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Zichi, J., Gyger, S., Baghban, M. A., Elshaari, A. W., Gallo, K. & Zwiller, V. (2019). An NbTiN superconducting single photon detector implemented on a LiNbO3 nano-waveguide at telecom wavelength. In: Poster session T.Po2: . Paper presented at ECIO Conference in Ghent 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An NbTiN superconducting single photon detector implemented on a LiNbO3 nano-waveguide at telecom wavelength
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2019 (English)In: Poster session T.Po2, 2019Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single photon detectors are a ubiquitous tool for quantum optics experiments as they offer near unity detection efficiency over a broad wavelength range, low dark count rate, excellent time resolution and high saturation rate. Nevertheless, advancing quantum optics experiments and applications beyond the few-photon limit requires large scale integrated systems of quantum sources and detectors. In recent years there has been a tremendous progress with integrating single photon detectors with a variety of photonic platforms. This includes attempts on ion-diffused waveguides in LiNbO3, a non-linear and electro-optic material with widespread use for signal processing, frequency conversion, and quantum optics devices. However the realization of superconducting detectors on single mode waveguides remains elusive. Here we present an NbTiN superconducting single photon detector integrated directly on a LiNbO3 single mode nanophotonic waveguide at telecom wavelength, with a high critical current density and a dark count rate of 3 mHz at 99% of its critical current.

Keywords
SNSPD, lithium niobate
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251754 (URN)
Conference
ECIO Conference in Ghent 2019
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 875994EU, European Research Council, ERC-2012-StGSwedish Research Council, 2013-7152Swedish Research Council, 2018-04487Swedish Research Council, 2016-03905
Note

QC 20190523

Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2019-05-23Bibliographically approved
Gourgues, R., Zadeh, I. E., Elshaari, A. W., Bulgarini, G., Los, J. W. N., Zichi, J., . . . Zwiller, V. (2019). Controlled integration of selected detectors and emitters in photonic integrated circuits. Optics Express, 27(3), 3710-3716
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Controlled integration of selected detectors and emitters in photonic integrated circuits
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2019 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 3710-3716Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Integration of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors and quantum sources with photonic waveguides is crucial for realizing advanced quantum integrated circuits. However, scalability is hindered by stringent requirements on high-performance detectors. Here we overcome the yield limitation by controlled coupling of photonic channels to pre-selected detectors based on measuring critical current, timing resolution, and detection efficiency. As a proof of concept of our approach, we demonstrate a hybrid on-chip full-transceiver consisting of a deterministically integrated detector coupled to a selected nanowire quantum dot through a filtering circuit made of a silicon nitride waveguide and a ring resonator filter, delivering 100 dB suppression of the excitation laser. In addition, we perform extensive testing of the detectors before and after integration in the photonic circuit and show that the high performance of the superconducting nanowire detectors, including timing jitter down to 23 +/- 3 ps, is maintained. Our approach is fully compatible with wafer-level automated testing in a cleanroom environment. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
OPTICAL SOC AMER, 2019
National Category
Accelerator Physics and Instrumentation
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244523 (URN)10.1364/OE.27.003710 (DOI)000457585600163 ()30732386 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85061015801 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190403

Available from: 2019-04-03 Created: 2019-04-03 Last updated: 2019-05-21Bibliographically approved
Zichi, J., Chang, J., Steinhauer, S., Von Fieandt, K., Los, J. W. N., Visser, G., . . . Zwiller, V. (2019). Optimizing the stoichiometry of ultrathin NbTiN films for high-performance superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors. Optics Express, 27(19), 26579-26587
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimizing the stoichiometry of ultrathin NbTiN films for high-performance superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors
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2019 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 27, no 19, p. 26579-26587Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The requirements in quantum optics experiments for high single-photon detection efficiency. low timing jitter, low dark count rate and short dead time have been fulfilled with the development of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors. Although they offer a detection efficiency above 90%, achieving a high time resolution in devices made of amorphous materials is a challenge, particularly at temperatures above 0.8 K. Devices made from niobium nitride and niobium titanium nitride allow us to reach the best timing jitter but. in turn, have stronger requirements in terms of film quality to achieve a high efficiency. Here we take advantage of the flexibility of reactive co-sputter deposition to tailor the composition of NbxTi1-xN superconducting films and show that a Nb fraction of x = 0.62 allows for the fabrication of detectors from films as thick as 9 nm and covering an active area of 20 mu m. with a wide detection saturation plateau at telecom wavelengths and in particular at 1550 nm. This is a signature of an internal detection efficiency saturation, achieved while maintaining the high time resolution associated with NbTiN and operation at 2.5K. With our optimized recipe, we reliably fabricated detectors with high critical current densities reaching a saturation plateau at 1550 nm with 80% system detection efficiency and with a FWHM timing jitter as low as 19.5 ps. Open Access Publishing Agreement

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
OPTICAL SOC AMER, 2019
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Research subject
Physics, Atomic, Subatomic and Astrophysics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-261307 (URN)10.1364/OE.27.026579 (DOI)000486373100026 ()31674536 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85072623051 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20191008

Available from: 2019-10-08 Created: 2019-10-08 Last updated: 2020-03-09Bibliographically approved
Gyger, S., Zeuner, K. D., Jöns, K. D., Elshaari, A. W., Paul, M., Popov, S., . . . Zwiller, V. (2019). Reconfigurable frequency coding of triggered single photons in the telecom C-band. Optics Express, 27(10), 14400-14406
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reconfigurable frequency coding of triggered single photons in the telecom C-band
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2019 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 14400-14406Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, we demonstrate reconfigurable frequency manipulation of quantum states of light in the telecom C-band. Triggered single photons are encoded in a superposition state of three channels using sidebands up to 53 GHz created by an off-the-shelf phase modulator. The single photons are emitted by an InAs/GaAs quantum dot grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy within the transparency window of the backbone fiber optical network. A cross-correlation measurement of the sidebands demonstrates the preservation of the single photon nature; an important prerequisite for future quantum technology applications using the existing telecommunication fiber network.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Optical Society of America, 2019
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-253738 (URN)10.1364/OE.27.014400 (DOI)000469220500072 ()31163890 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85065830027 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190617

Available from: 2019-06-17 Created: 2019-06-17 Last updated: 2019-10-14Bibliographically approved
Schweickert, L., Jöns, K. D., Lettner, T., Zeuner, K., Zichi, J., Elshaari, A. W., . . . Zwiller, V. (2018). Generating, manipulating and detecting quantum states of light at the nanoscale. In: Optics InfoBase Conference Papers: . Paper presented at Latin America Optics and Photonics Conference, LAOP 2018, 12 November 2018 through 15 November 2018. OSA - The Optical Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Generating, manipulating and detecting quantum states of light at the nanoscale
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2018 (English)In: Optics InfoBase Conference Papers, OSA - The Optical Society , 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We generate, manipulate and detect light at the single photon level with semiconducting and superconducting nanowires.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
OSA - The Optical Society, 2018
Keywords
Light, Particle beams, Photonics, Nano scale, Quantum state, Single-photon level, Superconducting nanowire, Quantum theory
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-247434 (URN)10.1364/LAOP.2018.Tu5D.3 (DOI)2-s2.0-85059482342 (Scopus ID)9781943580491 (ISBN)
Conference
Latin America Optics and Photonics Conference, LAOP 2018, 12 November 2018 through 15 November 2018
Note

QC20190418

Available from: 2019-04-18 Created: 2019-04-18 Last updated: 2019-04-18Bibliographically approved
Elshaari, A. W., Esmaeil Zadeh, I., Fognini, A., Dalacu, D., Poole, P. J., Reimer, M. E., . . . Jöns, K. D. (2018). Hybrid quantum photonic integrated circuits. In: Proceedings - International Conference Laser Optics 2018, ICLO 2018: . Paper presented at 2018 International Conference Laser Optics, ICLO 2018, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, 4 June 2018 through 8 June 2018. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Article ID 8435508.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hybrid quantum photonic integrated circuits
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings - International Conference Laser Optics 2018, ICLO 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, article id 8435508Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Quantum photonic integrated circuits require a scalable approach to integrate bright on-demand sources of entangled photon-pairs in complex on-chip quantum photonic circuits. Currently, the most promising sources are based on III/V semiconductor quantum dots. However, complex photonic circuitry is mainly achieved in silicon photonics due to the tremendous technological challenges in circuit fabrication. We take the best of both worlds by developing a new hybrid on-chip nanofabrication approach, allowing to integrate III/V semiconductor nanowire quantum emitters into silicon-based photonics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018
Keywords
Quantum dots, Quantum photonic circuits, Semiconductor nanowires, SIN waveguides, Singlephoton source
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-234485 (URN)10.1109/LO.2018.8435508 (DOI)000451036000439 ()2-s2.0-85052512010 (Scopus ID)9781538636121 (ISBN)
Conference
2018 International Conference Laser Optics, ICLO 2018, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, 4 June 2018 through 8 June 2018
Note

QC 20180907

Available from: 2018-09-07 Created: 2018-09-07 Last updated: 2020-03-03Bibliographically approved
Elshaari, A. W., Buyukozer, E., Zadeh, I. E., Lettner, T., Zhao, P., Schöll, E., . . . Zwiller, V. (2018). Strain-Tunable Quantum Integrated Photonics. Nano letters (Print), 18(12), 7969-7976
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strain-Tunable Quantum Integrated Photonics
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2018 (English)In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 18, no 12, p. 7969-7976Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Semiconductor quantum dots are crucial parts of the photonic quantum technology toolbox because they show excellent single-photon emission properties in addition to their potential as solid-state qubits. Recently, there has been an increasing effort to deterministically integrate single semiconductor quantum dots into complex photonic circuits. Despite rapid progress in the field, it remains challenging to manipulate the optical properties of waveguide-integrated quantum emitters in a deterministic, reversible, and nonintrusive manner. Here we demonstrate a new class of hybrid quantum photonic circuits combining III V semiconductors, silicon nitride, and piezoelectric crystals. Using a combination of bottom-up, top-down, and nanomanipulation techniques, we realize strain tuning of a selected, waveguide-integrated, quantum emitter and a planar integrated optical resonator. Our findings are an important step toward realizing reconfigurable quantum-integrated photonics, with full control over the quantum sources and the photonic circuit.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2018
Keywords
Nanowires, strain tuning, quantum dot, quantum integrated photonics, ring resonator, single photon
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-240745 (URN)10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b03937 (DOI)000453488800074 ()30474987 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85058112477 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2016-03905
Note

QC 20190108

Available from: 2019-01-08 Created: 2019-01-08 Last updated: 2019-01-08Bibliographically approved
Elshaari, A. W., Zadeh, I. E., Fognini, A., Reimer, M. E., Dalacu, D., Poole, P. J., . . . Jöns, K. D. (2017). On-chip single photon filtering and multiplexing in hybrid quantum photonic circuits. Nature Communications, 8, Article ID 379.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On-chip single photon filtering and multiplexing in hybrid quantum photonic circuits
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2017 (English)In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, article id 379Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Quantum light plays a pivotal role in modern science and future photonic applications. Since the advent of integrated quantum nanophotonics different material platforms based on III-V nanostructures-, colour centers-, and nonlinear waveguides as on-chip light sources have been investigated. Each platform has unique advantages and limitations; however, all implementations face major challenges with filtering of individual quantum states, scalable integration, deterministic multiplexing of selected quantum emitters, and on-chip excitation suppression. Here we overcome all of these challenges with a hybrid and scalable approach, where single III-V quantum emitters are positioned and deterministically integrated in a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible photonic circuit. We demonstrate reconfigurable on-chip single-photon filtering and wavelength division multiplexing with a foot print one million times smaller than similar table-top approaches, while offering excitation suppression of more than 95 dB and efficient routing of single photons over a bandwidth of 40 nm. Our work marks an important step to harvest quantum optical technologies' full potential.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2017
National Category
Other Physics Topics Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-214498 (URN)10.1038/s41467-017-00486-8 (DOI)000408694700001 ()28855499 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85028556311 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20171009

Available from: 2017-10-09 Created: 2017-10-09 Last updated: 2020-03-09Bibliographically approved
Zadeh, I. E., Elshaari, A. W., Jöns, K. D., Fognini, A., Dalacu, D., Poole, P. J., . . . Zwiller, V. (2016). Deterministic Integration of Single Photon Sources in Silicon Based Photonic Circuits. Nano letters (Print), 16(4), 2289-2294
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deterministic Integration of Single Photon Sources in Silicon Based Photonic Circuits
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2016 (English)In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 2289-2294Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A major step toward fully integrated quantum optics is the deterministic incorporation of high quality single photon sources in on-chip optical circuits. We show a novel hybrid approach in which preselected III-V single quantum dots in nanowires are transferred and integrated in silicon based photonic circuits. The quantum emitters maintain their high optical quality after integration as verified by measuring a low multiphoton probability of 0.07 +/- 0.07 and emission line width as narrow as 3.45 +/- 0.48 GHz. Our approach allows for optimum alignment of the quantum dot light emission to the fundamental waveguide mode resulting in very high coupling efficiencies. We estimate a coupling efficiency of 24.3 +/- 1.7% from the studied single-photon source to the photonic channel and further show by finite-difference time-domain simulations that for an optimized choice of material and design the efficiency can exceed 90%.

Keywords
Integrated quantum optics, nanowire quantum dot, single-photons, hybrid photonics
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186564 (URN)10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b04709 (DOI)000374274600024 ()26954298 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84964950011 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160513

Available from: 2016-05-13 Created: 2016-05-13 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Zichi, J., Chang, C., Steinhauer, S., von Fieandt, K., Los, J. W. N., Visser, G., . . . Zwiller, V.NbxTi1-xN low timing jitter single-photon detectors with unity internal detection efficiency at 1550 nm.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>NbxTi1-xN low timing jitter single-photon detectors with unity internal detection efficiency at 1550 nm
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The requirements in quantum optics experiments for high single photon detectionefficiency, low timing jitter, low dark count rate and short dead time have been fulfilled withthe development of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors. Although they offer adetection efficiency above 90%, achieving a high time resolution in devices made ofamorphous materials is a challenge, particularly at temperatures above 0.8 K. Devices madefrom niobium nitride and niobium titanium nitride allow to reach the best timing jitter, but inturn have stronger requirements in terms of film quality to achieve a high efficiency. Here wetake advantage of the flexibility of reactive co-sputter deposition to tailor the composition ofNbxTi1-xN superconducting films, and show that a Nb fraction of x = 0.62 allows for thefabrication of detectors from films as thick as 9 nm and covering an active area of 20 μm,with a wide detection saturation plateau at telecom wavelengths and in particular at 1550 nm.This is a signature of an internal detection efficiency saturation, achieved while maintainingthe high time resolution associated with NbTiN and operation at 2.5K. With our optimizedrecipe, we reliably fabricated detectors with high critical current densities reaching asaturation plateau at 1550 nm with 80% system detection efficiency, and with a FWHMtiming jitter as low as 19.47 ps.

National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251747 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2013-7152Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Note

QC 20190521

Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2019-05-21Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7004-9665

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