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Linder, D., Hou, Z., Xie, R., Hedström, P., Ström, V., Holmström, E. & Borgenstam, A. (2019). A comparative study of microstructure and magnetic properties of a Ni–Fe cemented carbide: Influence of carbon content. International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, 80, 181-187
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comparative study of microstructure and magnetic properties of a Ni–Fe cemented carbide: Influence of carbon content
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, ISSN 0263-4368, Vol. 80, p. 181-187Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Due to the renewed interest in alternative binders for cemented carbides it is important to understand how the binder composition influences not only mechanical properties but also the microstructure and related measurements for quality control. Microstructure and chemical composition of WC-Co is often evaluated by magnetic measurements. However, when the binder composition deviates significantly from conventional Co-based binders it should not be assumed that the standard measurements can be used to directly evaluate the same parameters. In this paper we investigate the influence of relative C-content on the microstructure and magnetic properties of an alternative binder cemented carbide. It is shown that the saturation magnetization is related to the relative C-content and the magnetic coercivity is related to the microstructure, more specifically to the binder phase distribution, but could not be directly linked to the carbide grain size in the same manner as for standard WC-Co. Furthermore, a direct correlation between Curie temperature and saturation magnetization is observed for this system which means that the Curie temperature potentially could be used for calibration of empirical relations or as a method to accurately determine the binder volume fraction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Alternative binder, Cemented carbide, Cermet, Cobalt substitution, Magnetic properties, Metal-matrix composite, Microstructure
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-246465 (URN)10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2019.01.014 (DOI)000460992100018 ()2-s2.0-85060087544 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190326

Available from: 2019-03-26 Created: 2019-03-26 Last updated: 2020-01-24Bibliographically approved
Wang, W., Hou, Z., Lizarrága, R., Tian, Y., Babu, P., Holmström, E., . . . Larsson, H. (2019). An experimental and theoretical study of duplex fcc+hcp cobalt based entropic alloys. Acta Materialia, 176, 11-18
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An experimental and theoretical study of duplex fcc+hcp cobalt based entropic alloys
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2019 (English)In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 176, p. 11-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Martensitically formed duplex fcc + hcp Co-based entropic alloys have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Theoretical predictions are in good agreement with experimental observations. A fair correlation is found between calculated driving forces for a partitionless fcc→hcp transformation and experimentally obtained phase fractions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Materials Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-258027 (URN)10.1016/j.actamat.2019.06.041 (DOI)000482247800002 ()2-s2.0-85068362090 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190917

Available from: 2019-09-09 Created: 2019-09-09 Last updated: 2020-02-19Bibliographically approved
Hou, Z., Babu, R. P., Hedström, P. & Odqvist, J. (2019). Early stages of cementite precipitation during tempering of 1C-1Cr martensitic steel. Journal of Materials Science, 54(12), 9222-9234
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early stages of cementite precipitation during tempering of 1C-1Cr martensitic steel
2019 (English)In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 54, no 12, p. 9222-9234Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The precipitation of cementite (M3C) from as-quenched martensite during tempering at 500 and 700 degrees C was investigated in a Fe-1C-1Cr (wt%) alloy. Tempering for a short duration at 700 degrees C results in a Cr/Fe ratio in the core region of M3C precipitates which is equal to the bulk alloy composition, while a shell on the surface of the precipitates exhibits a higher Cr concentration. With a prolonged tempering up to 5h, the shell concentration gradually increases toward the equilibrium value, but the core region has not yet reached the equilibrium value. After tempering for 5s at 500 degrees C, there is no Cr enrichment found at the M3C-matrix interface, while a transition to partitioning of Cr is found during the first 5min of tempering at 500 degrees C. These experimental results indicate that M3C grows without significant partitioning of substitutional elements at both temperatures initially, i.e., growth is carbon diffusion controlled. This stage is, however, very short, and soon after 5s at 700 degrees C and 5min at 500 degrees C, Cr diffusion becomes important. Calculations using the diffusion simulation software DICTRA and precipitation simulation software TC-PRISMA were performed. The diffusion simulations using the local equilibrium interface condition show excellent agreement with experiments concerning Cr enrichment of the particles, but the size evolution is overestimated. On the other hand, the precipitation simulations underestimate the size evolution. It is suggested that a major improvement in the precipitation model could be achieved by implementing a modified nucleation model that considers nucleation far from the equilibrium composition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-249841 (URN)10.1007/s10853-019-03530-8 (DOI)000462633100031 ()2-s2.0-85063202343 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190430

Available from: 2019-04-30 Created: 2019-04-30 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
Hou, Z., Linder, D., Hedström, P., Ström, V., Holmström, E. & Borgenstam, A. (2019). Evaluating magnetic properties of composites from model alloys – Application to alternative binder cemented carbides. Scripta Materialia, 168, 96-99
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating magnetic properties of composites from model alloys – Application to alternative binder cemented carbides
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2019 (English)In: Scripta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6462, E-ISSN 1872-8456, Vol. 168, p. 96-99Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The magnetic properties of 85Ni-15Fe model alloys containing Co, W and C have been studied with the intent to isolate the influence of alloy chemistry on quality control measurements of alternative binder cemented carbides. The results show a strong influence of dissolved W on the Curie temperature and the saturation magnetization. The amount of dissolved C, and the presence of WC precipitates, on the other hand, is shown to have negligible effect. Furthermore, the magnetic coercivity is indicated to be entirely dominated by the microstructural features and quite insensitive to composition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Acta Materialia Inc, 2019
Keywords
Alternative binder, Cemented carbide, Magnetic properties, Metal-ceramic composite, Ni-Fe model alloy, Binary alloys, Binders, Carbide tools, Carbides, Cobalt alloys, Nickel alloys, Saturation magnetization, Alloy chemistry, Cemented carbides, FE model, Magnetic coercivities, Metal-ceramic composites, Microstructural features, Properties of composites, Quality control measurement, Iron alloys
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-252472 (URN)10.1016/j.scriptamat.2019.04.033 (DOI)000470798400021 ()2-s2.0-85064921201 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190715

Available from: 2019-07-15 Created: 2019-07-15 Last updated: 2019-12-20Bibliographically approved
Xie, R., Lizárraga, R., Linder, D., Hou, Z., Ström, V., Lattemann, M., . . . Vitos, L. (2019). Quantum mechanics basis of quality control in hard metals. Acta Materialia, 169, 1-8
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantum mechanics basis of quality control in hard metals
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2019 (English)In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 169, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Non-destructive and reliable quality control methods are a key aspect to designing, developing and manufacturing new materials for industrial applications and new technologies. The measurement of the magnetic saturation is one of such methods and it is conventionally employed in the cemented carbides industry. We present a general quantum mechanics based relation between the magnetic saturation and the components of the binder phase of cemented carbides, which can be directly employed as a quality control. To illustrate our results, we calculate the magnetic saturation of a binder phase, 85Ni15Fe binary alloy, using ab-initio methods and compare the theoretical predictions to the magnetic saturation measurements. We also analyse interface and segregation effects on the magnetic saturation by studying the electronic structure of the binder phase. The excellent agreement between calculations and measurements demonstrates the applicability of our method to any binder phase. Since the magnetic saturation is employed to ensure the quality of cemented carbides, the present method allows us to explore new materials for alternative binder phases efficiently.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Acta Materialia Inc, 2019
Keywords
Ab-initio calculations, Binder phase, Hard metal, Magnetic saturation
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-246425 (URN)10.1016/j.actamat.2019.02.036 (DOI)000465365300001 ()2-s2.0-85062451846 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190401

Available from: 2019-04-01 Created: 2019-04-01 Last updated: 2020-01-30Bibliographically approved
Hou, Z. (2018). An experimental and theoretical study of precipitation during tempering of martensite in Fe-C-Cr alloys. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An experimental and theoretical study of precipitation during tempering of martensite in Fe-C-Cr alloys
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. p. 59
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-233502 (URN)978-91-7729-843-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-09-14, sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20180821

Available from: 2018-08-21 Created: 2018-08-21 Last updated: 2019-08-20Bibliographically approved
Hou, Z., Babu, P., Xu, Y. & Wu, D. (2018). Enhanced Grain Growth Behavior of Ferritic Steel during Continuous Cyclic Annealing. Steel Research International, 89(11), Article ID 1800222.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhanced Grain Growth Behavior of Ferritic Steel during Continuous Cyclic Annealing
2018 (English)In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 89, no 11, article id 1800222Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Microstructural characterization as well as mechanical property determination of a cold-rolled ferritic steel subjected to isothermal and cyclic non-isothermal annealing, has been carried out by utilizing comprehensive experimental analysis. The findings show that the variables of cyclic annealing, that is, amplitude, ramp rate, and intermediate holding time exhibit a great effect on the grain growth kinetics and the evolution of grain boundaries. The resulting grain size of the cyclic annealed steel is mainly attributed to the following factors: 1) the accelerating effect in the grain growth behavior caused by the additional driving force available during cyclic annealing, which increases with increasing amplitude; 2) the retarding effect due to the low equivalent isothermal temperature. Furthermore, the formation of low sigma- coincidence site lattice (sigma CSL) boundaries and the strength of gamma-fiber texture are enhanced through the cyclic annealing compared to the isothermal annealing. The potential advantages of continuous cyclic annealing in the steel industry are explored, in comparison with the conventional isothermal and cyclic annealing with an intermediate soaking time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2018
Keywords
cyclic annealing, grain growth, low sigma CSL boundary, steel strength and ductility
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-269575 (URN)10.1002/srin.201800222 (DOI)000451779200012 ()2-s2.0-85050952966 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20200406

Available from: 2020-04-06 Created: 2020-04-06 Last updated: 2020-04-06Bibliographically approved
Hou, Z., Babu, R. P., Hedström, P. & Odqvist, J. (2018). Microstructure evolution during tempering of martensitic Fe-C-Cr alloys at 700 A degrees C. Journal of Materials Science, 53(9), 6939-6950
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstructure evolution during tempering of martensitic Fe-C-Cr alloys at 700 A degrees C
2018 (English)In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 53, no 9, p. 6939-6950Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The microstructure evolution of two martensitic alloys Fe-0.15C-(1.0 and 4.0) Cr (wt%) was investigated, using X-ray diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction, electron channeling contrast imaging and transmission electron microscopy, after interrupted tempering at 700 A degrees C. It was found that quenching of 1-mm-thick samples in brine was sufficient to keep most of the carbon in solid solution in the martensite constituent. The high dislocation density of the martensite decreased rapidly during the initial tempering but continued tempering beyond a few minutes did not further reduce the dislocation density significantly. The initial martensitic microstructure with both coarse and fine laths coarsened slowly during tempering for both alloys. However, a clear difference between the two alloys was distinguished by studying units separated by high-angle boundaries (HABs). In the low-Cr alloy, M3C precipitates formed and coarsened rapidly, thus they caused little hindrance for migration of HABs, i.e., coarsening of the HAB units. On the other hand, in the high-Cr alloy, M7C3 precipitates formed and coarsened slowly, thus they were more effective in pinning the HABs than M3C in the low-Cr alloy, i.e., coarsening of HAB units was minute in the high-Cr alloy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2018
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-223769 (URN)10.1007/s10853-018-2036-7 (DOI)000424874900054 ()2-s2.0-85040953153 (Scopus ID)
Funder
VINNOVA
Note

QC 20180307

Available from: 2018-03-07 Created: 2018-03-07 Last updated: 2018-08-21Bibliographically approved
Hou, Z., Hedström, P., Chen, Q., Xu, Y., Wu, D. & Odqvist, J. (2016). Quantitative modeling and experimental verification of carbide precipitation in a martensitic Fe-0.16 wt%C-4.0 wt%Cr alloy. Calphad, 53, 39-48
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantitative modeling and experimental verification of carbide precipitation in a martensitic Fe-0.16 wt%C-4.0 wt%Cr alloy
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2016 (English)In: Calphad, ISSN 0364-5916, E-ISSN 1873-2984, Vol. 53, p. 39-48Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Precipitation of carbides during tempering of a martensitic Fe-0.16 wt% C-4.0 wt% Cr alloy has been investigated by experimental analysis and quantitative modeling. It is found that both M7C3 and M23C6 form, at low- and high-angle grain boundaries in the martensite, as well as, at dislocations inside individual laths of martensite, during tempering at 700 °C. The applied Kampmann-Wagner numerical (KWN) modeling, utilizing CALPHAD thermodynamic and kinetic databases together with an assumption of local equilibrium and a constant tie-line, captures the main features of the precipitation, with a transient formation of metastable M23C6, and with M7C3 as the stable carbide. The predicted volume fraction and size are in reasonable agreement with extraction experiments for M7C3. However, for the metastable minority carbide M23C6, the modeling underestimates the size and overestimates the volume fraction within the transient time. With sound thermodynamic databases and physical parameter input, the adopted simplified modeling scheme is a valuable tool for materials design and optimization. Furthermore, by treating conditions at the phase interface more rigorously it is possible to account for different mechanisms of precipitation, such as e.g., non-partitioning local equilibrium, which could be important in systems where interstitial elements diffuse much faster than the substitutional ones.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Electron microscopy, Microstructure, Modeling, Precipitation, Steels, Tempering, Carbides, Chromium alloys, Grain boundaries, Martensite, Models, Phase interfaces, Steel, Volume fraction, Carbide precipitation, Different mechanisms, Experimental analysis, Experimental verification, High angle grain boundaries, Interstitial elements, Quantitative modeling, Thermodynamic database, Precipitation (chemical)
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186937 (URN)10.1016/j.calphad.2016.03.001 (DOI)000377315100005 ()2-s2.0-84960155147 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Details: U1260204, NSFC, National Natural Science Foundation of China

QC 20160518

Available from: 2016-05-18 Created: 2016-05-16 Last updated: 2018-08-21Bibliographically approved
Hou, Z. (2015). Study of precipitation in martensitic Fe-C-Cr alloys during tempering: Experiments and modelling. (Licentiate dissertation). Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of precipitation in martensitic Fe-C-Cr alloys during tempering: Experiments and modelling
2015 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Understanding the precipitation reaction is very important since precipitation hardening is one of the most effective strengthening mechanisms in metallic alloys. In martensitic steels, a tempering heat treatment is often performed. During tempering various new phases are precipitated and the spatial and temporal evolution of these precipitates strongly influences the properties of the steel, such as strength/ductility, creep, fatigue and hot corrosion resistance. Therefore, the possibility of quantitative modelling of the precipitation process will provide many opportunities for advanced materials and process design and optimization as well as service life assessments. The Fe-C-Cr system forms the basis for tool steels and is consequently used in many applications such as e.g. metal forming operations. They are characterized by a high hardness and good toughness, even at elevated temperatures.In the present work, the as-quenched martensitic microstructures of four Fe-C-Cr alloys with varying Cr and C contents were characterized by Light Optical Microscopy (LOM) and Electron Microscopy. The effects of Cr and C on the morphology of martensite were investigated. It was found that Cr addition had a similar effect as C on the martensitic morphology and on the ratio of high-angle grain boundary (HAGB) to low-angle grain boundary (LAGB). However, the micro-hardness was unaffected by the Cr addition whilst it was strongly influenced by the C addition.In addition, a quantitative experimental characterization of the precipitates formed during tempering of the martensite was performed. The Langer-Schwartz theory combined with the Kampmann-Wagner-Numerical (KWN) method, as implemented in the software TC-PRISMA, was used to predict the precipitation of carbides after tempering in one of the model alloys: Fe-0.15C-4.0Cr (mass%). The microstructure characterization of the as-quenched material provided vital input parameters for the modelling work and a comparison was made between the modelling predictions and the experimental results. The effect of parameters such as dislocation density, grain size and interfacial energy on the precipitation of carbides was discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. p. xi, 34
Keywords
Fe-C-Cr alloy, Microstructure, Precipitates, Tempering of martensite, Electron microscopy, Modelling.
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Materials Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176430 (URN)978-91-7595-756-2 (ISBN)
Presentation
2015-12-04, Kuben N111, Brinellvägen 23, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20151105

Available from: 2015-11-05 Created: 2015-11-03 Last updated: 2015-11-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4825-7430

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