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Marcus, L. & Koch, D. (2017). Cities as implements or facilities: The need for a spatial morphology in smart city systems. Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, 44(2), 204-226
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cities as implements or facilities: The need for a spatial morphology in smart city systems
2017 (English)In: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, ISSN 2399-8083, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 204-226Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In light of the urgent threats presented by climate change and rapid urbanisation, interest in ‘smart city systems’ is mounting. In contrast to scholarship that poses ‘smartness’ as something that needs to be added to cities, recent developments in spatial morphology research pursue a view of the built fabric of cities as an extension of the cognitive human apparatus, as well as a material formulation of social, cultural and economic relations and processes. The built fabric of cities needs to be understood as a highly intelligent artefact in itself, rather than simple, dead matter. The current focus on high-tech systems risks concealing the fact that the machine is already there. In contrast to the technological ‘implements’ of smart city systems, this article looks at cities as ‘facilities’ – that is, as technologies that slow down, store and maintain energy as a resource for a variety of purposes. The article builds on space syntax research in order to give precision to the understanding of the affordances the cities offer their various processes and the ways in which cities operate as information storage and retrieval devices for individuals and for society. The city must be considered, we argue, in terms of a range of tangled, interdependent systems, reaching from individual buildings to the whole city, an understanding anchored in notions of ‘diversity’ and ‘density’ (recently gathered under the concept of ‘spatial capital’) and in research addressing how the distribution of space and artefacts serve as means of knowledge communication (specifically, in complex buildings such as libraries and department stores). In conclusion, we argue that existing discussions on ‘smart city systems’ would benefit acknowledgement of the role of cities as facilities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2017
Keywords
smart city systems, space syntax theory, cognition, spatial capital, spatial positioning
National Category
Architecture
Research subject
Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-199212 (URN)10.1177/0265813516685565 (DOI)000397517300002 ()2-s2.0-85028606941 (Scopus ID)
Note

This is the "Online First" article, or Published ahead of Print. Volume, issue, and pages will be added when included in a printed journal issue, but the article is available as published online at the Environment and Planning B website. QC 20170112

Available from: 2016-12-29 Created: 2016-12-29 Last updated: 2024-03-15Bibliographically approved
Legeby, A., Berghauser Pont, M. & Marcus, L. (2015). Dela[d] Stad: Stadsbyggande och segregation: 1 Perspektiv och utgångspunkter. Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dela[d] Stad: Stadsbyggande och segregation: 1 Perspektiv och utgångspunkter
2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Shared city: Urban design and segregation : Part 1
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015
Series
TRITA-ARK. Forskningspublikationer, ISSN 1402-7453 ; 2015:2
Keywords
stadsbyggnad, segregation, jämlika livsvillkor, social hållbarhet
National Category
Architecture
Research subject
Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179059 (URN)KTH/ARK/FP—15:02—SE (ISRN)978-91-7595-804-0 (ISBN)
Funder
Mistra Urban FuturesNational Board of Housing, Building and Planning
Note

QC 20151217

Available from: 2015-12-09 Created: 2015-12-09 Last updated: 2024-04-25Bibliographically approved
Legeby, A., Berghauser Pont, M. & Marcus, L. (2015). Dela[d] Stad: Stadsbyggande och segregation: 2 Metoder: sociala stadsbyggnadsanalyser.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dela[d] Stad: Stadsbyggande och segregation: 2 Metoder: sociala stadsbyggnadsanalyser
2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Shared city: Urban design and segregation : Part 2
Series
TRITA-ARK. Forskningspublikationer, ISSN 1402-7453 ; 2015:3
Keywords
stadsbyggnad, segregation, jämlika livsvillkor, social hållbarhet
National Category
Architecture
Research subject
Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179058 (URN)KTH/ARK/FP—15:03—SE (ISRN)978-91-7595-805-7 (ISBN)
Funder
Mistra Urban FuturesNational Board of Housing, Building and Planning
Note

QC 20151217

Available from: 2015-12-09 Created: 2015-12-09 Last updated: 2024-04-25Bibliographically approved
Legeby, A., Berghauser Pont, M. & Marcus, L. (2015). Dela[d] Stad: Stadsbyggande och segregation: 3 Sociala stadsbyggnadsanalyser i Göteborg. Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dela[d] Stad: Stadsbyggande och segregation: 3 Sociala stadsbyggnadsanalyser i Göteborg
2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Shared city: Urban design and segregation : Part 3
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015
Series
TRITA-ARK. Forskningspublikationer, ISSN 1402-7453 ; 2015:4
Keywords
stadsbyggnad, segregation, jämlika livsvillkor, social hållbarhet
National Category
Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179057 (URN)KTH/ARK/FP—15:04—SE (ISRN)978-91-7595-806-4 (ISBN)
Funder
Mistra Urban FuturesNational Board of Housing, Building and Planning
Note

QC 20151217

Available from: 2015-12-09 Created: 2015-12-09 Last updated: 2024-04-25Bibliographically approved
Legeby, A., Berghauser Pont, M. & Marcus, L. (2015). Dela[d] Stad: Stadsbyggande och segregation: 4 Stadsrumsanalys som designstöd.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dela[d] Stad: Stadsbyggande och segregation: 4 Stadsrumsanalys som designstöd
2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Shared city: Urban design and segregation : Part 4
Series
TRITA-ARK. Forskningspublikationer, ISSN 1402-7453 ; 2015:5
Keywords
stadsbyggnad, segregation, jämlika livsvillkor, social hållbarhet
National Category
Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179056 (URN)KTH/ARK/FP—15:05—SE (ISRN)978-91-7595-807-1 (ISBN)
Funder
Mistra Urban FuturesNational Board of Housing, Building and Planning
Note

QC 20151217

Available from: 2015-12-09 Created: 2015-12-09 Last updated: 2024-04-25Bibliographically approved
Legeby, A., Berghauser Pont, M. & Marcus, L. (2015). Dela[d] Stad: Stadsbyggande och segregation: 5 Summerande reflektioner. Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dela[d] Stad: Stadsbyggande och segregation: 5 Summerande reflektioner
2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Shared city : Urban design and segregation. Part 5
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. p. 22
Series
TRITA-ARK. Forskningspublikationer, ISSN 1402-7453 ; 2015:6
Keywords
stadsbyggnad, segregation, jämlika livsvillkor, social hållbarhet
National Category
Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-178427 (URN)KTH/ARK/FP—15:06—SE (ISRN)978-91-7595-808-8 (ISBN)
Funder
Mistra Urban FuturesNational Board of Housing, Building and Planning
Note

QC 20151215

Available from: 2015-12-07 Created: 2015-12-07 Last updated: 2024-04-25Bibliographically approved
Legeby, A., Marcus, L., Berghauser Pont, M. & Tahvilzadeh, N. (2015). Storstäder i Samverkan: Stadsbyggandets sociala dimension. Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Storstäder i Samverkan: Stadsbyggandets sociala dimension
2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Metropolitan Cities in Collaboration : The social dimension of urban design and planning
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. p. 71+170
Series
TRITA-ARK. Forskningspublikationer, ISSN 1402-7453 ; 2015:7
Keywords
stadsbyggnad, social segregation, social hållbarhet, jämlika livsvillkor, medskapande, urban form, analytiska metoder och verktyg, urban design, social segregation, social sustainability, equal living conditions, co-production, urban form, analytical methods and tools
National Category
Architecture
Research subject
Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-180288 (URN)978-91-7595-834-7 (ISBN)
Projects
Storstäder i Samverkan
Funder
National Board of Housing, Building and Planning
Note

QC 20160127

Available from: 2016-01-09 Created: 2016-01-09 Last updated: 2024-04-25Bibliographically approved
Legeby, A., Berghauser Pont, M. & Marcus, L. (2015). Streets for co-presence?: Mapping potentials. In: Kayvan Karimi, Laura Vaughan, Kerstin Sailer, Garyfalia Palaiologou, Tom Bolton (Ed.), Proceedings of the 10th International Space Syntax Symposium: . Paper presented at The 10th International Space Syntax Symposium (SSS10), London, 13 - 17 July 2015 (pp. 108:1-108:17). London: Space Syntax Laboratory, The Bartlett School of Architecture, University College London
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Streets for co-presence?: Mapping potentials
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the 10th International Space Syntax Symposium / [ed] Kayvan Karimi, Laura Vaughan, Kerstin Sailer, Garyfalia Palaiologou, Tom Bolton, London: Space Syntax Laboratory, The Bartlett School of Architecture, University College London , 2015, p. 108:1-108:17Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In  times  of  increasing  residential  segregation  in  cities  the  potential  for  interplay  between  local  inhabitants and non-­‐locals in urban public space becomes increasingly important. By sharing space we gain information and knowledge from our fellow citizens (Granovetter, 1983), and are enabled to participate in processes that negotiate social structures, attitudes, norms and acceptable behaviours (Giddens, 1984; Zukin, 2005). From this point of departure streets as well as local squares and centres appear to have a key role providing an arena for interplay between different social groups and an arena for exchanging information and are seen as crucial for providing access to opportunities and various urban resources (Young, 1996). Many neighbourhoods, however, have proved to fail in this respect and in areas that today face problems related to social exclusion in Sweden the streets are often characterized by co-­‐absence rather than co-­‐presence and there is an evident ruptured interface between  locals  and  non-­‐locals  (Legeby,  2013).  We  argue  that  patterns  of  co-­‐presence  to  a  large  extent are influenced by urban form and by the morphological properties that also is related to what kind of non-­‐residential activities are likely to emerge locally. This paper aims to highlight the critical role of public space and demonstrate how configurational properties may be analysed and described so that it becomes clear if and where urban design interventions can be used in order to create more favourable conditions and improve access to both various urban resources and to an urban life with a mix  of  locals  and  non-­‐locals.  In  a  project  conducted  in  collaboration  with  the  city  of  Gothenburg  seven neighbourhoods are analysed according to the potential for co-­‐presence in public urban space, and according to access to urban resources; two aspects identified as highly relevant from an urban segregation  perspective.  This  paper  uses  a  three  pronged  approach  that  combines  configurational  analysis, accessibility analysis and observations, and various diagrammatical representations of the results  are  presented.  The  findings  establish  that  several  of  the  neighbourhoods  prove  to  hold  unfavourable conditions as a result of their spatial configuration. Nevertheless, the study illustrates a way forward whereby public planning can be supported by socio-­‐spatial analysis and more accurately operate by using urban design to reach more equal living conditions and overcome social exclusion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Space Syntax Laboratory, The Bartlett School of Architecture, University College London, 2015
Keywords
co-presence, public space, share space, social exclusion, urban segregation.
National Category
Architecture
Research subject
Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-174038 (URN)2-s2.0-84959207603 (Scopus ID)978-0-9933429-0-5 (ISBN)
Conference
The 10th International Space Syntax Symposium (SSS10), London, 13 - 17 July 2015
Projects
Dela[d] Stad. Mistra Urban Futures, Boverket, Göteborgs stad
Funder
National Board of Housing, Building and PlanningMistra Urban Futures
Note

QC 20151001

Available from: 2015-09-28 Created: 2015-09-27 Last updated: 2024-03-15Bibliographically approved
Marcus, L., Berghauser Pont, M. & Gren, Å. (2014). Can spatial form support urban ecosystem services: Developing descriptions and measures to capture the spatial demands for pollination using the framework of space syntax. A/Z ITU Journal of the Faculty of Architecture, 11(2), 255-270
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can spatial form support urban ecosystem services: Developing descriptions and measures to capture the spatial demands for pollination using the framework of space syntax
2014 (English)In: A/Z ITU Journal of the Faculty of Architecture, ISSN 1302-8324, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 255-270Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For sustainable urban development the idea of ecosystem services (ESS) is crucial, since it pinpoints how cities are dependent on local ecosystems and the wide range of services they provide for their welfare and survival. Pollination is an essential ESS for the majority of food production in the world and therefore also represents a tremendous monetary value that is provided by ecosystems for free. That wild pollinators are facing increasing threats due to urbanization and habitat fragmentation is therefore a distressing development. At the same time, it is also pointed out how cities have a great potential to sustain pollinator populations if properly designed and managed. However, the role of spatial form in supporting ecosystems services has so far not been studied. This is unfortunate, since it is at this scale that urban designers need knowledge if they are to support ESS. This paper presents, firstly, a conceptual discussion on the topic of spatial form of ESS and, secondly, a principal description of a methodological approach in which we propose to capture the spatial demands for pollination by developing descriptions and measures used in the framework of Space syntax. Thirdly, some preliminary results from a study in Stockholm will be presented as the ground for a discussion about the principal potentials of a spatial morphology of urban ecosystems.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-161015 (URN)2-s2.0-84921421442 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150313

Available from: 2015-03-13 Created: 2015-03-06 Last updated: 2024-04-25Bibliographically approved
Marcus, L. & Colding, J. (2014). Toward an integrated theory of spatial morphology and resilient urban systems. Ecology & Society, 19(4), 55
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toward an integrated theory of spatial morphology and resilient urban systems
2014 (English)In: Ecology & Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 55-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We take the first step in the development of a new field of research with the aim of merging spatial morphology and resilience science. This involves a revisiting and reunderstanding of the meaning of sustainable urban form. We briefly describe the fields of resilience science and spatial morphology. Drawing on a selected set of propositions in both fields, we put urban form in the context of the adaptive renewal cycle, a dynamic framework model used in resilience science to capture the dynamics of complex adaptive systems, of which urban systems are prime examples. We discuss the insights generated in this endeavor, dealing with some key morphological aspects in relation to four key attributes of resilience, i.e., "change," "diversity," "self-organization," and "learning." We discuss and relate these to urban form and other social variables, with special attention paid to the " backloop phase" of the adaptive renewal cycle. We conclude by postulating ways in which resilience thinking could contribute to the development of a new research frontier for addressing designs for resilient urban social-ecological systems, and end by proposing three strategic areas of research in such a field.

Keywords
adaptive renewal cycle, resilience theory, space syntax, spatial morphology, urban design
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-160012 (URN)10.5751/ES-06939-190455 (DOI)000347440700032 ()2-s2.0-84924414320 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150216

Available from: 2015-02-16 Created: 2015-02-12 Last updated: 2024-03-15Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2616-2422

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