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Ström, P., Petersson, P., Rubel, M., Bergsåker, H., Bykov, I., Frassinetti, L., . . . et al., . (2019). Analysis of deposited layers with deuterium and impurity elements on samples from the divertor of JET with ITER-like wall. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 516, 202-213
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of deposited layers with deuterium and impurity elements on samples from the divertor of JET with ITER-like wall
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 516, p. 202-213Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Inconel-600 blocks and stainless steel covers for quartz microbalance crystals from remote corners in the JET-ILW divertor were studied with time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis and nuclear reaction analysis to obtain information about the areal densities and depth profiles of elements present in deposited material layers. Surface morphology and the composition of dust particles were examined with scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The analyzed components were present in JET during three ITER-like wall campaigns between 2010 and 2017. Deposited layers had a stratified structure, primarily made up of beryllium, carbon and oxygen with varying atomic fractions of deuterium, up to more than 20%. The range of carbon transport from the ribs of the divertor carrier was limited to a few centimeters, and carbon/deuterium co-deposition was indicated on the Inconel blocks. High atomic fractions of deuterium were also found in almost carbon-free layers on the quartz microbalance covers. Layer thicknesses up to more than 1 micrometer were indicated, but typical values were on the order of a few hundred nanometers. Chromium, iron and nickel fractions were less than or around 1% at layer surfaces while increasing close to the layer-substrate interface. The tungsten fraction depended on the proximity of the plasma strike point to the divertor corners. Particles of tungsten, molybdenum and copper with sizes less than or around 1 micrometer were found. Nitrogen, argon and neon were present after plasma edge cooling and disruption mitigation. Oxygen-18 was found on component surfaces after injection, indicating in-vessel oxidation. Compensation of elastic recoil detection data for detection efficiency and ion-induced release of deuterium during the measurement gave quantitative agreement with nuclear reaction analysis, which strengthens the validity of the results.

Keywords
Fusion, Tokamak, Plasma-wall interactions, ToF-ERDA, NRA, SEM
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-240616 (URN)10.1016/j.jnucmat.2018.11.027 (DOI)000458897100020 ()2-s2.0-85060313456 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190125

Available from: 2018-12-20 Created: 2018-12-20 Last updated: 2019-08-08Bibliographically approved
Weckmann, A., Kurki-Suonio, T., Särkimäki, K., Romazanov, J., Kirschner, A., Hakola, A., . . . Brezinsek, S. (2019). Physics affecting heavy impurity migration in tokamaks: Benchmarking test-ion code ASCOT against TEXTOR tracer experiment. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 19, 307-315
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physics affecting heavy impurity migration in tokamaks: Benchmarking test-ion code ASCOT against TEXTOR tracer experiment
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2019 (English)In: Nuclear Materials and Energy, E-ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 19, p. 307-315Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Erosion, transport and deposition of wall impurities are major concerns in future magnetic fusion devices, both from the perspective of the fusion plasma and the machine wall. An extensive study on molybdenum transport and deposition performed in the TEXTOR tokamak yielded a detailed deposition map that is ideal for benchmark deposition studies. A qualitative benchmark is attempted in this article with the ASCOT code. We set up a full 3D model of the TEXTOR tokamak and studied the influence of different physical mechanisms and their strengths on molybdenum deposition patterns on the simulated plasma-facing components: atomic processes, Coulomb collisions, scrape-off layer (SOL) profiles, source distribution, marker starting energy, radial electric field strength, SOL flow and toroidal plasma rotation. The outcome comprises 13 simulations, each with 100,000 markers. The findings are: • Toroidal plasma movement, either within the LCFS or as SOL flow, is negligible. • SOL profile and marker starting energy have modest impact on deposition. • Source distribution has a large impact in combination with radial electric field profiles. • The E⇀×B⇀ drift has the highest impact on the deposition profiles. © 2019 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
3D modeling, Deposition, Electric field effects, Plasma simulation, Sols, Tokamak devices, Deposition patterns, Deposition profiles, Magnetic fusion devices, Physical mechanism, Plasma-facing components, Radial electric field, Source distribution, Toroidal plasma rotation, Magnetoplasma
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-252513 (URN)10.1016/j.nme.2019.02.033 (DOI)000470746100049 ()2-s2.0-85062721466 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190710

Available from: 2019-07-10 Created: 2019-07-10 Last updated: 2019-07-10Bibliographically approved
Weckmann, A., Petersson, P., Rubel, M., Ström, P., Kurki-Suonio, T., Sarkimaki, K., . . . Airila, M. (2018). Review on global migration, fuel retention and modelling after TEXTOR decommission. NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND ENERGY, 17, 83-112
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Review on global migration, fuel retention and modelling after TEXTOR decommission
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2018 (English)In: NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND ENERGY, Vol. 17, p. 83-112Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Before decommissioning of the TEXTOR tokamak in 2013, the machine was conditioned with a comprehensive migration experiment where MoF6 and N-15(2) were injected on the very last operation day. Thereafter, all plasmafacing components (PFCs) were available for extensive studies of both local and global migration of impurities - Mo, W, Inconel alloy constituents, 15 N, F - and fuel retention studies. Measurements were performed on 140 limiter tiles out of 864 throughout the whole machine to map global transport. One fifth of the introduced molybdenum could be found. Wherever possible, the findings are compared to results obtained previously in other machines. This review incorporates both published and unpublished results from this TEXTOR study and combines findings with analytical methods as well as modelling results from two codes, ERO and ASCOT. The main findings are: Both local and global molybdenum transport can be explained by toroidal plasma flow and (sic) x (sic) drift. The suggested transport scheme for molybdenum holds also for other analysed species, namely tungsten from previous experiments and medium-Z metals (Cr-Cu) introduced on various occasions. Analytical interpretation of several deposition profile features is possible with basic geometrical and plasma physics considerations. These are deposition profiles on the collector probe, the lower part of the inner bumper limiter, the poloidal cross-section of the inner bumper limiter, and the poloidal limiter. Any deposition pattern found in this TEXTOR study, including fuel retention, has neither poloidal nor toroidal symmetry, which is often assumed when determining deposition profiles on global scale. Fuel retention is highly inhomogeneous due to local variation of plasma parameters - by auxiliary heating systems and impurity injection - and PFC temperature. Local modelling with ERO yields good qualitative agreement but too high local deposition efficiency. Global modelling with ASCOT shows that the radial electric field and source form have a high impact on global deposition patterns, while toroidal flow has little influence. Some of the experimental findings could be reproduced. Still, qualitative differences between simulated and experimental global deposition patterns remain. The review closes with lessons learnt during this extensive TEXTOR study which might be helpful for future scientific exploitation of other tokamaks to be decommissioned.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2018
Keywords
Global migration, Tokamak, high-Z material, Molybdenum, Modelling, ASCOT, ERO, Fuel retention, Deposition
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-241223 (URN)10.1016/j.nme.2018.09.003 (DOI)000454165000013 ()2-s2.0-85054327579 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190115

Available from: 2019-01-15 Created: 2019-01-15 Last updated: 2019-01-15Bibliographically approved
Sergienko, G., Esser, H. G., Kirschner, A., Huber, A., Freisinger, M., Brezinsek, S., . . . Heinola, K. (2017). Quartz micro-balance results of pulse-resolved erosion/deposition in the JET-ILW divertor. NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND ENERGY, 12, 478-482
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quartz micro-balance results of pulse-resolved erosion/deposition in the JET-ILW divertor
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2017 (English)In: NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND ENERGY, ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 12, p. 478-482Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A set of quartz crystal microbalances (QMB) was used at JET with full carbon wall to monitor mass erosion/ deposition rates in the remote areas of the divertor. After introduction of the ITER-like wall (ILW) in JET with beryllium main wall and tungsten divertor, strong reduction of the material deposition and accompanied fuel retention was observed. Therefore the existing QMB electronics have been modified to improve the accuracy of frequency measurements by a factor of ten down to 0.1 Hz which corresponds to 1.4 ng cm(-2). The averaged deposition rates of 1.2-3 ng cm(-2) s(-1) and erosion rates of 5.6-8.1 ng cm(-2) s(-1) were observed in the inner divertor of JET-ILW with the inner strike point positions close to the bottom edge of vertical tile 3 and at the horizontal tile 4 respectively. The erosion with averaged rates of approximate to 2.1 ng cm(-2) s(-1) and approximate to 120 ng cm(-2) s(-1) were observed in the outer divertor for the outer strike point positions at tile 5 and tile 6 respectively.

National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-220635 (URN)10.1016/j.nme.2017.03.007 (DOI)000417293300074 ()2-s2.0-85015777449 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180112

Available from: 2018-01-12 Created: 2018-01-12 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
Weckmann, A., Petersson, P., Kirschner, A., Wienhold, P., Brezinsek, S., Kreter, A., . . . Rubel, M. (2017). Whole-machine material migration studies in the TEXTOR tokamak with molybdenum. NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND ENERGY, 12, 518-523
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Whole-machine material migration studies in the TEXTOR tokamak with molybdenum
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2017 (English)In: NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND ENERGY, ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 12, p. 518-523Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

MoF6 injection from a localised source into plasma edge in the TEXTOR tokamak was the last experiment before the final shut-down of the TEXTOR machine. During decommissioning all plasma-facing components (PFCs) became available for surface studies. Detailed mapping of Mo deposition was performed in order to determine its migration on global scale. The concentration of Mo on PFC decays exponentially with distance from the source. The decay length is of the order of 0.1 m on the main PFC and 1 m on the receded components. Also the decay lengths modelled with the ERO code are between 0.15-1.3 m, depending on the anomalous cross-field diffusion coefficient. The inner bumper limiter is found to be the major repository for Mo. Material balance measurements show that only up to 22% of the injected Mo was detected on all the PFCs thus indicating that a large fraction of injected Mo may have been pumped out before being deposited.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-220638 (URN)10.1016/j.nme.2016.12.011 (DOI)000417293300081 ()2-s2.0-85009253075 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180112

Available from: 2018-01-12 Created: 2018-01-12 Last updated: 2018-02-20Bibliographically approved
Fortuna-Zalesna, E., Weckmann, A., Grozonka, J., Rubel, M., Esser, H. G., Freisinger, M., . . . Ström, P. (2016). Dust Survey Following the Final Shutdown of TEXTOR: Metal Particles and Fuel Retention. Physica Scripta, T167, Article ID 014059.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dust Survey Following the Final Shutdown of TEXTOR: Metal Particles and Fuel Retention
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2016 (English)In: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T167, article id 014059Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The work presents results of a broad TEXTOR dust survey in terms of its composition, structure, distribution and fuel content. The dust particles were collected after final shutdown of TEXTOR in December 2013. Fuel retention, as determined by thermal desorption, varied significantly, even by two orders of magnitude, dependent on the dust location in the machine. Dust structure was examined by means of scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, focused ion beam and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Several categories of dust have been identified. Carbon-based stratified and granular deposits were dominating, but the emphasis in studies was on metal dust. They were found in the form of small particles, small spheres, flakes and splashes which formed “comet”-like structures clearly indicating directional effects in the impact on surfaces of plasma-facing components. Nickel-rich alloys from the Inconel liner and iron-based ones from various diagnostic holders were the main components of metal-containing dust, but also molybdenum and tungsten debris were detected. Their origin is discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2016
Keywords
TEXTOR, dust, fuel retention, high-Z metals
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-178047 (URN)10.1088/0031-8949/T167/1/014059 (DOI)000383504700060 ()2-s2.0-84959896914 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160127

Available from: 2015-12-03 Created: 2015-12-03 Last updated: 2017-06-30Bibliographically approved
Weckmann, A., Petersson, P., Rubel, M., Wienhold, P., Brezinsek, S., Coenen, J. W., . . . Pospieszczyk, A. (2016). Local Migration Studies of High-Z Metals in the TEXTOR Tokamak. Physica Scripta, T167, Article ID 014058.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Local Migration Studies of High-Z Metals in the TEXTOR Tokamak
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2016 (English)In: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T167, article id 014058Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Volatile compounds of tungsten (WF6) and molybdenum (MoF6) were used as tracers of high-Z metal migration in the TEXTOR tokamak in several gas injection experiments when puffing was done through a test limiter. The experiments with W were performed prior major shut-downs, while the MoF6 was followed by the final shutdown in connection with TEXTOR decommissioning. In all cases a set of various surface probes and limiter tiles were retrieved and analysed with electron and ion beam techniques. The focus was on the local deposition in the vicinity of the gas inlet and in the inlet system. Depth profiles in the deposits and metal distribution maps clearly shown that only near the gas inlet significant amounts of Mo are deposited along the scrape-off layer flow and E×B drift directions, which could be reproduced by ERO-code modelling. Correlation between the plasma operation scenario and the deposition patterns is presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2016
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-178044 (URN)10.1088/0031-8949/T167/1/014058 (DOI)000383504700059 ()2-s2.0-84959870422 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170630

Available from: 2015-12-03 Created: 2015-12-03 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Ström, P., Petersson, P., Rubel, M., Weckmann, A., Brezinsek, S., Kreter, A., . . . Rozniatowski, K. (2015). Characterisation of surface layers formed on plasma-facing components in controlled fusion devices: Role of heavy ion elastic recoil detection. Vacuum, 122, 260-267
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterisation of surface layers formed on plasma-facing components in controlled fusion devices: Role of heavy ion elastic recoil detection
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2015 (English)In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 122, p. 260-267Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wall components retrieved from the TEXTOR tokamak after tracer experiments with nitrogen-15 and molybdenum hexafluoride (MoF6) injection were studied to determine deposition patterns and, by this, to conclude on material migration. Toroidal limiter tiles made of carbon fibre composites and fine grain graphite were examined using time-of-flight heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis. Molybdenum deposition patterns indicated migration based on erosion and prompt re-deposition. Nitrogen-15 was trapped together with the deposited molybdenum. Some information on the depth distribution of species in the top 400 nm layer of the limiters was obtained; however surface roughness of the samples strongly limited resolution. In the case of molybdenum, the largest concentration was found in the 100 nm outermost layer, whereas fluorine and nitrogen-15 displayed more irregular profiles. Other species, besides deuterium fuel and carbon-12, were also identified: boron-10 and boron-11 originating from boronisations, carbon-13 from earlier tracer experiments, nitrogen-14 from plasma edge cooling and metals eroded from the Inconel wall.

National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-178042 (URN)10.1016/j.vacuum.2015.04.019 (DOI)2-s2.0-84945489472 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150203

Available from: 2015-12-03 Created: 2015-12-03 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
Weckmann, A. (2015). Material migration in tokamaks: Studies of deposition processes and characterisation of dust particles. (Licentiate dissertation). Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Material migration in tokamaks: Studies of deposition processes and characterisation of dust particles
2015 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Thermonuclear fusion may become an attractive future power source. The most promising of all fusion machine concepts is the tokamak. Despite decades of active research, still huge tasks remain before a fusion power plant can go online. One of these important tasks deals with the interaction between the fusion plasma and the reactor wall. This work focuses on how eroded wall materials of different origin and mass are transported in a tokamak device. Element transport can be examined by injection of certain species of unique and predetermined origin, so called tracers. Tracer experiments were conducted at the TEXTOR tokamak before its final shutdown. This offered an unique opportunity for studies of the wall and other internal components: For the first time it was possible to completely dismantle such a machine and analyse every single part of reactor wall, obtaining a detailed pattern of material migration. Main focus of this work is on the high-Z metals tungsten and molybdenum, which were introduced by WF6 and MoF6 injection into the TEXTOR tokamak in several material migration experiments. It is shown that Mo and W migrate in a similar way around the tokamak and that Mo can be used as tracer for W transport. It is further shown how other materials - medium-Z (Ni), low-Z (N-15 and F), fuel species (D) - migrate and get deposited. Finally, the outcome of dust sampling studies is discussed. It is shown that dust appearance and composition depends on origin, formation conditions and that it can originate even from remote systems like the NBI system. Furthermore, metal splashes and droplets have been found, some of them clearly indicating boiling processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. p. 80
Series
TRITA-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2015:102
Keywords
tokamak, fusion, plasma, material migration, particle transport, TEXTOR, PWI, plasma-wall interaction, plasma facing components, PFC, PFM, plasma facing materials, ALT limiter, MoF6, tracer experiment, molybdenum hexafluoride, future energy source, fuel retention, deuterium retention
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-178026 (URN)978-91-7595-766-1 (ISBN)
Presentation
2015-12-15, Seminarierummet på plan 3, Teknikringen 31, KTH, Stockholm, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20151203

Available from: 2015-12-03 Created: 2015-12-02 Last updated: 2016-10-26Bibliographically approved
Rubel, M., Weckmann, A., Ström, P., Petersson, P., Garcia Carrasco, A., Brezinsek, S., . . . Fortuna-Zalesna, E. (2015). Tracer techniques for the assessment of material migration and surface modification of plasma-facing components. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 463, 280-284
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tracer techniques for the assessment of material migration and surface modification of plasma-facing components
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 463, p. 280-284Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tracer techniques were used in the TEXTOR tokamak to determine high-Z metal migration and the deposition of species used for plasma edge cooling or wall conditioning under different types of operation conditions. Volatile molybdenum hexa-fluoride, nitrogen-15 and oxygen-18 were used as markers in tokamak or ion cyclotron wall conditioning discharges (ICWC). The objective was to obtain qualitative and quantitative of a global and local deposition pattern and material mixing effects. The deposition and retention was studied on plasma-facing components, collector probes and test limiters. Optical spectroscopy and ex-situ analysis techniques were used to determine the plasma response to tracer injection and the modification of surface composition. Molybdenum and light isotopes were detected on all types of limiters and short-term probes retrieved from the vessel showing that both helium and nitrogen are trapped following wall conditioning and edge cooling. Only small amounts below 1 x 10(19) m(-2) of O-18 were detected on surfaces treated by oxygen-assisted ICWC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
National Category
Materials Engineering Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-172689 (URN)10.1016/j.jnucmat.2014.11.074 (DOI)000358467200052 ()2-s2.0-84937517699 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2009-4138
Note

QC 20150901

Available from: 2015-09-01 Created: 2015-08-27 Last updated: 2017-06-30Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1062-8101

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