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Wei, W., Samuelsson, P., Tilliander, A., Gyllenram, R. & Jönsson, P. G. (2020). Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions During Ferromolybdenum Production. Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, 6, 103-112
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions During Ferromolybdenum Production
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2020 (English)In: Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, ISSN 2199-3823, Vol. 6, p. 103-112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Molybdenum is mainly used as an alloy material in the iron and steel industry and typically in the form of ferromolybdenum (FeMo). The current study aims to evaluate the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) of four ferromolybdenum production cases using inventory inputs from a process model based on mass and energy conservations. The total energy required for producing 1 tonne of FeMo can vary between 29.1 GJ/t FeMo and 188.6 GJ/t FeMo. Furthermore, the corresponding GHG emissions differ from 3.16 tCO2-eq/t FeMo to 14.79 tCO2-eq/t FeMo. The main variances are from the mining and beneficiation stages. The differences in these stages come from the beneficiation degree (ore grade) and the mine type (i.e., co-product from copper mining). Furthermore, the mine type has a larger impact on the total energy consumption and GHG emissions than the beneficiation degree. More specifically, FeMo produced as co-product from copper mining has a lower environmental impact measured as the energy consumption and GHG emission among all the four cases. The inventory, consumed energy or associated GHG emission is independent on the initial ore grade and mine type in the downstream production stages such as roasting and smelting. Also, transport has the least impact on the energy consumption and GHG emission among all production stages.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Keywords
Energy balance, Energy consumption, Ferromolybdenum, Greenhouse gas emission, Material balance
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-267853 (URN)10.1007/s40831-019-00260-8 (DOI)2-s2.0-85077556115 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20200303

Available from: 2020-03-03 Created: 2020-03-03 Last updated: 2020-03-03Bibliographically approved
Han, T., Lu, X., Sun, Y., Jiang, J., Yang, W. & Jönsson, P. G. (2020). Magnetic bio-activated carbon production from lignin via a streamlined process and its use in phosphate removal from aqueous solutions. Science of the Total Environment, 708, Article ID 135069.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magnetic bio-activated carbon production from lignin via a streamlined process and its use in phosphate removal from aqueous solutions
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2020 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 708, article id 135069Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lignin and ferrous salt were mechanically mixed, melted, carbonized and steam activated to produce magnetic bio-activated carbons (MBACs). Phosphate adsorption capacity measurement was conducted on representative MBAC, which has a high surface iron oxide proportion and mesoporous volume. The results indicate that iron species are embedded into the carbon matrix by lignin melting. Steam is not only an activation agent for pore generation and widening but is also effective for the oxidization of Hagg iron carbide produced via ferrous salt decomposition and subsequent reduction during the carbonization process to form magnetite. The porous and magnetic properties and surface iron oxide content of the produced MBACs can be modified by controlling the steam/magnetic biochar (MBC) ratio. The MBAC production process is streamlined and novel, compared with conventional coprecipitation or impregnation methods. The maximum phosphate adsorption onto the representative MBAC product using the best fitting model, i.e., the Langmuir-Freundlich model, is estimated to be 21.18 mg/g, suggesting that the representative MBAC product has a comparable phosphate adsorption capacity to most of the reported MBCs and MBACs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Lignin, Magnetic bio-activated carbon, Melting, Phosphate adsorption, Steam activation
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-267792 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135069 (DOI)000506214900058 ()31791785 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85075991461 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20200305

Available from: 2020-03-05 Created: 2020-03-05 Last updated: 2020-03-05Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, L., Samuelsson, P. & Jönsson, P. G. (2020). Using statistical modeling to predict the electrical energy consumption of an electric arc furnace producing stainless steel. Metals, 10(1), Article ID 36.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using statistical modeling to predict the electrical energy consumption of an electric arc furnace producing stainless steel
2020 (English)In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The non-linearity of the Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) process and the correlative behavior between the process variables impose challenges that have to be considered if one aims to create a statistical model that is relevant and useful in practice. In this regard, both the statistical modeling framework and the statistical tools used in the modeling pipeline must be selected with the aim of handling these challenges. To achieve this, a non-linear statistical modeling framework known as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) has been used to predict the Electrical Energy (EE) consumption of an EAF producing stainless steel. The statistical tools Feature Importance (FI), Distance Correlation (dCor) and Kolmogorov–Smirnov (KS) tests are applied to investigate the most influencing input variables as well as reasons behind model performance differences when predicting the EE consumption on future heats. The performance, measured as kWh per heat, of the best model was comparable to the performance of the best model reported in the literature while requiring substantially fewer input variables.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2020
Keywords
Electric Arc Furnace, Electrical energy consumption, Machine learning, Predictive modeling, Statistical modeling
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-267855 (URN)10.3390/met10010036 (DOI)2-s2.0-85077311305 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20200219

Available from: 2020-02-19 Created: 2020-02-19 Last updated: 2020-02-19Bibliographically approved
Xuan, C., Nakajima, K., Shibata, H. & Jönsson, P. G. (2020). Wetting and spreading behavior of liquid iron on single crystal TiO2 substrate. Materials letters (General ed.), 258, Article ID 126778.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wetting and spreading behavior of liquid iron on single crystal TiO2 substrate
2020 (English)In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 258, article id 126778Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work reported the wetting and spreading behavior of pure iron droplet on single crystal TiO2 substrate. During the heating process, a "FeO center dot TiOx separated liquid phase" appeared at the temperature below the melting point of the pure iron, and completely covered the lower half of the iron droplet. The observed high-wetting behavior of the droplet is due to the spreading of the "separated liquid phase" rather than the iron droplet flow. According to both thermodynamic considerations and experimental measurements, the "separated liquid phase" is formed through the chemical interactions among the iron specimen, oxygen gas in the Ar atmosphere and TiO2 substrate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Interfacial phenomenon, Reactive wetting, Partial pressure oxygen, TiO2
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-266203 (URN)10.1016/j.matlet.2019.126778 (DOI)000500934600058 ()2-s2.0-85073018000 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20200113

Available from: 2020-01-13 Created: 2020-01-13 Last updated: 2020-01-13Bibliographically approved
Ni, P., Tanaka, T., Suzuki, M., Nakamoto, M. & Jönsson, P. (2019). A Kinetic Model of Mass Transfer and Chemical Reactions at a Steel/Slag Interface under Effect of Interfacial Tensions. ISIJ International, 59(5), 737-748
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Kinetic Model of Mass Transfer and Chemical Reactions at a Steel/Slag Interface under Effect of Interfacial Tensions
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2019 (English)In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 59, no 5, p. 737-748Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new kinetic model was developed to predict the dynamic change of the interfacial oxygen content and the steel/slag interfacial tension. This model mainly describes the following interfacial physicochemical phenomena: i) Silica decomposition and oxygen adsorption at the interface, ii) Oxygen and aluminum reactions at the interface, iii) Oxygen desorption from the interface, iv) Silica mass transfer from the slag to the interface, v) Dissolution of the formed alumina into the slag and its transfer in slag and vi) Blockage on the silica mass transfer, to come in contact with the steel, by the accumulation of the formed alumina at the interface. With this model, the dynamic changes of the interfacial oxygen contents under different aluminum contents in steel and different slag viscosities were predicted. Overall, the interfacial oxygen content was found to increase with a decreased aluminum content and a decreased slag viscosity. Furthermore, the aluminum reaction rate can significantly influence the interfacial oxygen content as well as the interfacial tension. In addition, the model captured the fast increase of the interfacial tension after passing the minimum value point for the system of a high -Al content steel and a low viscous slag, which is in agreement with the experimental observations. Furthermore, a parameter study was carried out to show the influence of various parameters on the dynamic interfacial phenomena.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IRON STEEL INST JAPAN KEIDANREN KAIKAN, 2019
Keywords
steel-slag interfacial tension, mass transfer, thermodynamics and kinetics, interfacial reactions, dynamic modeling
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-254046 (URN)10.2355/isijinternational.ISIJINT-2018-496 (DOI)000469406900001 ()2-s2.0-85069161312 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190813

Available from: 2019-08-13 Created: 2019-08-13 Last updated: 2019-12-20Bibliographically approved
Liu, Y., Ersson, M., Liu, H., Jönsson, P. G. & Gan, Y. (2019). A Review of Physical and Numerical Approaches for the Study of Gas Stirring in Ladle Metallurgy. Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, 50(1), 555-577
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Review of Physical and Numerical Approaches for the Study of Gas Stirring in Ladle Metallurgy
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2019 (English)In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 555-577Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article presents a review of the research into gas stirring in ladle metallurgy carried out over the past few decades. Herein, the physical modeling experiments are divided into four major areas: (1) mixing and homogenization in the ladle; (2) gas bubble formation, transformation, and interactions in the plume zone; (3) inclusion behavior at the steel-slag interface and in the molten steel; and (4) open eye formation. Several industrial trials have also been carried out to optimize gas stirring and open eye formation. Approaches for selecting criteria for scaling to guarantee flow similarity between industrial trials and physical modeling experiments are discussed. To describe the bubble behavior and two-phase plume structure, four main mathematical models have been used in different research fields: (1) the quasi-single-phase model, (2) the volume of fluid (VOF) model, (3) the Eulerian multiphase (E-E) model, and (4) the Eulerian-Lagrangian (E-L) model. In recent years, the E-E model has been used to predict gas stirring conditions in the ladle, and specific models in commercial packages, as well as research codes, have been developed gradually to describe the complex physical and chemical phenomena. Furthermore, the coupling of turbulence models with multiphase models is also discussed. For physical modeling, some general empirical rules have not been analyzed sufficiently. Based on a comparison with the available experimental results, it is found that the mathematical models focusing on the mass transfer phenomenon and inclusion behaviors at the steel-slag interface, vacuum degassing at the gas-liquid interface, dissolution rate of the solid alloy at the liquid-solid interface, and the combination of fluid dynamics and thermodynamics need to be improved further. To describe industrial conditions using mathematical methods and improve numerical modeling, the results of physical modeling experiments and industrial trials must offer satisfactory validations for the improvement of numerical modeling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2019
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-243935 (URN)10.1007/s11663-018-1446-x (DOI)000456070300052 ()2-s2.0-85056988962 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190313

Available from: 2019-03-13 Created: 2019-03-13 Last updated: 2019-03-13Bibliographically approved
Al-Saadi, M., Sandberg, F., Hulme-Smith, C., Karasev, A. & Jönsson, P. (2019). A study of the static recrystallization behaviour of cast Alloy 825 after hot-compressions. In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series: . Paper presented at 7th International Conference on Recrystallization and Grain Growth, Ghent,August 4-9, 2019. , 1270
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study of the static recrystallization behaviour of cast Alloy 825 after hot-compressions
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2019, Vol. 1270Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The static recrystallization behaviour of a columnar and equiaxed Alloy 825 material was studied on a Gleeble-3800 thermo-simulator by single-hit compression experiments. Deformation temperatures of 1000-1200 °C, a strain of up to 0.8, a strain rate of 1s-1, and relaxation times of 30, 180, and 300 s were selected as the deformation conditions to investigate the effects of the deformation parameters on the SRX behaviour. Furthermore, the influences of the initial grain structures on the SRX behaviors were studied. The microstructural evolution was studied using optical microscopy and EBSD. The EBSD measurements showed a relaxation time of 95 % for fractional recrystallization grains, 𝑡95, in both structures, was less than 30 seconds at the deformation temperatures 1100 °C and 1200 °C. However, fewer than 95% of recrystallized grains recrystallized when the deformation temperature was lowered to 1000 °C. From the grain-boundary misorientation distribution in statically recrystallized samples, the fraction of high-angle grain boundaries decreased with an increasing deformation temperature from 1000 °C to 1200 °C for a given relaxation time. This was attributed to grain coarsening

Series
Journal of Physics: Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588
Keywords
Alloy 825, Static recrystallization, hot compression, Gleeble-3800 thermo simulator
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Materials Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-258210 (URN)10.1088/1742-6596/1270/1/012023 (DOI)2-s2.0-85072107757 (Scopus ID)
Conference
7th International Conference on Recrystallization and Grain Growth, Ghent,August 4-9, 2019
Note

QC 20190916

Available from: 2019-09-10 Created: 2019-09-10 Last updated: 2019-10-28Bibliographically approved
Nakajima, K., Mu, W. & Jönsson, P. (2019). Assessment of a Simplified Correlation Between Wettability Measurement and Dispersion/Coagulation Potency of Oxide Particles in Ferrous Alloy Melt. Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, 50(5), 2229-2237
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of a Simplified Correlation Between Wettability Measurement and Dispersion/Coagulation Potency of Oxide Particles in Ferrous Alloy Melt
2019 (English)In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 2229-2237Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article seeks to demonstrate a direct and simplified correlation between the measurement of the wettability and the agglomeration potency of the inclusion particles in liquid ferrous alloy. The established methodology has been validated by the agreement between the calculated coagulation coefficient of Al2O3 particles and the experimental data in the open literature. Subsequently, the coagulation coefficient of Al2O3, MgO, and Ti2O3 particles in ferrous alloy melts was evaluated quantitatively by the proposed method using the actual experimental data of contact angle and surface tension. Meanwhile, the effect of the matrix composition has been investigated by comparing the Hamaker constant and coagulation coefficient between Ti2O3/pure iron and Ti2O3/low-carbon steel systems. It is noted that the change of coagulation coefficient associated with the contact angle is caused by the formation of a new phase at the oxide/metal interface at the high temperature. The present work aims to provide a deep understanding of the connection between inclusion motion behavior in the liquid alloy and the high temperature interfacial phenomenon.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2019
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-261293 (URN)10.1007/s11663-019-01624-x (DOI)000486025000014 ()2-s2.0-85068126410 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20191008

Available from: 2019-10-08 Created: 2019-10-08 Last updated: 2019-10-08Bibliographically approved
Jarnerud, T., Karasev, A. & Jönsson, P. G. (2019). Briquetting of wastes from pulp and paper industries by using AOD converter slag as binders for application in metallurgy. Materials, 12(18), Article ID 2888.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Briquetting of wastes from pulp and paper industries by using AOD converter slag as binders for application in metallurgy
2019 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 18, article id 2888Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A number of carbon-rich (containing up to 47 wt% C) and lime-rich (containing up to 96 wt% of CaO-compounds) waste products from the pulp and paper industries can be used in iron and steel industry as fuels and slag formers for various metallurgical processes such as blast furnaces (BF), cupola furnaces (CF), argon oxygen decarburization (AOD) converters and electric arc furnaces (EAF). In most cases, these wastes consist of different size powders. In order to facilitate loading, transportation and charging of these powder wastes, briquetting is required. In this study, a pulverized AOD slag was tested as a binder component for briquetting of CaO-containing wastes (such as mesa, lime mud and fly ash) from pulp and paper industries. Moreover, mechanical testing of the possibilities for loading, transportation and unloading operations were done, specifically drop test trials were done for briquettes with different chemical compositions and treatments such as heating and storage. The results showed that an addition of 10-20% of AOD slag as a binder component followed by heat-treatment at 850 °C significantly improved the mechanical properties of the CaO-containing briquettes. An application of these briquettes will significantly reduce the consumption of natural resources (such as nature lime) in the metallurgical processes. Moreover, it can reduce the landfill area of wastes from pulp and paper industries, which is important from an environmental point-of-view.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2019
Keywords
Metallurgical briquettes, Recirculation of wastes, Resource saving, Secondary raw materials
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-262500 (URN)10.3390/ma12182888 (DOI)000489126600047 ()2-s2.0-85072564307 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20191017

Available from: 2019-10-17 Created: 2019-10-17 Last updated: 2019-11-25Bibliographically approved
Han, T., Ding, S., Yang, W. & Jönsson, P. (2019). Catalytic pyrolysis of lignin using low-cost materials with different acidities and textural properties as catalysts. Chemical Engineering Journal, 373, 846-856
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Catalytic pyrolysis of lignin using low-cost materials with different acidities and textural properties as catalysts
2019 (English)In: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, E-ISSN 1873-3212, Vol. 373, p. 846-856Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignin was performed using low-cost materials with different acidities and textural properties as catalysts in the present work. The main focus is to understand the role of low-cost catalysts in the fast pyrolysis of lignin. The four most commonly used low-cost catalysts, ilmenite (FeTiO3), bentonite (Al-Si-OH), activated carbon (AC) and red mud (RM), were selected. The results show that bentonite, red mud and activated carbon effectively enhance the dehydration reaction, which is regarded as the dominant way to eliminate oxygen during the pyrolysis process, due to the existence of strong acidic sites. However, only activated carbon is found to be effective in promoting the production of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs). Two metallic catalysts, i. e., bentonite and red mud, have strong acidities but quite low surface areas and less porous structures. Therefore, the dehydrated intermediates produced are especially easy to repolymerize to form char or coke without the restriction of obtaining a porous structure during the pyrolysis process. Activated carbon has not only a certain acidity but also a rich porous structure. Lignin fast pyrolysis-derived oxygenates can diffuse and react on the well-dispersed active sites within the pores of activated carbons. The catalytic performance of the activated carbon are supposed to be determined by the pore size. Only pores of similar size to lignin fast pyrolysis-derived oxygenates (0.6-1 nm) seems to be effective for the production of MAHs. Pores larger or smaller than lignin fast pyrolysis-derived oxygenates both tend to cause coke deposition rather than MAHs formation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA, 2019
Keywords
Low-cost catalysts, Lignin, Fast pyrolysis, Deoxygenation, Dehydration
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-255169 (URN)10.1016/j.cej.2019.05.125 (DOI)000471682900081 ()2-s2.0-85065989283 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190904

Available from: 2019-09-04 Created: 2019-09-04 Last updated: 2019-09-04Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9775-0382

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