholm
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2022 (English)In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, p. 127584-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nature-based solutions (NBS) represent the most recent of several "greening" concepts proposed to support spatial planning and decision-making towards sustainable metropolitan regions. Despite similarities, the concepts stem from different disciplines and policy arenas and reflect various models of people-nature relations. This paper aims to analyze the uptake of greening concepts in scientific planning literature focusing on (urban) nature and landscape in the metropolitan region of Stockholm, Sweden, over the last three decades. It investigates what changes this evolution has brought in terms of the topics adopted, methods applied, and types of planning support put into practice. We identified 574 articles that reflect substantial research on greening concepts in the Swedish planning context. The articles demonstrate an initial prevalence of biodiversity with later increases of interest in ecosystem services and NBS. A detailed analysis of the studies focusing on Stockholm revealed Population growth/densification, Green space management and Biodiversity conservation as the most commonly addressed societal challenges. The most frequently mentioned type of green and blue element is Parks and (semi-)natural urban green areas, including urban forests. Methods applied were mostly quantitative, while mixes with qualitative approaches were only apparent in ecosystem services articles. Half of the studies involved practitioners or decision-makers, but only four seemed related to real-life planning processes. Taken together, the influence of scientific literature on the uptake of greening concepts in spatial planning seems to have been limited. Future mainstreaming of greening concepts in Stockholm and beyond could benefit from available data, methods and experiences, but will require more active translation and boundary management. Further research into science-policy-planning interfaces at city scale is thus imperative to advance more sustainable pathways for people and nature in metropolitan regions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2022
Keywords
Biodiversity, Ecosystem services, Nature’s contributions to people, Green infrastructure, Green wedges, Green belt, Transformative change
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-311330 (URN)10.1016/j.ufug.2022.127584 (DOI)000797192300001 ()2-s2.0-85133652583 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2020-00086 and 2021-00054StandUp
Note

QC 20220509

Available from: 2022-04-21 Created: 2022-04-21 Last updated: 2024-03-18Bibliographically approved
Manolan Kandy, D., Wretling, V., Balfors, B. & Mörtberg, U. (2022). Linking multi-criteria approaches to spatial planning for wind energy development in two case studies in Sweden. In: : . Paper presented at Conference on Wind energy and Wildlife impacts, 4-8 April 2022 Egmond aan Zee, Netherlands 2022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Linking multi-criteria approaches to spatial planning for wind energy development in two case studies in Sweden
2022 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Sweden aims to achieve 100% renewable electricity by year 2040 with a major share expectation from wind. In this context, the national strategy developed for wind power development estimates expected shares from each County. With this increased expectations from each county, Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis (SMCA) is used as a tool to integrate contributing and conflicting criteria that influence wind energy planning to find sustainable solutions. A majority of studies accommodating larger number of criteria uses Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) or OWA to solve wind farm siting problems. By this, weights obtained from the stake-holders indicating importance of the criteria are used to allow trade-off between criteria to reach a negotiated decision when there are areas not available as in an ideal scenario. Through this opinions of stakeholders from diverse expertise are thus meant to be incorporated in a transparent and democratic way. However, these trade-off may disguise conflicts which need to be handled in a controlled way. 

The REWIND project aims to develop a framework and GIS tools to conduct SMCA for sustainable wind power planning. The study also addresses planning issues that arises when following the standard approach and ways to handle it. 

Two case studies are included in this project with the collaboration of Västernorrland and Västra Götaland Counties. The methodology includes selection of criteria and transformation into a uniform suitability scale. These factors are aggregated through a conflict score, to prevent high trade-offs in later stages.  Secondly, the importance of one factor over the other is obtained from stake-holders through some weighting method. In general, when the number of factors are more than 9, clustering into groups in hierarchical structure (planning tree) is carried out to calculate weights. The basis for the groups varies and the most common way of clustering is based on the three pillars of sustainability. This not only restricts comparison of factors belonging to different clusters, but it also controls the weight distribution indirectly. The symmetricity of the tree and how it impacts final weights are often overlooked by the participants who carry out weighting and their involvement become more or less pointless. To tackle this, the Ranking-Rating (RR) method is developed and used in the framework, where factors are grouped into different level of importance first, then ranked and rated within each group. Finally, the suitability scores of different scenarios are used to identify suitable sites for wind energy planning.

Through this systematic and transparent approach planners are given various options to choose from the decision space with more clear understanding about the trade-offs in a quantified manner.  Moreover rectifying the standard approach where stake-holders can get integrated in the process more effectively can strengthen the strategic planning process and reduce the delays and difficulties during the permitting process. The REWIND methodological framework, also bridges knowledge gaps through integrating and treating diverse factors with stakeholder involvement in useful ways through development the GIS-based tool. The REWIND tool is transferable and can be used for wind power planning on regional and municipal scales. 

National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-310848 (URN)
Conference
Conference on Wind energy and Wildlife impacts, 4-8 April 2022 Egmond aan Zee, Netherlands 2022
Funder
StandUpSwedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20220429

Available from: 2022-04-09 Created: 2022-04-09 Last updated: 2024-03-15Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1640-8946

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