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Apanasevic, T. & Markendahl, J. (2018). Mobile ticketing services in the Northern Europe: Critical business model issues. In: Morten Falch (Ed.), Internet of Things Business Models, Users, and Networks, 2017: . Paper presented at Joint 13th CTTE and 10th CMI Conference (pp. 1-8). Copenhagen, Denmark: IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mobile ticketing services in the Northern Europe: Critical business model issues
2018 (English)In: Internet of Things Business Models, Users, and Networks, 2017 / [ed] Morten Falch, Copenhagen, Denmark: IEEE, 2018, p. 1-8Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Started as SMS ticketing, today, mobile ticketing services become a platform for combined mobility solutions that integrate mobile ticketing, bike renting, car sharing, and parking payment services. Mobile ticketing services provide a number of benefits for public transport companies and passengers, however, in some Northern European countries, the share of mobile ticket sales does not exceed 10 percent. In this paper, we analyse business models of three types of mobile ticketing services (SMS, in-app, and “Be-In Be-Out” (BIBO)) in order to identify factors that negatively affect wider penetration of mobile ticketing. In order to do so, we use STOF (Service, Technology, Organisation, and Finance) model. The research reveals that there are a number of challenges related to service, technology, and finance domains of mobile ticketing. Due to this, with the help of price policy, many public transport companies push choices of their customers towards use of plastic travel card.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copenhagen, Denmark: IEEE, 2018
Keywords
mobile ticketing, business model, STOF
National Category
Business Administration Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-226551 (URN)10.1109/CTTE.2017.8260939 (DOI)
Conference
Joint 13th CTTE and 10th CMI Conference
Note

QC 20180420

Available from: 2018-04-19 Created: 2018-04-19 Last updated: 2018-04-20Bibliographically approved
Apanasevic, T. (2018). Opportunities and challenges of mobile payment services: The perspective of service providers. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: Kungliga Tekniska högskolan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Opportunities and challenges of mobile payment services: The perspective of service providers
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

 Mobile payments are transforming the payments industry. These services open up the opportunity for non-banking actors to enter the market. In order to embrace this challenge, banks, traditional payments market players, are forced to launch mobile payments. However, in Europe and most developed economies, a big number of launched services get terminated soon after their introduction in the market. Hence, the ability of different actors to act locally calls for additional research.

The main objective of this thesis is to broaden knowledge and understanding about the ways mobile payment service providers address the opportunities and challenges of mobile payment services. In order to investigate this problem, this research (i) explores factors stimulating and hindering the introduction of mobile payments using perspectives of different types of service providers (i.e., banks, independent providers, direct operator billing providers, retailers, and public transport companies) and (ii) seeks to explain the importance of these factors for each type of provider.

The primary data collected using interview method. More than 40 industry representatives in six countries were contacted. The Service, Technology, Organisation, and Finance (STOF) model was used as a theoretical research framework. This is a business modelling framework that specifies a set of critical design issues that have to  be considered within each model’s domain.

Research findings highlight that the organisation domain is the key domain, which  affects all other domains and has an impact on the general viability of the business model. A comparison of the approaches used by different service providers to address each of the critical design issues helped to identify the factors that are most important within each domain. These factors stimulate or hinder development of a viable business model within each category of service providers.

This research contributes to a better understanding of challenges and success factors associated with the design of business models for new mobile services and uses the lens of the STOF model. The contributions to the academic research on mobile payments are: (i) collection and analysis of a rich empirical data set on mobile payment services implemented in six Northern European countries, (ii) discussion of a bigger picture by connecting research findings to the context of the existing payment system, (iii) extension  of knowledge on business models for mobile ticketing, and (iv) extension of knowledge on the value of mobile ticketing services in the business-to-business (B2B) context.

Abstract [sv]

Uppkomsten av mobila betalningslösningar förändrar betalningsindustrin. Tjänsterna erbjuder möjligheter för nya aktörer att komma in på marknaden. Detta utmanar traditionella aktörer såsom banker vilka börjat att införa mobila betalningstjänster. I Europa och andra utvecklade länder visar det sig att ett stort antal av dessa nya tjänster dras bort från marknaden strax efter att de lanserats. Därför behövs fördjupad forskning kring olika aktörers förmåga att agera på lokala marknader.

Det övergripande syftet med denna avhandling är att bredda kunskap och förståelse om hur tjänsteleverantörer hanterar möjligheter och utmaningar med mobila betalningar. Forskningen har fokuserat på att: (i) identifiera faktorer som stimulerar eller försvårar  lansering av betalningslösningar för olika typer av tjänsteleverantörer (banker, oberoende betalningsleverantörer, telekomoperatörer, detaljhandel och kollektivtrafikföretag) och  (ii) förklara inverkan av olika faktorer för varje typ av leverantör.

Forskningen baseras på primärdata insamlad från intervjuer med drygt 40 aktörer i sex länder. Som teoretiskt ramverk används den s.k. STOF modellen (Service, Technology, Organisation, and Finance) som är ett verktyg framtaget för analys av affärsmodeller. Den anger olika kritiska faktorer och problem som bör beaktas inom affärsmodellens olika domäner.

Resultaten pekar på att “Organisation” är den viktigaste domänen i affärsmodellen, denna påverkar de övriga domänerna samt affärsmodellens allmänna bärkraft. En jämförelse av de strategier som olika tjänsteleverantörer använder för att hantera kritiska designproblem har använts för att peka ut de faktorer som är de viktigaste inom varje domän.

Denna forskningen bidrar till en bättre förståelse av utmaningar och framgångsfaktorer i samband med utformningen av affärsmodeller för nya mobila betalningstjänster. Bidragen till den akademiska forskningen om mobila betalningslösningar är: (i) insamling och analys av ett brett empiriskt material om mobila betalningslösningar i sex nordeuropeiska länder, (ii) en diskussion av helhetsbilden genom att koppla forskningsresultaten om nya betalningslösningar till det befintliga betalningssystemet,  (iii) utökad kunskap om affärsmodeller för mobila biljetttjänster, och (iv) breddad kunskap om värdet av mobila biljetttjänster inom business-to-business (B2B).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, 2018. p. 131
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2018:31
Keywords
Mobile payments, Mobile ticketing, Business model, STOF, Service provider, Payment services provider, Mobila betalningstjänster, Mobil biljettjänster, Affärsmodeller, STOF, Tjänsteleverantör, Leverantörer av betalningstjänster
National Category
Communication Systems Business Administration
Research subject
Business Studies; SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-226555 (URN)978-91-7729-745-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-05-30, Ka-Sal C (Sal Sven-Olof Öhrvik), KTH, Kistagången 16, Kista, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20180420

Available from: 2018-04-20 Created: 2018-04-19 Last updated: 2018-04-20Bibliographically approved
Apanasevic, T. (2018). Primary data collection: Approaches of service providers towards mobile payments. Stockholm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Primary data collection: Approaches of service providers towards mobile payments
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Mobile payments are new services enabled by evolution of information and communication technologies. These services can be provided by different types of actors both banks and non-banks. The understanding of capabilities and limitations of different service providers to act in local markets requires further understanding. Implemented research seeks to extend knowledge in this area. I have implemented research focused on approaches used by different types of service providers including banks, independent providers, operator billing providers, retailers, and public transport companies in six Northern European countries.

Exploratory part of the research aims to address the following research question: What factors stimulate and hinder the introduction of mobile payments? The main objective of this report is to present primary data collected during the research through interviews with contacted companies.

The collected primary data is classified and organised using the STOF (Service, Technology, Organisation, and Finance) model. Evidence is presented in tables. This primary data is further used for explanatory study. At the same time, this data can be used by other researchers studying the same area. The collected data is reach in facts and presents the overview of different strategies. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: , 2018. p. 49
Series
TRITA-EECS-RP ; 2018:2
Keywords
Mobile payments, Contactless payments, NFC payments, Mobile ticketing
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-226554 (URN)978-91-7729-749-9 (ISBN)
Note

QC 20180420

Available from: 2018-04-19 Created: 2018-04-19 Last updated: 2018-04-24Bibliographically approved
Apanasevic, T. & Markendahl, J. (2018). The value of mobile ticketing from a public transport perspective. Journal of Payments Strategy & Systems, 11(4), 292-305
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The value of mobile ticketing from a public transport perspective
2018 (English)In: Journal of Payments Strategy & Systems, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 292-305Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Within the field of mobile payments, the market segment for mobile ticketing services is expected to grow, driven by the public transport sector. Although a large number of studies have explored the value of mobile payments to customers (ie service end users), there is a lack of research exploring the value of mobile payment and mobile ticketing for business customers (ie transport companies and retailers). This paper aims to address this gap and to explore the kinds of value that mobile ticketing services create for public transport companies. The research considers mobile ticketing services in six Northern European countries. The research findings suggest that within the business-to-business context, mobile ticketing services create multiple dimensions of value, namely enhanced technical functionality; financial value; better working environment; operational value; and reputational and customer relationship value. For passengers, meanwhile, value takes the form of convenience and service enhancement. These benefits are factors driving adoption of mobile ticketing and mobile payment services by public transport companies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: , 2018
Keywords
benefits; mobile payments; mobile ticketing; value
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-226550 (URN)
Note

QC 20180420

Available from: 2018-04-19 Created: 2018-04-19 Last updated: 2018-04-20Bibliographically approved
Apanasevic, T. & Markendahl, J. (2017). Mobile ticketing services in the Northern Europe Critical business model issues. In: Falch, M (Ed.), 2017 JOINT 13TH CTTE AND 10TH CMI CONFERENCE ON INTERNET OF THINGS - BUSINESS MODELS, USERS, AND NETWORKS: . Paper presented at 2017 JOINT 13TH CTTE AND 10TH CMI CONFERENCE ON INTERNET OF THINGS - BUSINESS MODELS, USERS, AND NETWORKS, 23th-24th November 2017. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mobile ticketing services in the Northern Europe Critical business model issues
2017 (English)In: 2017 JOINT 13TH CTTE AND 10TH CMI CONFERENCE ON INTERNET OF THINGS - BUSINESS MODELS, USERS, AND NETWORKS / [ed] Falch, M, IEEE , 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Started as SMS ticketing, today, mobile ticketing services become a platform for combined mobility solutions that integrate mobile ticketing, bike renting, car sharing, and parking payment services. Mobile ticketing services provide a number of benefits for public transport companies and passengers, however, in some Northern European countries, the share of mobile ticket sales does not exceed 10 percent. In this paper, we analyse business models of three types of mobile ticketing services (SMS, in-app, and "Be-InBe-Out" (BIBO)) in order to identify factors that negatively affect wider penetration of mobile ticketing. In order to do so, we use STOF (Service, Technology, Organisation, and Finance) model. The research reveals that there are a number of challenges related to service, technology, and finance domains of mobile ticketing. Due to this, with the help of price policy, many public transport companies push choices of their customers towards use of plastic travel card.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
Keywords
mobile ticketing, business model, STOF
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-226270 (URN)000427887100013 ()
Conference
2017 JOINT 13TH CTTE AND 10TH CMI CONFERENCE ON INTERNET OF THINGS - BUSINESS MODELS, USERS, AND NETWORKS, 23th-24th November 2017
Note

QC 20180424

Available from: 2018-04-24 Created: 2018-04-24 Last updated: 2018-04-24Bibliographically approved
Apanasevic, T., Markendahl, J. & Arvidsson, N. (2016). Stakeholders' expectations of mobile payment in retail: lessons from Sweden. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 34(1), 37-61
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stakeholders' expectations of mobile payment in retail: lessons from Sweden
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Bank Marketing, ISSN 0265-2323, E-ISSN 1758-5937, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 37-61Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to explore the reasons behind the slow adoption of mobile payment services. The expectations of the main groups of stakeholders – the mobile service providers, the retailers, and the consumers – of the service in the retail industry in Sweden are examined. Design/methodology/approach– The authors use a qualitative case study of stakeholders’ expectations. The conceptual research framework is based on the theory of diffusion of innovations, the technology adoption model, and network externalities. The proposed framework was tested and validated by empirical findings. Findings– One of the key findings of the research highlights that acceptance of a mobile payment service depends on the ability of mobile payment providers to build networks of both retailers and consumers simultaneously. The service will attract these stakeholders if it meets their expectations in the best possible way. Another finding is that mobile payment services do not meet expectations on an enhanced purchasing process. This is the area for future service improvement. Research limitations/implications– The main limitation of this study is that only a few retailers were contacted. Practical implications– First of all, criteria from the developed research framework can be used as a guide for mobile payment service development. Second, when developing and providing a mobile payment service, mobile payment providers need to have a good understanding of the needs and expectations of retailers and consumers. Originality/value– Stakeholders’ expectations have not been a focus for research in previous studies. This is a new research object.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016
Keywords
Retail, Consumer expectations, Merchant adoption, Mobile payments, Organizational adoption, Stakeholders’ expectations
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Business Studies; Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-180577 (URN)10.1108/IJBM-06-2014-0064 (DOI)000383971200003 ()2-s2.0-84954421584 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Wireless@kth, 6469
Note

QC 20161019

Available from: 2016-01-19 Created: 2016-01-19 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Apanasevic, T. (2015). Challenges Related to the Introduction of Innovative Services in the Market: Mobile Payment Services in the Swedish Retail Industry. (Licentiate dissertation). Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges Related to the Introduction of Innovative Services in the Market: Mobile Payment Services in the Swedish Retail Industry
2015 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Mobile payment services are expected to be the next step of the electronic payment evolution. However, the level of penetration in European countries is lower than expected. The focus of most academic research has been in two main areas: (i) mobile payment adoption by consumers and (ii) technical aspects of the service. Consequently, a number of themes remain under-researched. In order to expand knowledge on reasons that affect the wider penetration of mobile payments, challenges related to the introduction of mobile payment services in the market have been explored in this thesis.

More specifically, this research has addressed two problem areas: (i) why mobile payments have not been widely adopted by merchants; and (ii) what effects that the introduction of mobile payments has had on the business networks of the involved actors. As an example, we use the mobile payment services applied in the Swedish retail industry. The study is focused on the main groups of stakeholders – the mobile payment providers, the retailers, and the consumers.

First, this study has helped to identify what different stakeholders expect of mobile payments and how these services correspond to their needs. In order to analyse the expectations of stakeholders, we have developed an analysis framework based on the theory of diffusion of innovations, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and the theory of network externalities. The analysis highlights the expectations of stakeholders and helps to understand what kind of mobile payment service merchants expect and are willing to adopt. One key finding is that existing mobile payment services for retailing could be further improved in order to ensure an enhanced purchasing process for consumers.

Second, the research has explored the impact of mobile payment services on the business networks. In order to analyse the relationships and cooperation between business actors, and changes in business strategy and network structure, we used the approach proposed by the Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group. The performed analysis illustrates the following changes in the structure of business networks for the traditional payment solutions (bank cards): (i) emergence of new business actors (i.e. independent mobile payment providers); (ii) new roles and activities of business actors; and (iii) exclusion of traditional business actors (i.e. banks) from the mobile payment systems.

All these changes lead to increased complexity of relationships and increased level of interdependence between business actors within the networks. The following changes in the strategies of involved actors have been identified: (i) mobile payment providers seek to achieve a control over the business network; (ii) the retailers affect strategies of the mobile payment providers; (iii) the marketing strategies of business actors include cross-marketing in different sectors. All these changes result in additional value and enhanced quality of service for consumers.

In order to analyse a complex and multidisciplinary area such as mobile payments, it is beneficial to use more than one analysis approach. A combination of different complementing methods helps to explore different aspects of the phenomenon and provides a more comprehensive overview of several research aspects.

This work contributes to the academic research of mobile payment service adoption by merchants through proposing a theoretical analysis framework. More specifically, the research addresses a new area – expectations of retailers when new solutions are introduced. The framework consists of the following criteria and aspects: technological feasibility, economic benefits, lower service costs, added value of services, network externalities and the problem of critical mass, and finally, ease of use. This framework helps to identify what merchants can expect of mobile payment services.

Another area of contribution is the analysis of the effect that mobile payments make on the actors and business networks of traditional payment services. The introduction of new services results in emergence of new business actors, a need to establish new relationships, and increased complexity of a business network. Moreover, in order to succeed, cooperation between all network actors is needed. As a result, business actors have to adjust their services and strategies according to needs of others.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. p. xiii, 78
Series
TRITA-ICT-COS, ISSN 1653-6347 ; 2015:06
Keywords
mobile payment, adoption, business networks, merchant, stakeholders’ expectations, consumer expectations, organisational adoption, retail, innovation
National Category
Business Administration Information Systems, Social aspects Communication Systems
Research subject
Economics; Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-172340 (URN)978-91-7595-536-0 (ISBN)
Presentation
2015-09-18, Aula A, Electrum, KTH-ICT, Isafjordsgatan 26, Kista, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
The Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Foundation
Note

QC 20150828

Available from: 2015-08-28 Created: 2015-08-19 Last updated: 2015-08-28Bibliographically approved
Apanasevic, T. (2014). Mobile Payments: Main Trends in the Retail Industry. In: 25th European Regional Conference of the International Telecommunications Society (ITS), Brussels, Belgium, June 22 - 25, 2014: . Paper presented at 25th European Regional Conference of the International Telecommunications Society (ITS),Brussels, Belgium, June 22 - 25, 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mobile Payments: Main Trends in the Retail Industry
2014 (English)In: 25th European Regional Conference of the International Telecommunications Society (ITS), Brussels, Belgium, June 22 - 25, 2014, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The main objective of the ongoing study is to investigate obstacles ans driving forces affecting organization adoption of innovation. In order to that an example of the mobile payments applied in the Swedish retail industry has been used. The main analyzed factors are: adopter characteristics, supplier marketing activity, perceived innovation dcharacteristics, social network, and environmental influences.

The analysis of case study findings helped to estimate some common trends in the adoption of mobile payment services by retailers. As a result, the analyzed factors were categorized as obstacles or driving forces to adoption of the mobile payments.

Keywords
Mobile Payment Services, Organizational Acceptance of Technology, Service Adoption, Mobile payments, Mobile payment services, Retail, Merchants
National Category
Business Administration Telecommunications
Research subject
Business Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-159180 (URN)
Conference
25th European Regional Conference of the International Telecommunications Society (ITS),Brussels, Belgium, June 22 - 25, 2014
Funder
Wireless@kth, 6469
Note

QC 20150123

Available from: 2015-01-23 Created: 2015-01-23 Last updated: 2015-08-28Bibliographically approved
Apanasevic, T. (2014). Organizational Acceptance of Mobile Payments. In: 30th annual International Marketing and Purchasing Conference (IMP 2014), Bordeaux, France, September 4-5, 2014: . Paper presented at 30th annual International Marketing and Purchasing Conference (IMP 2014)IMP Conference, KEDGE Business School,Bordeaux Campus, France, 1st –6th September 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organizational Acceptance of Mobile Payments
2014 (English)In: 30th annual International Marketing and Purchasing Conference (IMP 2014), Bordeaux, France, September 4-5, 2014, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Keywords
ARA analysis, ARA model, Innovation, Business networks, Mobile payment, Mobile payment service, Retailing, Public transport, Mobile ticketing
National Category
Business Administration Telecommunications
Research subject
Business Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-159181 (URN)
Conference
30th annual International Marketing and Purchasing Conference (IMP 2014)IMP Conference, KEDGE Business School,Bordeaux Campus, France, 1st –6th September 2014
Funder
Wireless@kth, 6469
Note

QC 20150126

Available from: 2015-01-23 Created: 2015-01-23 Last updated: 2015-01-26Bibliographically approved
Apanasevic, T. & Markendahl, J. (2014). Stakeholder’s expectations: Mobile payments in retail in Sweden. In: 13th International Conference on Mobile Business, 2014 (ICMB 2014), London, June 4-5, 2014: . Paper presented at 13th International Conference on Mobile Business, 2014 (ICMB 2014),London, June 4-5, 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stakeholder’s expectations: Mobile payments in retail in Sweden
2014 (English)In: 13th International Conference on Mobile Business, 2014 (ICMB 2014), London, June 4-5, 2014, 2014Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

One of the main application areas of mobile payment services in Sweden is retailing. The main stakeholders involved in this service are mobile payment service providers, banks, merchants, and consumers. The main focus of this paper is on the change of expectations of different stakeholders taking part in service provisioning. Analysis has been performed by comparison of the initial expectations before the introduction of a mobile payment service and expectations after practical experience of the service usage. Three cases of mobile payment solutions for retailing have been investigated: BART provided by Swedbank, SEQR provided by Seamless, and a service provided by Payair.

The analysis indicates that a number of expectations of stakeholders about mobile payment services did not come true. The results for the different cases differ but the main findings are: banks were excluded from direct service provisioning; merchants see some advantaged to deploy mobile payment, but are uncertain which solution will be a dominant in the market; consumer expectations of improved purchasing experience and usefulness are not met. The performed analysis also helps to identify some of the reasons that can be seen as obstacles for a wider penetration of mobile payment services.

Keywords
Mobile Payment Services, Stakeholders, Stakeholder Expectations, Retailing, Merchants
National Category
Business Administration Telecommunications
Research subject
Business Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-159105 (URN)
Conference
13th International Conference on Mobile Business, 2014 (ICMB 2014),London, June 4-5, 2014
Funder
Wireless@kth, 6469
Note

QC 20150123

Available from: 2015-01-21 Created: 2015-01-21 Last updated: 2015-08-28Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8350-9440

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