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Publications (10 of 36) Show all publications
Hammar, T., Stendahl, J., Sundberg, C., Holmström, H. & Hansson, P.-A. (2019). Climate impact and energy efficiency of woody bioenergy systems from a landscape perspective. Biomass and Bioenergy, 120, 189-199
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Climate impact and energy efficiency of woody bioenergy systems from a landscape perspective
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2019 (English)In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 120, p. 189-199Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The climate impact of bioenergy is debated, especially due to potential land use change effects and biogenic carbon fluxes. This study assessed the climate impact and energy efficiency of conventional long-rotation forest residues (branches, tops and stumps) and short-rotation forestry (willow) from a landscape perspective. A time-dependent life cycle assessment method, which considers the timing of biogenic carbon fluxes and the impact on global temperature over time, was combined with GIS mapping to assess the impact for a specific Swedish region (Uppsala County), i.e. a 'real' landscape. The results showed that harvesting forest residues decreased the forest carbon stocks over the landscape, while growing willow on previous fallow land increased the total carbon stocks. On average, energy ratios of 49 MJ MJ(-1) for branches and tops, and 30 MJ MJ(-1) for stumps and willow was found. Harvesting forest residues from the studied landscape resulted in climate impacts of around 0.8.10(-15) K MJ(-1) heat for branches and tops, and 1.3.10(-15) K MJ(-1) heat for stumps. Willow energy gave the lowest climate impact of about -0.6,10(-15) K MJ(-1) heat. The landscape analysis showed that spatial variations in the region had an effect on energy efficiency and climate impact, but that this effect was relatively small. A more important factor was the time frame chosen for the analysis, especially for long-rotation forest systems. Methodological choices such as spatial scale (stand or landscape perspective), allocation method and functional unit also influenced the results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2019
Keywords
Global warming, Temperature change, Soil organic carbon, Salix, GIS, Forest residues, Stumps, Land use, Biogenic carbon, LCA
National Category
Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-242253 (URN)10.1016/j.biombioe.2018.11.026 (DOI)000454887700019 ()2-s2.0-85057143425 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190131

Available from: 2019-01-31 Created: 2019-01-31 Last updated: 2019-01-31Bibliographically approved
Ermolaev, E., Sundberg, C., Pell, M., Smars, S. & Jonsson, H. (2019). Effects of moisture on emissions of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide from food and garden waste composting. Journal of Cleaner Production, 240, Article ID UNSP 118165.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of moisture on emissions of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide from food and garden waste composting
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 240, article id UNSP 118165Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Globally, waste generation is continually increasing, with landfill as the main destination for biological waste. Composting is a simple alternative for handling waste, but when poorly managed poses a risk of greenhouse gas emissions. The moisture content of substrate affects emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from composting, but the scale and mechanisms behind these effects are poorly understood. This study examined effects of different moisture levels (44-66%) on CH4, N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions during 20 days of composting food and garden waste under controlled conditions (55 degrees C, 16% oxygen) in a 200-L reactor. Total CO2 emissions were 400-500 g CO2-C kg(-1) initial C. Total CH4 emissions were highest, 35 g CH4-C kg(-1) initial C, for the wettest substrate (66% moisture) and decreased exponentially with declining moisture content, with the lowest total emissions, 0.04 g CH4-C kg(-1) initial C, observed with the driest substrate. Total N2O emissions were negatively correlated with moisture content, decreasing from 1.2 g N2O-N kg(-1) initial N at 44% moisture to 0.3 g N2O-N kg(-1) initial N at 59%, but the wettest substrate (66% moisture) had the highest N2O emissions, 1.4 g N2O-N kg(-1) initial N. NH4-N accumulated in the wettest material, suggesting that the increased N2O emissions were due to reduced oxygen availability. The results indicate potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from large-scale composting by adjusting the moisture content at different stages of composting, thus lowering its overall environmental impact. This finding can be used in guidelines for large-scale composting process to avoid moisture conditions causing large greenhouse gas emissions. Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2019
Keywords
Degradation, Greenhouse gas, Methane, Nitrous oxide, Reactor, Thermophilic
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-262929 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.118165 (DOI)000487936100114 ()2-s2.0-85071751577 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20191129

Available from: 2019-11-29 Created: 2019-11-29 Last updated: 2019-11-29Bibliographically approved
Henryson, K., Hansson, E.-A., Katterer, T., Tidaker, P. & Sundberg, C. (2019). Environmental performance of crop cultivation at different sites and nitrogen rates in Sweden. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 114(2), 139-155
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental performance of crop cultivation at different sites and nitrogen rates in Sweden
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2019 (English)In: Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, ISSN 1385-1314, E-ISSN 1573-0867, Vol. 114, no 2, p. 139-155Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nitrogen (N) fertilisation has positive and negative effects on the environmental impact of crop cultivation. The mechanisms governing these effects are highly site-dependent, a factor often ignored in assessments of the environmental impact of crop cultivation. By assessing outputs of crop rotations using a life cycle approach, this study explored how greenhouse gas emissions and marine eutrophication caused by crop cultivation (including upstream processes such as production of farm inputs) depend on fertiliser rate and the site at which the cultivation occurs. Cereal unit (CU) was used as the functional unit. The calculations were based on data from multi-site long-term field experiments in Sweden and site-dependent data and models for non-measured processes. Cultivation at three N levels was evaluated, where the highest N rate was close to current average practices and the lowest level corresponded to one-third of that. Site characteristics had a stronger influence on both greenhouse gas emissions and marine eutrophication (variations of up to 330% and 490%, respectively, within N levels) than N level (variations of up to 74% and 59%, respectively, within sites). Main sources of variation in greenhouse gas emissions were soil nitrous oxide emissions (58-810g CO2eqCU-1) and soil organic carbon changes (14-720g CO2eqCU-1), while variations in marine eutrophication were mainly explained by field-level waterborne N losses (0.9-8.2g NeqCU-1). The large variation between sites highlights the importance of considering site characteristics when assessing the environmental impact of crop cultivation and evaluating the environmental consequences of crop management practices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2019
Keywords
Environmental impact, Life cycle assessment, Eutrophication, Climate impact, Greenhouse gas emissions, Site-dependent
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-270655 (URN)10.1007/s10705-019-09997-w (DOI)000468242200004 ()2-s2.0-85065656674 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20200327

Available from: 2020-03-27 Created: 2020-03-27 Last updated: 2020-03-27Bibliographically approved
Gitau, K. J., Mutune, J., Sundberg, C., Mendum, R. & Njenga, M. (2019). Factors influencing the adoption of biochar-producing gasifier cookstoves by households in rural Kenya. Energy for Sustainable Development, 52, 63-71
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors influencing the adoption of biochar-producing gasifier cookstoves by households in rural Kenya
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2019 (English)In: Energy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 0973-0826, Vol. 52, p. 63-71Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fuel wood is the main source of cooking and heating energy in developing countries. However, it is combusted in inefficient cookstoves, leading to more fuel use and human health problems resulting from exposure to smoke. Thus new, efficient cooking systems that can address some of these problems are required. This study examined gasifier cookstove use in Kwale County, Kenya, and factors influencing adoption. Gasifier stoves were issued for free to 50 households, which were surveyed after 2-3 months of use. The results showed that the stove was used by 96% of the households at varying frequencies, 40% of them used it almost every day with 4% switching to only using the new stove. All the users appreciated it because it saved fuel, produced less smoke, and produced charcoal to use for either cooking or soil amendment. Compared with the traditional three-stone open fire, the gasifier stove was reported to be easier to clean (98% of respondents), easier to adjust the heat (88%), easier to handle (58%), caused less exposure to heat (96%) and was cleaner for pots and the kitchen (98%). Another reported benefit of the gasifier stove was that it needed no tending (i.e., adjusting wood and blowing to keep the flames burning). The gasifier stove was mainly used to cook foods that required a short cooking time and many preferred to use it to cook dinner. However, the households encountered some challenges with using the gasifier stoves. For example, fuel preparation, reloading, and lighting were reported as challenges by 42%, 77% and 19%, respectively, of the 83% of households who reported challenges. These challenges could be overcome by improving stove design and by devising innovative ways of cutting fuel into small pieces. 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of International Energy Initiative.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER, 2019
Keywords
Adoption, Biochar, Gasifier cookstove, Wood fuel, Three-stone open fire
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-262964 (URN)10.1016/j.esd.2019.07.006 (DOI)000489065900007 ()2-s2.0-85073702763 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20191104

Available from: 2019-11-04 Created: 2019-11-04 Last updated: 2020-03-09Bibliographically approved
Gitau, J. K., Mutune, J., Sundberg, C., Mendum, R. & Njenga, M. (2019). Implications on Livelihoods and the Environment of Uptake of Gasifier Cook Stoves among Kenya's Rural Households. APPLIED SCIENCES-BASEL, 9(6), Article ID 1205.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implications on Livelihoods and the Environment of Uptake of Gasifier Cook Stoves among Kenya's Rural Households
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2019 (English)In: APPLIED SCIENCES-BASEL, Vol. 9, no 6, article id 1205Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A majority of people in developing countries use biomass energy for cooking and heating due to its affordability, accessibility and convenience. However, unsustainable biomass use leads to forest degradation and climate change. Therefore, this study was carried out in Kwale County, Kenya, on the use of a biochar-producing gasifier cook stove and implications of its uptake on livelihoods and the environment. Fifty households were trained and issued with a gasifier for free. After 2-3 months of gasifier use, a survey was conducted to investigate the implications of its uptake. The direct impacts included reduced fuel consumption by 38%, reduced time spent in firewood collection, reduced expenditure on cooking fuel, diversification of cooking fuels, improved kitchen conditions and reduced time spent on cooking. The potential benefits included income generation, increased food production, reduced impacts on environment and climate change and reduced health problems. Improved biomass cook stoves can alleviate problems with current cooking methods, which include inefficient fuel use, health issues caused by smoke, and environmental problems. These benefits could contribute to development through alleviating poverty and hunger, promoting gender equality, enhancing good health and sustainable ecosystems and mitigating climate change. The study recommends the promotion of cleaner cooking stoves, particularly gasifiers, among households in rural areas while paying attention to user needs and preferences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
gasifier cook stove, biomass energy, households, livelihood, environment, biochar
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251347 (URN)10.3390/app9061205 (DOI)000464381400019 ()2-s2.0-85063742783 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190521

Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2019-05-21Bibliographically approved
Azzi, E. S., Karltun, E. & Sundberg, C. (2019). Prospective Life Cycle Assessment of Large-Scale Biochar Production and Use for Negative Emissions in Stockholm. Environmental Science and Technology, 53(14), 8466-8476
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prospective Life Cycle Assessment of Large-Scale Biochar Production and Use for Negative Emissions in Stockholm
2019 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, no 14, p. 8466-8476Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several cities in Sweden are aiming for climate neutrality within a few decades and for negative emissions thereafter. Combined biochar, heat, and power production is an option to achieve carbon sequestration for cities relying on biomass-fuelled district heating, while biochar use could mitigate environmental pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from the agricultural sector. By using prospective life cycle assessment, the climate impact of the pyrolysis of woodchips in Stockholm is compared with two reference scenarios based on woodchip combustion. The pyrolysis of woodchips produces heat and power for the city of Stockholm, and biochar whose potential use as a feed and manure additive on Swedish dairy farms is explored. The climate change mitigation trade-off between bioenergy production and biochar carbon sequestration in Stockholm's context is dominated by the fate of marginal power. If decarbonisation of power is achieved, building a new pyrolysis plant becomes a better climate option than conventional combustion. Effects of cascading biochar use in animal husbandry are uncertain but could provide 10-20% more mitigation than direct biochar soil incorporation. These results help design regional biochar systems that combine negative carbon dioxide emissions with increased methane and nitrous oxide mitigation efforts and can also guide the development of minimum performance criteria for biochar products.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2019
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-255754 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.9b01615 (DOI)000476685500057 ()31268319 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85069948862 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190813

Available from: 2019-08-13 Created: 2019-08-13 Last updated: 2019-08-13Bibliographically approved
Gitau, J. K., Sundberg, C., Mendum, R., Mutune, J. & Njenga, M. (2019). Use of Biochar-Producing Gasifier Cookstove Improves Energy Use Efficiency and Indoor Air Quality in Rural Households. Energies, 12(22), Article ID 4285.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use of Biochar-Producing Gasifier Cookstove Improves Energy Use Efficiency and Indoor Air Quality in Rural Households
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2019 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 22, article id 4285Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biomass fuels dominate the household energy mix in sub-Saharan Africa. Much of it is used inefficiently in poorly ventilated kitchens resulting in indoor air pollution and consumption of large amounts of wood fuel. Micro-gasification cookstoves can improve fuel use efficiency and reduce indoor air pollution while producing char as a by-product. This study monitored real-time concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and amount of firewood used when households were cooking dinner. Twenty-five households used the gasifier cookstove to cook and five repeated the same test with three-stone open fire on a different date. With the gasifier, the average corresponding dinner time CO, CO2, and PM2.5 concentrations were reduced by 57%, 41%, and 79% respectively compared to three-stone open fire. The gasifier had average biomass-to-char conversion efficiency of 16.6%. If the produced char is used as fuel, households could save 32% of fuel compared to use of three-stone open fire and 18% when char is used as biochar, for instance. Adoption of the gasifier can help to reduce the need for firewood collection, hence reducing impacts on the environment while saving on the amount of time and money spent on cooking fuel.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
gasifier cookstove, indoor air pollution, energy use efficiency, three-stone open fire, firewood, biochar, char
National Category
Bioenergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-266542 (URN)10.3390/en12224285 (DOI)000504898500063 ()2-s2.0-85076049926 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20200131

Available from: 2020-01-31 Created: 2020-01-31 Last updated: 2020-01-31Bibliographically approved
Henryson, K., Sundberg, C., Kätterer, T. & Hansson, P.-A. -. (2018). Accounting for long-term soil fertility effects when assessing the climate impact of crop cultivation. Agricultural Systems, 164, 185-192
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accounting for long-term soil fertility effects when assessing the climate impact of crop cultivation
2018 (English)In: Agricultural Systems, ISSN 0308-521X, E-ISSN 1873-2267, Vol. 164, p. 185-192Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics influence the climate impact of crop cultivation, both through affecting net carbon exchange between the soil and the atmosphere and through affecting soil fertility. Higher soil fertility can enhance yield, and consequently make more plant residues available for carbon sequestration in the soil. This feedback mechanism between SOC and yield is commonly not included when assessing the environmental impact of crop production using system analysis tools like life cycle assessment (LCA). Therefore, this study developed a modelling framework where the SOC-yield feedback mechanism is included in climate impact assessment of crop cultivation, and which could be applied in LCAs. The framework was constructed by combining a model for SOC dynamics, yield response to SOC changes in a Swedish long-term field experiment and climate impact assessment. The framework employs a dynamic approach, with a time-distributed emissions inventory and a time-dependent climate impact assessment model, complemented by the most common climate metric, global warming potential (GWP). A case study applying the framework to barley cultivation was performed to explore the quantitative effect of including the feedback mechanism on the calculated climate impact. The case study involved simulating a fertiliser-induced 10% yield increase during one year and assessing the climate impact over 100 years. The effect of solely including SOC dynamics without the yield response to SOC decreased climate impact per kg barley by about three-fold more than only accounting for the 10% temporary yield increase. When the feedback mechanism was included, the estimated climate impact decreased five-fold more than when SOC changes were not included. These results show that SOC changes affect the climate impact of cultivation, not only through affecting net CO2 exchanges between soil and atmosphere, as previously acknowledged by other studies, but also through changing the system performance. The quantitative results obtained in this study show that this could be an important aspect to include in order to avoid introducing systematic error when assessing the long-term climate impact of crop management changes that affect yield or SOC dynamics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Carbon sequestration, Crop yield, Greenhouse gases, Life cycle assessment, Soil organic carbon, Soil quality
National Category
Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-228728 (URN)10.1016/j.agsy.2018.03.001 (DOI)000437075800017 ()2-s2.0-85046621642 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 229-2013-82
Note

QC 20180529

Available from: 2018-05-29 Created: 2018-05-29 Last updated: 2018-07-23Bibliographically approved
Roos, E., Mie, A., Wivstad, M., Salomon, E., Johansson, B., Gunnarsson, S., . . . Watson, C. A. (2018). Risks and opportunities of increasing yields in organic farming. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 38(2), Article ID 14.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risks and opportunities of increasing yields in organic farming. A review
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2018 (English)In: Agronomy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 1774-0746, E-ISSN 1773-0155, Vol. 38, no 2, article id 14Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Current organic agriculture performs well in several sustainability domains, like animal welfare, farm profitability and low pesticide use, but yields are commonly lower than in conventional farming. There is now a re-vitalized interest in increasing yields in organic agriculture to provide more organic food for a growing, more affluent population and reduce negative impacts per unit produced. However, past yield increases have been accompanied by several negative side-effects. Here, we review risks and opportunities related to a broad range of sustainability domains associated with increasing yields in organic agriculture in the Northern European context. We identify increased N input, weed, disease and pest control, improved livestock feeding, breeding for higher yields and reduced losses as the main measures for yield increases. We review the implications of their implementation for biodiversity, greenhouse gas emissions, nutrient losses, soil fertility, animal health and welfare, human nutrition and health and farm profitability. Our findings from this first-of-its-kind integrated analysis reveal which strategies for increasing yields are unlikely to produce negative side-effects and therefore should be a high priority, and which strategies need to be implemented with great attention to trade-offs. For example, increased N inputs in cropping carry many risks and few opportunities, whereas there are many risk-free opportunities for improved pest control through the management of ecosystem services. For most yield increasing strategies, both risks and opportunities arise, and the actual effect depends on management including active mitigation of side-effects. Our review shows that, to be a driving force for increased food system sustainability, organic agriculture may need to reconsider certain fundamental principles. Novel plant nutrient sources, including increased nutrient recycling in society, and in some cases mineral nitrogen fertilisers from renewable sources, and truly alternative animal production systems may need to be developed and accepted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Organic agriculture, Yield, Biodiversity, Soil fertility, Animal welfare, Nutrition, Environment
National Category
Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-227235 (URN)10.1007/s13593-018-0489-3 (DOI)000430228400008 ()2-s2.0-85042867508 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180518

Available from: 2018-05-18 Created: 2018-05-18 Last updated: 2018-05-18Bibliographically approved
Henryson, K., Hansson, P.-A. & Sundberg, C. (2018). Spatially differentiated midpoint indicator for marine eutrophication of waterborne emissions in Sweden. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 23(1), 70-81
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatially differentiated midpoint indicator for marine eutrophication of waterborne emissions in Sweden
2018 (English)In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 70-81Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In life cycle assessment (LCA), eutrophication is commonly assessed using site-generic characterisation factors, despite being a site-dependent environmental impact. The purpose of this study was to improve the environmental relevance of marine eutrophication impact assessment in LCA, particularly regarding the impact assessment of waterborne nutrient emissions from Swedish agriculture. Characterisation factors were derived using site-dependent data on nutrient transport for all agricultural soils in Sweden, divided into 968 catchment areas, and considering the Baltic Sea, the receiving marine compartment, as both nitrogen- and phosphorus-limited. These new characterisation factors were then applied to waterborne nutrient emissions from typical grass ley and spring barley cultivation in all catchments. The site-dependent marine eutrophication characterisation factors obtained for nutrient leaching from soils varied between 0.056 and 0.986 kg N-eq/kg N and between 0 and 7.23 kg N-eq/kg P among sites in Sweden. On applying the new characterisation factors to spring barley and grass ley cultivation at different sites in Sweden, the total marine eutrophication impact from waterborne nutrient emissions for these crops varied by up to two orders of magnitude between sites. This variation shows that site plays an important role in determining the actual impact of an emission, which means that site-dependent impact assessment could provide valuable information to life cycle assessments and increase the relevance of LCA as a tool for assessment of product-related eutrophication impacts. Characterisation factors for marine eutrophication impact assessment at high spatial resolution, considering both the site-dependent fate of eutrophying compounds and specific nutrient limitations in the recipient waterbody, were developed for waterborne nutrient emissions from agriculture in Sweden. Application of the characterisation factors revealed variations in calculated impacts between sites in Sweden, highlighting the importance of spatial differentiation of characterisation modelling within the scale of the impact.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2018
Keywords
Baltic Sea, Characterisation factors, Fate, LCIA, Life cycle assessment, Life cycle impact assessment, Nutrient limitation, Site-dependent
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-240259 (URN)10.1007/s11367-017-1298-7 (DOI)000419167100006 ()2-s2.0-85014916549 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20181213

Available from: 2018-12-13 Created: 2018-12-13 Last updated: 2018-12-13Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5979-9521

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