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Tasala Gradin, KatjaORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7401-4550
Publications (8 of 8) Show all publications
Tasala Gradin, K. & Hedlund Åström, A. (2018). Evaluation of an Eco Audit tool – through an LCA of a novel car disc brake. In: : . Paper presented at NordDesign, Linköping, Sweden, 14th-17th August 2018. Linköping
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of an Eco Audit tool – through an LCA of a novel car disc brake
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Transport of goods and people is increasing and causing strains on the environment. Road vehicles emit exhaust and non-exhaust emissions. One significant contributor to non-exhaust emissions is particulates generated through wear from braking. The particulates originate from the contact surfaces of the pad and the disc. Particulate emission is a known issue with considerable impacts on plant, animal, and human health.

In the EU Horizon 2020 LOWBRASYS (a LOW environmental impact BRAke SYStem) project (LOWBRASYS, 2017), one of the objectives was to design a novel disc brake that reduces particulate generation during braking. One of the results is a novel disc brake with disc and pad-materials that indicate a significant decrease in particulate formation during use. This is accomplished by changing the materials of the contact pair regarding composition and coatings (Wahlström, Lyu, Matjeka, & Söderberg, 2017). Materials used in the disc brakes cause environmental impacts during their life cycle. Some parts and processes need for example critical raw materials such as tungsten, cobalt, and more (European Commission, 2017). 

This paper evaluates a material selection tool with an environmental perspective for product developers called Eco Audit (Ashby et al. 2008). This tool is featured in the CES Edu Pack software provided by Granta Design, Cambridge University (Granta 2018). The purpose of this study is to evaluate if the Eco Audit tool can provide a fast and valid impact assessment from an LCA perspective. 

Results of the Eco Audit compared to the SimaPro results indicate that it is possible to make valid conclusions. The validity of the tool is connected to the purpose of the study. If the purpose is to identify critical life cycle phases and environmental impacts, then the tool can accurately aid the user. It could potentially be difficult to make valid conclusions when assessing a product with more complex processes or advanced materials. The tool’s strengths are the simplicity and easy accessibility for any user. The trade-off is precision, robustness, and representativeness of the target.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: , 2018
Keywords
Product design, material choice, Life Cycle Assessment, Eco Audit, disc brake
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Machine Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-238099 (URN)
Conference
NordDesign, Linköping, Sweden, 14th-17th August 2018
Note

QC 20181108

Available from: 2018-10-30 Created: 2018-10-30 Last updated: 2019-02-19Bibliographically approved
Tasala Gradin, K. & Hedlund-Åström, A. (2018). Evaluation of an Eco Audit tool - through an LCA of a novel car disc brake. In: Proceedings of NordDesign: Design in the Era of Digitalization, NordDesign 2018. Paper presented at 13th Biennial Norddesign Conference, NordDesign 2018, 14 August 2018 through 17 August 2018. The Design Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of an Eco Audit tool - through an LCA of a novel car disc brake
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of NordDesign: Design in the Era of Digitalization, NordDesign 2018, The Design Society , 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Transport of goods and people is increasing and causing strains on the environment. Road vehicles emit exhaust and non-exhaust emissions. One significant contributor to non-exhaust emissions is particulates generated through wear from braking. The particulates originate from the contact surfaces of the pad and the disc. Particulate emission is a known issue with considerable impacts on plant, animal, and human health. In the EU Horizon 2020 LOWBRASYS (a LOW environmental impact BRAke SYStem) project (LOWBRASYS, 2017), one of the objectives was to design a novel disc brake that reduces particulate generation during braking. One of the results is a novel disc brake with disc and pad-materials that indicate a significant decrease in particulate formation during use. This is accomplished by changing the materials of the contact pair regarding composition and coatings (Wahlström, Lyu, Matjeka, & Söderberg, 2017). Materials used in the disc brakes cause environmental impacts during their life cycle. Some parts and processes need for example critical raw materials such as tungsten, cobalt, and more (European Commission, 2017). This paper evaluates a material selection tool with an environmental perspective for product developers called Eco Audit (Ashby et al. 2008). This tool is featured in the CES Edu Pack software provided by Granta Design, Cambridge University (Granta 2018). The purpose of this study is to evaluate if the Eco Audit tool can provide a fast and valid impact assessment from an LCA perspective. Results of the Eco Audit compared to the SimaPro results indicate that it is possible to make valid conclusions. The validity of the tool is connected to the purpose of the study. If the purpose is to identify critical life cycle phases and environmental impacts, then the tool can accurately aid the user. It could potentially be difficult to make valid conclusions when assessing a product with more complex processes or advanced materials. The tool's strengths are the simplicity and easy accessibility for any user. The trade-off is precision, robustness, and representativeness of the target. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Design Society, 2018
Keywords
Disc brake, Eco Audit, Life Cycle Assessment, Material choice, Product design, Brakes, Economic and social effects, Particulate emissions, Cambridge university, Critical raw materials, Disc brakes, Eco-audits, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Material selection tools, Particulate formation, Life cycle
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-247472 (URN)2-s2.0-85057184117 (Scopus ID)9789176851852 (ISBN)
Conference
13th Biennial Norddesign Conference, NordDesign 2018, 14 August 2018 through 17 August 2018
Note

QC 20190405

Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Gürdür, D. & Tasala Gradin, K. (2018). Interoperable Toolchains in Cyber-physical Systems with a Sustainability Perspective. In: 2017 IEEE Conference on Technologies for Sustainability, SusTech 2017: . Paper presented at 5th Annual IEEE Conference on Technologies for Sustainability, SusTech 2017, Hilton Airport Hotel, Phoenix, United States, 12 November 2017 through 14 November 2017. Phoenix, AZ, USA: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interoperable Toolchains in Cyber-physical Systems with a Sustainability Perspective
2018 (English)In: 2017 IEEE Conference on Technologies for Sustainability, SusTech 2017, Phoenix, AZ, USA: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The development of cyber-physical systems (CPS) requires various engineering disciplines, artifacts, and areas of expertise to collaborate. Powerful software tools are used during this development process, but while successful in one individual discipline, it is often challenging to integrate with other tools. Several studies have been done on integration solutions for these toolchains. However, the possibility of including the sustainability concept to the interoperability strategies is rarely studied. This paper discusses an approach to include sustainability aspects while improving the interoperability of toolchains in CPS manufacturing. To this end, an automobile manufacturing process has been studied as a use case, and relevant sustainability metrics for each stage of the process are identified. Life cycle sustainability assessment methodology is used to identify the sustainability metrics, and the use case is employed to exemplify how some of these metrics can be integrated with interoperable toolchains to illustrate the applicability of the approach.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Phoenix, AZ, USA: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018
Keywords
toolchain interoperability, tool integration, interoperability, sustainability, life cycle sustainability assessment
National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Machine Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-217836 (URN)10.1109/SusTech.2017.8333471 (DOI)2-s2.0-85050475302 (Scopus ID)9781538604519 (ISBN)
Conference
5th Annual IEEE Conference on Technologies for Sustainability, SusTech 2017, Hilton Airport Hotel, Phoenix, United States, 12 November 2017 through 14 November 2017
Note

QC 20180111

Available from: 2017-11-17 Created: 2017-11-17 Last updated: 2019-01-11Bibliographically approved
Tasala Gradin, K., Poulikidou, S., Björklund, A. & Luttropp, C. (2018). Scrutinising the electric vehicle material backpack. Journal of Cleaner Production, 172, 1699-1710
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scrutinising the electric vehicle material backpack
2018 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 1699-1710Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Conventionally the use phase of a road vehicle contributes to more than 70% of the total environmental impact in terms of energy use or emissions of greenhouse gases. This figure is no longer valid concerning electric vehicles and a shift to other life cycle stages and impacts is expected and should be re-evaluated. The goal of this study is to assess the environmental performance of two prototype vehicle drivetrains; an internal combustion engine and an electric motor, from a life cycle perspective. The assessment is performed in a qualitative manner using the Environmentally Responsible Product Assessment (ERPA) matrix. The two vehicles in this study have similar car body construction, providing an excellent opportunity to highlight the significance of material differences in their drivetrains. The internal combustion vehicle demonstrated a better environmental performance in three out of five lifecycle stages (pre-manufacture, product manufacture, and disposal). In all of these stages, the impact of the electric vehicle is determined by the burden of the materials needed for this technology such as rare earth elements (REE) and by the lack of recycling possibilities. The study demonstrated a need to close the material cycle when it comes to Critical Raw Materials (CRM) such as REE which can only be achieved when the technology but also the incentives for material recovery are provided, i.e. by promoting the development of cost-efficient recycling technologies. Moreover, the need for relevant metrics and assessment indicators is demonstrated to be able to compare the two technologies fairly.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2018
Keywords
environmentally Responsible Product, Assessment, Internal combustion engine vehicle, Electric vehicle, Critical raw materials, Rare earth elements, Drivetrain
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-222427 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.12.035 (DOI)000423002200037 ()2-s2.0-85038830921 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180218

Available from: 2018-02-28 Created: 2018-02-28 Last updated: 2019-02-19Bibliographically approved
Hedlund-Åström, A. & Tasala Gradin, K. (2015). Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Innovative Vessel, The CargoXpress. In: : . Paper presented at International Conference on Lightweight Design of Marine Structures, 9th-11th November 2015, Glasgow..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Innovative Vessel, The CargoXpress
2015 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Alongside the economic growth demands for further use of resources increase as well. As a result of this transportation of industrial products all over the world will also increase, in particular through shipping. In this study a new innovative concept for transport of cargo, the CargoXpress vessel, is presented and analysed over the life cycle in terms of costs and environmental effects. In the life cycle cost analysis the influence of future price scenarios for LNG-fuel and structural material is investigated through sensitivity analysis. For the environmental study life cycle assessment is used according to ISO 14044:2006. In direct comparative analysis the environmental impacts and costs over the life cycle of the new vessel is compared to road transport by truck. Then also analysis is made by selecting different existing transport scenarios were the new vessel is compared to road transports. The results from both cost and environmental analysis clearly present benefits for transporting goods with the CargoXpress vessel. Regarding the cost several factors in combination plays an important role for the outcome as initial investment cost, price development of fuel and interest rate. For the environmental analysis the innovative vessel is shown to be the preferable alternative.

National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-177818 (URN)
Conference
International Conference on Lightweight Design of Marine Structures, 9th-11th November 2015, Glasgow.
Note

QCR 20161117

Available from: 2015-11-26 Created: 2015-11-26 Last updated: 2016-11-22Bibliographically approved
Tasala Gradin, K., Luttropp, C. & Björklund, A. (2013). Investigating improved vehicle dismantling and fragmentation technology. Journal of Cleaner Production, 54, 23-29
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating improved vehicle dismantling and fragmentation technology
2013 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 54, p. 23-29Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We conduct a screening comparison using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to model two end-of-life vehicle (ELV) waste management scenarios. The first is the prevalent scrapping process, which entails shredding. The second is manual disassembly, a hypothetical scenario designed to reach the targets in the EU ELV Directive for 2015. The LCA considers three impact categories; climate change, metal depletion, and cumulative energy demand (CED), and identifies the potential lifecycle environmental and resource impacts of new ELV dismantling and recycling processes. Manual disassembly significantly reduces climate change impact and metal depletion, by recycling more polymers and copper and recovering more energy via incineration. The CED is much lower in the manual than the shredding scenario, mainly due to increased recycling and energy recovery, over half the reduction being attributable to polymer recycling and energy recovery. The manual scenario is significantly better than the shredding scenario in terms of environmental and resource impacts, recovering more copper and recycling more polymers. The current shredding scenario does not fulfil the current or future requirements of the ELV Directive. We identify a need to develop new ELV scrapping methods for better resource management and to investigate the value of "new" materials in ELVs, such as rare earth elements.

Keywords
Car scrapping, Climate change, Cumulative energy demand, ELV Directive, Life cycle assessment, Metal depletion
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-126053 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.05.023 (DOI)000322354200004 ()2-s2.0-84879839763 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20130819

Available from: 2013-08-19 Created: 2013-08-19 Last updated: 2019-02-19Bibliographically approved
Hedlund-Åström, A., Tasala Gradin, K., Bazaz, K. & Bergström, M. (2012). Life cycle cost and environmental assessment for the new competitive vessel.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life cycle cost and environmental assessment for the new competitive vessel
2012 (English)Report (Other academic)
Series
TRITA-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2012:21
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-177820 (URN)
Note

QC 20151215

Available from: 2015-11-26 Created: 2015-11-26 Last updated: 2015-12-15Bibliographically approved
Hedlund-Åström, A., Tasala Gradin, K., Bazaz, K. & Bergström, M. (2012). Results of competing transport scenarios road- transport versus maritime transport. KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Results of competing transport scenarios road- transport versus maritime transport
2012 (English)Report (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012
Series
TRITA-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2012:22
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-177822 (URN)
Note

QC 20151214

Available from: 2015-11-26 Created: 2015-11-26 Last updated: 2015-12-14Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7401-4550

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