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Hills, M. J., Bradshaw, T. W., Dobrovolskiy, S., Dorenbos, S. N., Gemmell, N. R., Green, B., . . . Hadfield, R. H. (2019). A compact 4 K cooling system for superconducting nanowire single photon detectors. In: Bradshaw, T Kirichek, O Vandore, J (Ed.), 27TH INTERNATIONAL CRYOGENICS ENGINEERING CONFERENCE AND INTERNATIONAL CRYOGENIC MATERIALS CONFERENCE 2018 (ICEC-ICMC 2018): . Paper presented at 27th International Cryogenic Engineering Conference / International Cryogenic Materials Conference (ICEC-ICMC), SEP 03-07, 2018, Univ Oxford, Examinat Sch, Oxford, ENGLAND. IOP PUBLISHING LTD, Article ID 012193.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A compact 4 K cooling system for superconducting nanowire single photon detectors
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2019 (English)In: 27TH INTERNATIONAL CRYOGENICS ENGINEERING CONFERENCE AND INTERNATIONAL CRYOGENIC MATERIALS CONFERENCE 2018 (ICEC-ICMC 2018) / [ed] Bradshaw, T Kirichek, O Vandore, J, IOP PUBLISHING LTD , 2019, article id 012193Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Compact, low power, robust closed-cycle cooling platforms are a key requirement for emerging low temperature quantum technologies. We have repurposed a 4 K Stirling/Joule-Thomson cooler built for the Planck space mission into a flexible demonstration system. We have verified a cooling power of 4mW at 4.7K. We have installed a fibre-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector in this platform and deployed it for two key advanced infrared photon counting applications: single-photon LIDAR and dosimetry for laser cancer treatment. We discuss proposed improvements to the Stirling cooler design for increased cooling power, manufacturability and turn-key operation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019
Series
IOP Conference Series-Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1757-8981 ; 502
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-255470 (URN)10.1088/1757-899X/502/1/012193 (DOI)000472778700193 ()2-s2.0-85065973504 (Scopus ID)
Conference
27th International Cryogenic Engineering Conference / International Cryogenic Materials Conference (ICEC-ICMC), SEP 03-07, 2018, Univ Oxford, Examinat Sch, Oxford, ENGLAND
Note

QC 20190919

Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2019-09-19Bibliographically approved
Zichi, J., Gyger, S., Baghban, M. A., Elshaari, A. W., Gallo, K. & Zwiller, V. (2019). An NbTiN superconducting single photon detector implemented on a LiNbO3 nano-waveguide at telecom wavelength. In: Poster session T.Po2: . Paper presented at ECIO Conference in Ghent 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An NbTiN superconducting single photon detector implemented on a LiNbO3 nano-waveguide at telecom wavelength
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2019 (English)In: Poster session T.Po2, 2019Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single photon detectors are a ubiquitous tool for quantum optics experiments as they offer near unity detection efficiency over a broad wavelength range, low dark count rate, excellent time resolution and high saturation rate. Nevertheless, advancing quantum optics experiments and applications beyond the few-photon limit requires large scale integrated systems of quantum sources and detectors. In recent years there has been a tremendous progress with integrating single photon detectors with a variety of photonic platforms. This includes attempts on ion-diffused waveguides in LiNbO3, a non-linear and electro-optic material with widespread use for signal processing, frequency conversion, and quantum optics devices. However the realization of superconducting detectors on single mode waveguides remains elusive. Here we present an NbTiN superconducting single photon detector integrated directly on a LiNbO3 single mode nanophotonic waveguide at telecom wavelength, with a high critical current density and a dark count rate of 3 mHz at 99% of its critical current.

Keywords
SNSPD, lithium niobate
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251754 (URN)
Conference
ECIO Conference in Ghent 2019
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 875994EU, European Research Council, ERC-2012-StGSwedish Research Council, 2013-7152Swedish Research Council, 2018-04487Swedish Research Council, 2016-03905
Note

QC 20190523

Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2019-05-23Bibliographically approved
Gourgues, R., Zadeh, I. E., Elshaari, A. W., Bulgarini, G., Los, J. W. N., Zichi, J., . . . Zwiller, V. (2019). Controlled integration of selected detectors and emitters in photonic integrated circuits. Optics Express, 27(3), 3710-3716
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Controlled integration of selected detectors and emitters in photonic integrated circuits
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2019 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 3710-3716Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Integration of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors and quantum sources with photonic waveguides is crucial for realizing advanced quantum integrated circuits. However, scalability is hindered by stringent requirements on high-performance detectors. Here we overcome the yield limitation by controlled coupling of photonic channels to pre-selected detectors based on measuring critical current, timing resolution, and detection efficiency. As a proof of concept of our approach, we demonstrate a hybrid on-chip full-transceiver consisting of a deterministically integrated detector coupled to a selected nanowire quantum dot through a filtering circuit made of a silicon nitride waveguide and a ring resonator filter, delivering 100 dB suppression of the excitation laser. In addition, we perform extensive testing of the detectors before and after integration in the photonic circuit and show that the high performance of the superconducting nanowire detectors, including timing jitter down to 23 +/- 3 ps, is maintained. Our approach is fully compatible with wafer-level automated testing in a cleanroom environment. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
OPTICAL SOC AMER, 2019
National Category
Accelerator Physics and Instrumentation
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244523 (URN)10.1364/OE.27.003710 (DOI)000457585600163 ()30732386 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85061015801 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190403

Available from: 2019-04-03 Created: 2019-04-03 Last updated: 2019-05-21Bibliographically approved
Fognini, A., Ahmadi, A., Zeeshan, M., Fokkens, J. T., Gibson, S. J., Sherlekar, N., . . . Reimer, M. E. (2019). Dephasing Free Photon Entanglement with a Quantum Dot. ACS Photonics, 6(7), 1656-1663
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dephasing Free Photon Entanglement with a Quantum Dot
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2019 (English)In: ACS Photonics, E-ISSN 2330-4022, Vol. 6, no 7, p. 1656-1663Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Generation of photon pairs from quantum dots with near-unity entanglement fidelity has been a long-standing scientific challenge. It is generally thought that the nuclear spins limit the entanglement fidelity through spin flip dephasing processes. However, this assumption lacks experimental support. Here, we show two-photon entanglement with negligible dephasing from an indium rich single quantum dot comprising a nuclear spin of 9/2 when excited quasi-resonantly. This finding is based on a significantly close match between our entanglement measurements and our model that assumes no dephasing and takes into account the detection system's timing jitter and dark counts. We suggest that neglecting the detection system is responsible for the degradation of the measured entanglement fidelity in the past and not the nuclear spins. Therefore, the key to unity entanglement from quantum dots comprises a resonant excitation scheme and a detection system with ultralow timing jitter and dark counts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2019
Keywords
entanglement, fine-structure splitting, quantum dot, single photons
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-255771 (URN)10.1021/acsphotonics.8b01496 (DOI)000476684300012 ()2-s2.0-85067950170 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190812

Available from: 2019-08-12 Created: 2019-08-12 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Wengerowsky, S., Joshi, S. K., Steinlechner, F., Zichi, J., Dobrovolskiy, S. M., van der Molen, R., . . . Ursin, R. (2019). Entanglement distribution over a 96-km-long submarine optical fiber. Paper presented at AUSER JF, 1969, PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, V23, P880. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 116(14), 6684-6688
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entanglement distribution over a 96-km-long submarine optical fiber
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2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 116, no 14, p. 6684-6688Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Quantum entanglement is one of the most extraordinary effects in quantum physics, with many applications in the emerging field of quantum information science. In particular, it provides the foundation for quantum key distribution (QKD), which promises a conceptual leap in information security. Entanglement-based QKD holds great promise for future applications owing to the possibility of device-independent security and the potential of establishing global-scale quantum repeater networks. While other approaches to QKD have already reached the level of maturity required for operation in absence of typical laboratory infrastructure, comparable field demonstrations of entanglement-based QKD have not been performed so far. Here, we report on the successful distribution of polarization-entangled photon pairs between Malta and Sicily over 96 km of submarine optical telecommunications fiber. We observe around 257 photon pairs per second, with a polarization visibility above 90%. Our results show that QKD based on polarization entanglement is now indeed viable in long-distance fiber links. This field demonstration marks the longest-distance distribution of entanglement in a deployed telecommunications network and demonstrates an international submarine quantum communication channel. This opens up myriad possibilities for future experiments and technological applications using existing infrastructure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NATL ACAD SCIENCES, 2019
Keywords
quantum entanglement, quantum key distribution, quantum cryptography, polarization-entangled photons
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-249792 (URN)10.1073/pnas.1818752116 (DOI)000463069900034 ()30872476 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85064055529 (Scopus ID)
Conference
AUSER JF, 1969, PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, V23, P880
Note

QC 20190424

Available from: 2019-04-24 Created: 2019-04-24 Last updated: 2019-05-28Bibliographically approved
Basset, F. B., Rota, M. B., Schimpf, C., Tedeschi, D., Zeuner, K., da Silva, S. F., . . . Trotta, R. (2019). Entanglement Swapping with Photons Generated on Demand by a Quantum Dot. Physical Review Letters, 123(16), Article ID 160501.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entanglement Swapping with Photons Generated on Demand by a Quantum Dot
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2019 (English)In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 123, no 16, article id 160501Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Photonic entanglement swapping, the procedure of entangling photons without any direct interaction, is a fundamental test of quantum mechanics and an essential resource to the realization of quantum networks. Probabilistic sources of nonclassical light were used for seminal demonstration of entanglement swapping, but applications in quantum technologies demand push-button operation requiring single quantum emitters. This, however, turned out to be an extraordinary challenge due to the stringent prerequisites on the efficiency and purity of the generation of entangled states. Here we show a proof-of-concept demonstration of all-photonic entanglement swapping with pairs of polarization-entangled photons generated on demand by a GaAs quantum dot without spectral and temporal filtering. Moreover, we develop a theoretical model that quantitatively reproduces the experimental data and provides insights on the critical figures of merit for the performance of the swapping operation. Our theoretical analysis also indicates how to improve stateof-the-art entangled-photon sources to meet the requirements needed for implementation of quantum dots in long-distance quantum communication protocols.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2019
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-262938 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.160501 (DOI)000489831500001 ()2-s2.0-85073813116 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20191129

Available from: 2019-11-29 Created: 2019-11-29 Last updated: 2019-11-29Bibliographically approved
Machhadani, H., Zichi, J., Bougerol, C., Lequien, S., Thomassin, J.-L., Mollard, N., . . . Monroy, E. (2019). Improvement of the critical temeprature of NbTiN films on III-nitride substrates. Superconductors Science and Technology, 32(035008)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvement of the critical temeprature of NbTiN films on III-nitride substrates
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2019 (English)In: Superconductors Science and Technology, ISSN 0953-2048, E-ISSN 1361-6668, Vol. 32, no 035008Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we study the impact of using III-nitride semiconductors (GaN, AlN) as substrates for ultrathin (11 nm) superconducting films of NbTiN deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. The resulting NbTiN layers are (111)-oriented, fully relaxed, and they keep an epitaxial relation with the substrate. The higher critical superconducting temperature (T c = 11.8 K) was obtained on AlN-on-sapphire, which was the substrate with smaller lattice mismatch with NbTiN. We attribute this improvement to a reduction of the NbTiN roughness, which appears associated with the relaxation of the lattice misfit with the substrate. On AlN-on-sapphire, superconducting nanowire single photon detectors were fabricated and tested, obtaining external quantum efficiencies that are in excellent agreement with theoretical calculations.

National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251750 (URN)10.1088/1361-6668/aaf99d (DOI)
Note

QC 20190802

Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2019-10-17Bibliographically approved
Machhadani, H., Zichi, J., Bougerol, C., Lequien, S., Thomassin, J.-L., Mollard, N., . . . Monroy, E. (2019). Improvement of the critical temperature of NbTiN films on III-nitride substrates. Superconductors Science and Technology, 32(3), Article ID 035008.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvement of the critical temperature of NbTiN films on III-nitride substrates
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2019 (English)In: Superconductors Science and Technology, ISSN 0953-2048, E-ISSN 1361-6668, Vol. 32, no 3, article id 035008Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we study the impact of using III-nitride semiconductors (GaN, AlN) as substrates for ultrathin (11 nm) superconducting films of NbTiN deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. The resulting NbTiN layers are (111)-oriented, fully relaxed, and they keep an epitaxial relation with the substrate. The higher critical superconducting temperature (T-c = 11.8 K) was obtained on AIN-on-sapphire, which was the substrate with smaller lattice mismatch with NbTiN. We attribute this improvement to a reduction of the NbTiN roughness, which appears associated with the relaxation of the lattice misfit with the substrate. On AlN-on-sapphire, superconducting nanowire single photon detectors were fabricated and tested, obtaining external quantum efficiencies that are in excellent agreement with theoretical calculations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019
Keywords
NbTiN, superconductor, GaN, AlN, single photon detector
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244483 (URN)10.1088/1361-6668/aaf99d (DOI)000458129800001 ()2-s2.0-85062473569 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190321

Available from: 2019-03-21 Created: 2019-03-21 Last updated: 2019-05-21Bibliographically approved
Elsinger, L., Gourgues, R., Zadeh, I. E., Maes, J., Guardiani, A., Bulgarini, G., . . . Van Thourhout, D. (2019). Integration of Colloidal PbS/CdS Quantum Dots with Plasmonic Antennas and Superconducting Detectors on a Silicon Nitride Photonic Platform. Nano letters (Print), 19(8), 5452-5458
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of Colloidal PbS/CdS Quantum Dots with Plasmonic Antennas and Superconducting Detectors on a Silicon Nitride Photonic Platform
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2019 (English)In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 19, no 8, p. 5452-5458Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Single-photon sources and detectors are indispensable building blocks for integrated quantum photonics, a research field that is seeing ever increasing interest for numerous applications. In this work, we implemented essential components for a quantum key distribution transceiver on a single photonic chip. Plasmonic antennas on top of silicon nitride waveguides provide Purcell enhancement with a concurrent increase of the count rate, speeding up the microsecond radiative lifetime of IR-emitting colloidal PbS/CdS quantum dots (QDs). The use of low-fluorescence silicon nitride, with a waveguide loss smaller than 1 dB/cm, made it possible to implement high extinction ratio optical filters and low insertion loss spectrometers. Waveguide-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors allow for low time-jitter single-photon detection. To showcase the performance of the components, we demonstrate on-chip lifetime spectroscopy of PbS/CdS QDs. The method developed in this paper is predicted to scale down to single QDs, and newly developed emitters can be readily integrated on the chip-based platform.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2019
Keywords
Colloidal quantum dots, plasmonic antennas, superconducting nanowire single photon detector, hybrid integrated photonics
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-257822 (URN)10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b01948 (DOI)000481563800082 ()31313928 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85071350662 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190906

Available from: 2019-09-06 Created: 2019-09-06 Last updated: 2019-09-06Bibliographically approved
Chang, J., Zadeh, I. E., Los, J. W. N., Zichi, J., Fognini, A., Gevers, M., . . . Zwiller, V. (2019). Multimode-fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with high detection efficiency and time resolution. Applied Optics, 58(36), 9803-9807
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multimode-fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with high detection efficiency and time resolution
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2019 (English)In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 58, no 36, p. 9803-9807Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the past decade, superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) have gradually become an indispensable part of any demanding quantum optics experiment. Until now, most SNSPDs have been coupled to single-mode fibers. SNSPDs coupled to multimode fibers have shown promising efficiencies but have yet to achieve high time resolution. For a number of applications ranging from quantum nano-photonics to bio-optics, high efficiency and high time resolution are desired at the same time. In this paper, we demonstrate the role of polarization on the efficiency of multimode-fiber-coupled detectors and fabricated high-performance 20 mu m, 25 mu m, and 50 mu m diameter detectors targeted for visible, near-infrared, and telecom wavelengths. A custom-built setup was used to simulate realistic experiments with randomized modes in the fiber. We achieved over 80% system efficiency and <20 ps timing jitter for 20 mu m SNSPDs. Also, we realized 70% system efficiency and <20 ps timing jitter for 50 mu m SNSPDs. The high-efficiency multimode-fiber-coupled SNSPDs with unparalleled time resolution will benefit various quantum optics experiments and applications in the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Optical Society of America, 2019
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-266739 (URN)10.1364/AO.58.009803 (DOI)000504929200011 ()31873623 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85077160058 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20200117

Available from: 2020-01-17 Created: 2020-01-17 Last updated: 2020-01-17Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5726-1063

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