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Publications (10 of 10) Show all publications
Törngren, M., Zhang, X., Mohan, N., Becker, M., Svensson, L., Tao, X., . . . Westman, J. (2018). Architecting Safety Supervisors for High Levels of Automated Driving. In: Proceeding of the 21st IEEE Int. Conf. on Intelligent Transportation Systems: . Paper presented at the 21st IEEE Internal Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Architecting Safety Supervisors for High Levels of Automated Driving
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2018 (English)In: Proceeding of the 21st IEEE Int. Conf. on Intelligent Transportation Systems, IEEE, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The complexity of automated driving poses challenges for providing safety assurance. Focusing on the architecting of an Autonomous Driving Intelligence (ADI), i.e. the computational intelligence, sensors and communication needed for high levels of automated driving, we investigate so called safety supervisors that complement the nominal functionality. We present a problem formulation and a functional architecture of a fault-tolerant ADI that encompasses a nominal and a safety supervisor channel. We then discuss the sources of hazardous events, the division of responsibilities among the channels, and when the supervisor should take over. We conclude with identified directions for further work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2018
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-235189 (URN)000457881301110 ()2-s2.0-85060469935 (Scopus ID)
Conference
the 21st IEEE Internal Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Note

QC 20180920

Available from: 2018-09-17 Created: 2018-09-17 Last updated: 2019-03-04Bibliographically approved
Kokogias, S., Svensson, L., Pereira, G. C., Oliveira, R., Zhang, X., Song, X. & Mårtensson, J. (2018). Development of Platform-Independent System for Cooperative Automated Driving Evaluated in GCDC 2016. IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), 19(4), 1277-1289
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of Platform-Independent System for Cooperative Automated Driving Evaluated in GCDC 2016
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2018 (English)In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1277-1289Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cooperative automated driving is a promising development in reducing energy consumption and emissions, increasing road safety, and improving traffic flow. The Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) 2016 was an implementation oriented project with the aim to accelerate research and development in the field. This paper describes the development of the two vehicle systems with which KTH participated in GCDC 2016. It presents a reference system architecture for collaborative automated driving as well as its instantiation on two conceptually different vehicles: a Scania truck and the research concept vehicle, built at KTH. We describe the common system architecture, as well as the implementation of a selection of shared and individual system functionalities, such as V2X communication, localization, state estimation, and longitudinal and lateral control. We also present a novel approach to trajectory tracking control for a four-wheel steering vehicle using model predictive control and a novel method for achieving fair data age distribution in vehicular communications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018
Keywords
Automated vehicles, cooperative automated driving, cyber-physical system architecture, intelligent transportation systems, model predictive control, vehicular communication
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-226785 (URN)10.1109/TITS.2017.2684623 (DOI)000429017300025 ()2-s2.0-85017136485 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Note

QC 20180502

Available from: 2018-05-02 Created: 2018-05-02 Last updated: 2019-08-20Bibliographically approved
Zhang, X., Song, X., Feng, L., Chen, L. & Törngren, M. (2017). A Case Study on Achieving Fair Data Age Distribution in Vehicular Communications. In: Parmer, G (Ed.), PROCEEDINGS OF THE 23RD IEEE REAL-TIME AND EMBEDDED TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS SYMPOSIUM (RTAS 2017): . Paper presented at 23rd IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS), APR 18-21, 2017, Pittsburgh, PA (pp. 307-317). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Case Study on Achieving Fair Data Age Distribution in Vehicular Communications
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2017 (English)In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 23RD IEEE REAL-TIME AND EMBEDDED TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS SYMPOSIUM (RTAS 2017) / [ed] Parmer, G, IEEE , 2017, p. 307-317Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In vehicular communication protocol stacks, received messages may not always be decoded successfully due to the complexity of the decoding functions, the uncertainty of the communication load and the limited computation resources. Even worse, an improper implementation of the protocol stack may cause an unfair data age distribution among all the communicating vehicles (the receiving bias problem). In such cases, some vehicles are almost locked out of the vehicular communication, causing potential safety risk in scenarios such as intersection passing. To our knowledge, this problem has not been systematically studied in the fields of vehicular communication and intelligent transport systems (ITS). This paper analyzes the root of the receiving bias problem and proposes architectural solutions to balance data age distribution. Simulation studies based on commercial devices demonstrate the effectiveness of these solutions. In addition, our system has been successfully applied during the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge, where complicated scenarios involving platooning maneuvering and intersection coordination were conducted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
Series
IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, ISSN 1545-3421
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-215487 (URN)10.1109/RTAS.2017.7 (DOI)000411195100034 ()2-s2.0-85021802444 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-5269-1 (ISBN)
Conference
23rd IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS), APR 18-21, 2017, Pittsburgh, PA
Note

QC 20171013

Available from: 2017-10-13 Created: 2017-10-13 Last updated: 2019-04-15Bibliographically approved
Zhang, X. (2017). Automated Support for the Architecting of Distributed Embedded Systems: Methods and Analysis for Industrial Adoption. (Doctoral dissertation). KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automated Support for the Architecting of Distributed Embedded Systems: Methods and Analysis for Industrial Adoption
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The architecture design complexity of modern embedded systems, such as in the automotive domain, is growing due to the rapidly evolved functionalities, the increasing amount of interactions between functions and computation nodes, and the stringent extra-functional requirements. Architecture design is crucial since it affects nontrivial system properties such as safety, cost, performance of functionalities and also the development time. An important enabler to deal with this complexity is to provide computer aided architecture design. This thesis focuses on such support for Design Space Exploration (DSE), relying on a model-based design (MBD) environment.

The goal of this thesis is to improve the industrial adoption of DSE methods to facilitate the architecture design of distributed embedded systems in the automotive industry. The main contributions of this thesis are as follows: (1) Applying architecture recovery in the automotive industry to extract architecture models from legacy ECU source code. The recovered architecture models can be used to facilitate system understanding, to verify the software implementation against its specification and also to enable DSE for architecture design. (2) A systematic gap analysis was conducted between the state-of-the-art DSE methods and the industrial needs, through literature studies and interviews with experienced system architects. Identified gaps are analyzed from the following perspectives: Architecting scenarios, architectural decisions, quality attributes, cost model, procurement strategy, system variability and functional safety. (3) A new problem formulation was proposed to reduce the design space by utilizing the features of evolutionary architecting and the AUTOSAR layered architecture. (4) In order to enhance the flexibility of the DSE methods by enabling the customizability of the architectural constraints, an automatic transformation method is proposed to translate formally described architectural constraints into the corresponding mixed integer linear programming(MILP) constraints, commonly used for DSE. (5) This thesis also investigates the potential impacts of vehicular communication on the future architecture of automotive embedded systems from the timing perspective through a case study to enable a commercial truck with cooperative driving functionalities. The receiving bias problem was identified during the case study and effective architectural solutions were proposed. The case study also showed that the adoption of vehicular communication would not have significant architectural impacts in terms of timing.

Abstract [sv]

Moderna inbyggda system blir alltmer intelligenta och uppkopplade, och därmed alltmer komplexa med ökade krav på funktionella och icke-funktionella egenskaper. Arkitekturdesign behöver alltså spela en ännu viktigare roll i att bedöma systemegenskaper såsom säkerhet, kostnad, funktionalitet och utvecklingstid. En viktig förutsättning för att hantera denna komplexitet är att tillhandahålla modeller samt en modellbaserad systemutvecklingsmiljö (MBD). Denna avhandling fokuserar på sådant stöd med betoning på utforskningen av designrymden, ”Design Space Exploration” (DSE).

Målet med denna avhandling är att underlätta den industriella tillämpningen av DSE-metoder för arkitekturdesign av distribuerade inbyggda system inom bilindustrin. Huvudbidragen är följande: (1) en metod för automatisk extrahering av systemarkitekturmodeller från befintlig ECU-källkod för en ökad design-återanvändning inom bilindustrin. De återskapade arkitekturmodellerna kan användas för att stödja systemförståelse, för att verifiera programmets implementering mot dess specifikation och även för att möjliggöra DSE för arkitekturdesign. (2) En systematisk analys av tillgängliga DSE-metoder och industriella behov baserad på litteraturstudier och intervjuer av erfarna systemarkitekter. Identifierade brister analyserades ur följandeper spektiv: Arkitektur-scenarier, designbeslut, kvalitetsattributer, kostnadsmodell, optimeringsstrategi, systemvariation och funktionell säkerhet. (3) En metod för en förfinad problemformulering för effektiv utforskningen av designrymden genom att analysera arkitekturens evolution och tillämpa AUTOSAR referensarkitektur. (4) en metod för automatisk översättning av relevanta designparameter och preferens till motsvarande matematiska formulering i MILP (Mixed Integer Linear Programing) för DSE, vilken medför ökad flexibilitet i praktisk användning av DSE-metoderna. (5) Denna avhandling undersöker också den potentiella inverkan av kommunikationslösningar på systems funktionella och icke-funktionella egenskaper genom en fallstudie för att möjliggöra kooperativa körfunktioner hos en kommersiell lastbil. Avvikelserna identifierades och effektiva arkitektoniska lösningar föreslogs. Fallstudien visade att fordonskommunikation inte skulle ha betydande arkitektoniska effekter på tidtagning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. p. 50
Series
TRITA-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2017:10
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Machine Design; Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-249626 (URN)978-91-7729-432-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-06-14, Gladan, Brinellvägen 85, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20190415

Available from: 2019-04-15 Created: 2019-04-14 Last updated: 2019-04-15Bibliographically approved
Behere, S., Zhang, X., Izosimov, V. & Törngren, M. (2016). A Functional Brake Architecture for Autonomous Heavy Commercial Vehicles. In: SAE 2016 World Congress and Exhibition: . Paper presented at SAE 2016 World Congress and Exhibition, 12 April 2016 through 14 April 2016. sae international
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Functional Brake Architecture for Autonomous Heavy Commercial Vehicles
2016 (English)In: SAE 2016 World Congress and Exhibition, sae international , 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Heavy commercial vehicles constitute the dominant form of inland freight transport. There is a strong interest in making such vehicles autonomous (self-driving), in order to improve safety and the economics of fleet operation. Autonomy concerns affect a number of key systems within the vehicle. One such key system is brakes, which need to remain continuously available throughout vehicle operation. This paper presents a fail-operational functional brake architecture for autonomous heavy commercial vehicles. The architecture is based on a reconfiguration of the existing brake systems in a typical vehicle, in order to attain dynamic, diversified redundancy along with desired brake performance. Specifically, the parking brake is modified to act as a secondary brake with capabilities for monitoring and intervention of the primary brake system. A basic fault tree analysis of the architecture indicates absence of single points of failure, and a reliability analysis shows that it is reasonable to expect about an order of magnitude improvement in overall system reliability. Copyright © 2016 SAE International.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
sae international, 2016
Keywords
Architecture, Automobiles, Brakes, Fault tree analysis, Fleet operations, Freight transportation, Reliability analysis, Vehicles, Brake performance, Brake systems, Freight transport, Heavy commercial vehicle, Parking brakes, Self drivings, System reliability, Vehicle operations, Commercial vehicles
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-194605 (URN)10.4271/2016-01-0134 (DOI)2-s2.0-84979076118 (Scopus ID)
Conference
SAE 2016 World Congress and Exhibition, 12 April 2016 through 14 April 2016
Note

Correspondence Address: Behere, S.; Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Brinellvägen 83, Sweden; email: behere@kth.se. QC 20161101

Available from: 2016-11-01 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2017-11-13Bibliographically approved
Zhang, X., Feng, L., Törngren, M. & Chen, D. (2016). Formulating Customized Specifications for Resource Allocation Problem of Distributed Embedded Systems. In: 2016 IEEE/ACM INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN (ICCAD): . Paper presented at 35th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD), NOV 07-10, 2016, Austin, TX. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Formulating Customized Specifications for Resource Allocation Problem of Distributed Embedded Systems
2016 (English)In: 2016 IEEE/ACM INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN (ICCAD), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There are plentiful attempts for increasing the efficiency, generality and optimality of the Design Space Exploration (DSE) algorithms for resource allocation problems of distributed embedded systems. Most contemporary approaches formulate DSE as an optimization or SAT problem, based on a set of predefined constraints. In this way, the end users lose the flexibility to guide and customize the exploration based on specifics of their actual problem. Besides, during the design of the DSE algorithms, manual formulation is time consuming and error-prone. To solve these problems, 1) a formal representation is defined for capturing customized architectural constraints based on a combination of propositional logic and Pseudo-Boolean (PB) formulas; 2) A process is designed to automatically translate these architectural constrains into corresponding Integer Linear Programming (ILP) constraints, commonly used for DSE. The translation process is also optimized to create ILP formulation with less introduced variables so as to reduce computation time. The results show that the generated constraints correctly reflect the corresponding specification with decent efficiency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016
Series
ICCAD-IEEE ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design, ISSN 1933-7760
Keywords
DSE, Resource Allocation and Constraint Language
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-199778 (URN)10.1145/2966986.2967042 (DOI)000390297800076 ()2-s2.0-85000916308 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-4466-1 (ISBN)
Conference
35th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD), NOV 07-10, 2016, Austin, TX
Note

QC 20170120

Available from: 2017-01-20 Created: 2017-01-16 Last updated: 2019-04-15Bibliographically approved
Chen, D. J., Maffei, A., De Sousa Dias Ferreira, J., Akillioglu, H., Khabazzi, M. R. & Zhang, X. (2015). A Virtual Environment for the Management and Development of Cyber-Physical Manufacturing Systems. In: IFAC DCDS15: . Paper presented at 5th IFAC Workshop on Dependable Control of Discrete Systems. Cancun, Mexico. May 27th- 29th, 2015 (pp. 29-36). IFAC Papers Online, 48
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Virtual Environment for the Management and Development of Cyber-Physical Manufacturing Systems
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2015 (English)In: IFAC DCDS15, IFAC Papers Online, 2015, Vol. 48, p. 29-36Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Modern machineries are often cyber-physical system-of-systems controlled by intelligent controllersfor collaborative operations on the productions of complex products. To assure theefficiency and effectiveness, a consolidation of concerns across managerial levels, product lifecyclestages, and product lines or families becomes necessary. This calls for a common informationinfrastructure in terms of ontology, models, methods and tools. For industrial manufacturerssubjected to increased cost pressure and market volatility, the availability of such an informationinfrastructure would promote their abilities of making optimized and proactive decisions andthereby their competitiveness and survivability. This paper presents a virtual environment thatconstitutes an information infrastructure for the management and development of evolvableproduction systems (EPS) in manufacturing. It adopts mature modeling frameworks throughEAST-ADL for an effective model-based approach. The contribution is centered on a meta-modelthat offers a common data specification and semantic basis for information management acrossproduct lifecycle, models and tools, both for resource planning and for anomaly treatment. Aprototype tool implementation of this virtual environment for validation is also presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IFAC Papers Online, 2015
Keywords
Evolvable Production Systems (EPS), Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), Model-Based Development (MBD), Domain-Specific Modeling (DSM)
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-169736 (URN)10.1016/j.ifacol.2015.06.469 (DOI)2-s2.0-84954161288 (Scopus ID)
Conference
5th IFAC Workshop on Dependable Control of Discrete Systems. Cancun, Mexico. May 27th- 29th, 2015
Projects
EIT ICT-Labs Project 14386 (CPS for Smart Factories)
Note

QC 20150624

Available from: 2015-06-23 Created: 2015-06-23 Last updated: 2016-05-26Bibliographically approved
Zhang, X., Feng, L., Chen, D.-J. & Törngren, M. (2015). Design-Space Reduction for Architectural Optimization of Automotive Embedded Systems. In: High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC), 2015 IEEE 7th International Symposium on Cyberspace Safety and Security (CSS), 2015 IEEE 12th International Conferen on Embedded Software and Systems (ICESS), 2015 IEEE 17th International Conference on: . Paper presented at IEEE 12th International Conference on Embedded Softwareand Systems (ICESS), New York, August 24-26 (pp. 1103-1109). IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design-Space Reduction for Architectural Optimization of Automotive Embedded Systems
2015 (English)In: High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC), 2015 IEEE 7th International Symposium on Cyberspace Safety and Security (CSS), 2015 IEEE 12th International Conferen on Embedded Software and Systems (ICESS), 2015 IEEE 17th International Conference on, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, , p. 7p. 1103-1109Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A key decision for the synthesis of automotiveembedded systems is the allocation of application softwarecomponents to ECUs. Design Space Exploration (DSE) supportsthe decision by automatically characterizing and evaluating alarge number of possible design alternatives, and thereby suggestingthe optimal ones. A primary challenge for applying DSEmethods to support this decision is to reduce the computationtime of the DSE process while maintaining the generality andoptimality. This paper exploits legacy system architectures andthe AUTOSAR standard to preemptively reduce the design space,because both artifacts limit the flexibility of certain designvariables. A new DES formulation incorporating the constraintsof the legacy system architectures and the AUTOSAR standardis proposed in this paper. Computation result shows a largereduction of the computation time comparing to traditionalmodeling and formulations. The scalability of our method is alsoanalyzed by testing it on a set of random problem instances.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2015. p. 7
National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Industrial Economics and Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-177585 (URN)10.1109/HPCC-CSS-ICESS.2015.298 (DOI)000380408100182 ()2-s2.0-84961717465 (Scopus ID)
Conference
IEEE 12th International Conference on Embedded Softwareand Systems (ICESS), New York, August 24-26
Note

QC 20151201

Available from: 2015-11-24 Created: 2015-11-24 Last updated: 2019-04-15Bibliographically approved
Zhang, X., Persson, M., Nyberg, M., Mokhtari, B., Einarson, A., Linder, H., . . . Törngren, M. (2014). Experience on applying software architecture recovery to automotive embedded systems. In: 2014 Software Evolution Week - IEEE Conference on Software Maintenance, Reengineering, and Reverse Engineering, CSMR-WCRE 2014 - Proceedings: . Paper presented at 2014 1st Software Evolution Week - IEEE Conference on Software Maintenance, Reengineering, and Reverse Engineering, CSMR-WCRE 2014; Antwerp; Belgium; 3 February 2014 through 6 February 2014 (pp. 379-382). IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experience on applying software architecture recovery to automotive embedded systems
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2014 (English)In: 2014 Software Evolution Week - IEEE Conference on Software Maintenance, Reengineering, and Reverse Engineering, CSMR-WCRE 2014 - Proceedings, IEEE Computer Society, 2014, p. 379-382Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The importance and potential advantages with a comprehensive product architecture description are well described in the literature. However, developing such a description takes additional resources, and it is difficult to maintain consistency with evolving implementations. This paper presents an approach and industrial experience which is based on architecture recovery from source code at truck manufacturer Scania CV AB. The extracted representation of the architecture is presented in several views and verified on CAN signal level. Lessons learned are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2014
Keywords
architecture recovery, automotive industry, distributed embedded systems, software engineering
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145509 (URN)10.1109/CSMR-WCRE.2014.6747199 (DOI)000349240500047 ()2-s2.0-84898405841 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-3752-3 (ISBN)
Conference
2014 1st Software Evolution Week - IEEE Conference on Software Maintenance, Reengineering, and Reverse Engineering, CSMR-WCRE 2014; Antwerp; Belgium; 3 February 2014 through 6 February 2014
Funder
Vinnova
Note

QC 20140521

Available from: 2014-05-21 Created: 2014-05-21 Last updated: 2019-04-15Bibliographically approved
Zhang, X., Chen, D. & Törngren, M. (2014). Towards Design Space Exploration through EAST-ADL and AUTOSAR Modeling Frameworks. In: : . Paper presented at First Workshop on Cyber-Physical System Architectures and Design Methodologies.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Design Space Exploration through EAST-ADL and AUTOSAR Modeling Frameworks
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-171054 (URN)
Conference
First Workshop on Cyber-Physical System Architectures and Design Methodologies
Note

QC 20150806

Available from: 2015-07-13 Created: 2015-07-13 Last updated: 2015-08-06Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2649-5921

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