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De Colle, M., Jönsson, P., Karasev, A., Gauffin, A., Renman, A. & Renman, G. (2019). The Use of High-Alloyed EAF Slag for the Neutralization of On-Site Produced Acidic Wastewater: The First Step Towards a Zero-Waste Stainless-Steel Production Process. Applied Sciences, 9(19), Article ID 3974.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Use of High-Alloyed EAF Slag for the Neutralization of On-Site Produced Acidic Wastewater: The First Step Towards a Zero-Waste Stainless-Steel Production Process
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2019 (English)In: Applied Sciences, ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, no 19, article id 3974Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recycling of steelmaking slags has well-established applications, such as their use in cement, asphalt, or fertilizer industries. Although in some cases, such as the electric arc furnace (EAF) high-alloyed stainless-steel production, the slag’s high metal content prevents its use in such applications. This forces companies to accumulate it as waste. Using concepts such dematerialization, waste management, industrial symbiosis, and circular economy, the article drafts a conceptual framework on the best route to solving the landfilling issue, aiming at a zero-waste process re-design. An experimental part follows, with an investigation of the use of landfill slag as a substitute of limestone for the neutralization of acidic wastewater, produced by the rinsing of steel after the pickling process. Neutralization of acidic wastewater with both lime and slag samples was performed with two different methods. Two out of four slag samples tested proved their possible use, reaching desired pH values compared to lime neutralizations. Moreover, the clean waters resulting from the neutralizations with the use of both lime and slag were tested. In terms of hazardous element concentrations, neutralization with slag yielded similar results to lime. The results of these trials show that slag is a potential substitute of lime for the neutralization of acidic wastewater.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
EAF slag; recycling; re-use; wastewater treatment; sustainable production; dematerialization; zero waste; circular economy
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Materials Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-260091 (URN)10.3390/app9193974 (DOI)000496258100033 ()2-s2.0-85073266415 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20191001. QC 20200103

Available from: 2019-09-25 Created: 2019-09-25 Last updated: 2020-01-03Bibliographically approved
Gauffin, A., Andersson, N. Å. I., Storm, P., Tilliander, A. & Jönsson, P. G. (2017). Time-varying losses in material flows of steel using dynamic material flow models. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 116, 70-83
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time-varying losses in material flows of steel using dynamic material flow models
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2017 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 116, p. 70-83Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A method for annual evaluation of recycling rates in material flows was established to enable a consistent analysis of resource utilizations. The algorithm to calculate the time-varying losses was derived based on a sound statistical approach that would be viable for both historical data and future predictions. This method eliminates the need for adjustable parameters and is solely based on input data of the material consumption and scrap collection. This article describes the model methodology and the calculation procedures to classify the societal scrap reserve from the amounts of losses, based on statistics. These statistical models contribute to establish a standardized method to obtain consistent results. Based on the method the lifetime of steel data was for the first time calculated on an annual basis for the steel usage as well as for the end of life scrap amount. This was done for the Swedish steel consumption and the global steel consumption between 1900 and 2013 as well as for future predictions between 2013 and 2060. The lifetime of steel was calculated to be higher in an industrialized country such as Sweden compared to the global average value. More specifically, the service lifetimes of EOL steel in Sweden and in the World were calculated to be 35 and 28 years in 2012, respectively. This novel approach of using system specific data on the lifetime of steel on an annual basis enables a possibility to evaluate recycling trends and potentials to increase the recycling rate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Dynamic material flow model, LCA, Lifetime, Methodology, Recycling rate, Steel, Forecasting, Recycling, Scrap metal reprocessing, Adjustable parameters, Calculation procedure, Dynamic materials, Industrialized countries, Resource utilizations, Steel scrap
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-195122 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2016.09.024 (DOI)000388776200007 ()2-s2.0-84988584439 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20161121

Available from: 2016-11-21 Created: 2016-11-02 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Gauffin, A., Andersson, N. A. I., Storm, P., Tilliander, A. & Jönsson, P. G. (2016). The Global Societal Steel Scrap Reserves and Amounts of Losses. Resources, 5(3), Article ID 27.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Global Societal Steel Scrap Reserves and Amounts of Losses
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2016 (English)In: Resources, E-ISSN 2079-9276, Vol. 5, no 3, article id 27Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study a newly developed method called the Progressing and Backcasting models were used to evaluate the annual resource utilizations of steel scrap in Sweden and globally. The model results show that it is possible to assess the amounts of steel scrap available for steelmaking at a given point in time, based on statistical dynamic material flow models. By a better mapping of the available amounts of steel scrap reserves on a country basis, it is possible to ease the trade of scrap across country boarders. This in turn can optimize the supply of recyclable metals as a raw material used in the industry. The results for Swedish steel consumption show that export bans used to secure the domestic market of steel scrap do damage the internal market due to increased amounts of losses. This suggests that export bans should be lifted to optimize recycling in countries. The model results also show that the global losses of steel are higher than for an industrialized country such as Sweden. Furthermore, the results show that the Backcasting and Progressing models can be used to calculate robust forecasts on the long term availability of steel scrap assets. This information could be used for future structural plans of scrap consuming steelmaking mills and waste management facilities. Hence, it is possible to contribute to a sustainable industrial development and a circular economy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2016
Keywords
scrap reserve, scrap generation, steel stock, recycling, losses, forecast, scarcity, dynamic material flow modelling, sustainability
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-196443 (URN)10.3390/resources5030027 (DOI)000385526200005 ()2-s2.0-85018228816 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20161129

Available from: 2016-11-29 Created: 2016-11-14 Last updated: 2018-09-19Bibliographically approved
Gauffin, A. (2015). Improved mapping of steel recycling from an industrial perspective. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improved mapping of steel recycling from an industrial perspective
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The results from this study show that it is possible to obtain data series on the steel scrap collection based on mass balance model on the crude steel production figures by steelmaking reactor type and additional knowledge on process metallurgy as well as information on inputs and outputs into the reactors with an area correlation coefficient of 0,91 compared to data obtained from trade statistics. Furthermore, the study shows that based on a new method it is possible to calculate the time duration of mass flows on a continuous basis. Furthermore, two complementary statistical dynamic material flow models that can be used to calculate the societal recycling rates of steel was constructed. These statistical models contribute to a standardized way of obtaining consistent results. The new models are able to segregate the non-recirculated amounts of steel into the hibernating steel stock available for future collection from the amounts of losses based on statistics. The results show that it is possible to calculate the amounts of steel scrap available for steelmaking at a given point in time. In addition, based on the new models it is possible to calculate recycling trends in society. Also, the models are able to calculate robust forecasts on the long-term availability of steel scrap, and test if forecast demand of steel scrap exceeds a full recovery. This due to that the steel scrap generation is a function of the collection rate of steel scrap. Also, a method for obtaining representative samplings on the alloy content in steel scrap called random sampling analysis (RSA) was developed. The results from the RSA show that it is possible to optimize the recovery of valuable elements in the production process of steelmaking based on the information on the composition of steel scrap.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. p. ix, 39
Keywords
Recycling rate, lifetime, steel scrap, scrap reserve, dynamic material flow modelling, environmental analysis, greenhouse gas emissions, energy, alloy content, forecasting, backcasting
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Materials Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-175393 (URN)978-91-7595-743-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-11-16, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20151020

Available from: 2015-10-20 Created: 2015-10-13 Last updated: 2015-10-23Bibliographically approved
Gauffin, A., Andersson, N. A., Storm, P., Tilliander, A. & Jönsson, P. (2015). Use of volume correlation model to calculate lifetime of end-of-life steel. Ironmaking & steelmaking, 42(2), 88-96
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use of volume correlation model to calculate lifetime of end-of-life steel
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2015 (English)In: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 88-96Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new mathematical model for calculating the lifetime of steel on an annual basis, called the volume correlation model is presented. The model compares the quantities of scrap collection with the steel consumption as well as evaluates the time difference between the two data sets. The lifetime of steel was calculated for the collected end-of-life steel amounts. The calculations were performed by assuming a full recovery of the steel consumption or a non-re-circulated accumulated steel stock in society denoted the full and true lifetime of steel. Based on the volume correlation model, the lifetime of steel was calculated for the total steel, low alloyed and special steel, and stainless steel in Sweden between 1898 and 2010. Previous studies on the lifetime of steel are based on experimental measurements and numerical calculations. The full lifetime of the total amount of steel from previous studies is 31 and 35 years for the years 2000 and 2006 respectively. Based on the volume correlation model the lifetime for the total steel amount, when assuming a full recovery of the material, was calculated as 34 and 37 years for these two years. This indicates that the lifetime of steel from the volume correlation model is in a similar range, but slightly higher, compared to previously reported data. The present results show that the model could be an alternative method to calculate the lifetime of steel and other recyclable materials on an annual basis. Results show that the lifetime of the total steel amount has continuously increased between 1975 and 2010. This indicates that the accumulated steel stock in society is still large enough to withstand the high collection rate of steel scrap. Furthermore, that there are as yet no lack of untapped resource of end-of-life steel scrap assets in Swedish society.

Keywords
Circulation, Lifetime; Recycling, Stainless steel, Steel, Steel scrap
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-161968 (URN)10.1179/1743281214Y.0000000210 (DOI)000349565900002 ()2-s2.0-84920517931 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150407

Available from: 2015-04-07 Created: 2015-03-20 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Gauffin, A., Tilliander, A. & Jönsson, P. (2014). Random sampling analysis on the alloy content in steel scrap and its impact on the electric arc furnace : . In: 2014 Shechtman International Symposium: . Paper presented at 2014 Shechtman International Symposium, Cancun, Mexico.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Random sampling analysis on the alloy content in steel scrap and its impact on the electric arc furnace :
2014 (English)In: 2014 Shechtman International Symposium, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-175733 (URN)
Conference
2014 Shechtman International Symposium, Cancun, Mexico
Note

NQC 2015

Available from: 2015-10-20 Created: 2015-10-20 Last updated: 2015-10-20Bibliographically approved
Gauffin, A., Ekerot, S., Tilliander, A. & Jönsson, P. (2013). KTH Steel Scrap Model: Iron and Steel Flow in the Swedish Society 1889–2010. Journal for Manufacturing Science and Production, 13(1/2), 47-54
Open this publication in new window or tab >>KTH Steel Scrap Model: Iron and Steel Flow in the Swedish Society 1889–2010
2013 (English)In: Journal for Manufacturing Science and Production, ISSN 2191-0375, Vol. 13, no 1/2, p. 47-54Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

KTH Steel Scrap Model calculates material flows of iron and steel in the Swedish society based on statistics, mass balance and mass flow analysis and industry knowledge. The material flows of iron and steel were calculated for external scrap consumption, internal scrap, domestic steel scrap arising and net flow of iron and steel into the Swedish society. Model output on external steel scrap consumption and domestic steel scrap arising was compared to an earlier analysis done by Jernkontoret for the timeline 1980–2009. The results show that mass balance calculations are area wise corresponding to consumption figures based on trade statistics. In addition the difference in trend is assumed to be mainly due to stocking effect. Furthermore it is shown that mass balance and mass flow models could be used as a tool to calculate apparent scrap consumption based on crude steel production figures by process type.

Keywords
steel scrap, mfa, mass balance, statistics, circulation
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-175721 (URN)10.1515/jmsp-2012-0033 (DOI)
Note

QC 20151020

Available from: 2015-10-20 Created: 2015-10-20 Last updated: 2015-10-20Bibliographically approved
Gauffin, A., Andersson, N. Å., Storm, P., Tilliander, A. & Jönsson, P. A novel methodology of dynamic material flow modelling : Part 1. Time-delays of mass flows and the Progressing and Backcasting model .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel methodology of dynamic material flow modelling : Part 1. Time-delays of mass flows and the Progressing and Backcasting model
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-175724 (URN)
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-10-20 Created: 2015-10-20 Last updated: 2015-10-20Bibliographically approved
Gauffin, A., Andersson, N. Å., Storm, P., Tilliander, A. & Jönsson, P. A novel methodology of dynamic material flow modelling : Part 2. The societal steel scrap reserve and amounts of losses .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel methodology of dynamic material flow modelling : Part 2. The societal steel scrap reserve and amounts of losses
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-175727 (URN)
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-10-20 Created: 2015-10-20 Last updated: 2015-10-20Bibliographically approved
Gauffin, A., Andersson, N. Å., Storm, P., Tilliander, A. & Jönsson, P. A novel methodology of dynamic material flow modelling : Part 3. Forecasting recycling trends and the environmental savings due to an improved scrap utilization .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel methodology of dynamic material flow modelling : Part 3. Forecasting recycling trends and the environmental savings due to an improved scrap utilization
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-175728 (URN)
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-10-20 Created: 2015-10-20 Last updated: 2015-10-20Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3606-6146

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