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Jin, Y., Liu, S., Shi, Z., Wang, S., Wen, Y., Zaini, I. N., . . . Yang, W. (2024). A novel three-stage ex-situ catalytic pyrolysis process for improved bio-oil yield and quality from lignocellulosic biomass. Energy, 295, Article ID 131029.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel three-stage ex-situ catalytic pyrolysis process for improved bio-oil yield and quality from lignocellulosic biomass
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2024 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 295, article id 131029Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aims to improve the quality and yield of bio-oil produced from ex-situ catalytic pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass (sawdust) using a combination of stage catalysts with Al-MCM-41, HZSM-5, and ZrO2. The research employed various methods, including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry, bench-scale experiments, and process simulations to analyze the kinetics, thermodynamics, products, and energy flows of the catalytic upgrading process. The introduction of ZrO2 enhances the yield of monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) in heavy organics. Compared with the dual-catalyst case, the MAHs yield escalates by approximately 344% at a catalyst ratio of 1:3:0.25. Additionally, GC-MS data indicate that the incorporation of ZrO2 promotes the deoxygenation reaction of the guaiacol compound and the oligomerization reactions of PAHs. The integration of ZrO2 as the third catalyst enhances the yield of heavy organics significantly, achieving 16.85% at a catalyst ratio of 1:3:1, which increases by nearly 35.6% compared to the dual-catalyst case. Also, the addition of ZrO2 as the third catalyst enhanced the energy distribution in heavy organics. These findings suggest that the combination of these catalysts improves the fuel properties and yields of the bio-oil.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2024
Keywords
Bio-oil, Process simulation, Pyrolysis, Staged catalyst, TGA
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-344932 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2024.131029 (DOI)2-s2.0-85188595056 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20240404

Available from: 2024-04-03 Created: 2024-04-03 Last updated: 2024-04-04Bibliographically approved
Shi, Z., Jin, Y., Han, T., Yang, H., Gond, R., Subasi, Y., . . . Yang, W. (2024). Bio-based anode material production for lithium–ion batteries through catalytic graphitization of biochar: the deployment of hybrid catalysts. Scientific Reports, 14(1), Article ID 3966.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bio-based anode material production for lithium–ion batteries through catalytic graphitization of biochar: the deployment of hybrid catalysts
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2024 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 3966Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Producing sustainable anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) through catalytic graphitization of renewable biomass has gained significant attention. However, the technology is in its early stages due to the bio-graphite's comparatively low electrochemical performance in LIBs. This study aims to develop a process for producing LIB anode materials using a hybrid catalyst to enhance battery performance, along with readily available market biochar as the raw material. Results indicate that a trimetallic hybrid catalyst (Ni, Fe, and Mn in a 1:1:1 ratio) is superior to single or bimetallic catalysts in converting biochar to bio-graphite. The bio-graphite produced under this catalyst exhibits an 89.28% degree of graphitization and a 73.95% conversion rate. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) reveals the dissolution–precipitation mechanism involved in catalytic graphitization. Electrochemical performance evaluation showed that the trimetallic hybrid catalyst yielded bio-graphite with better electrochemical performances than those obtained through single or bimetallic hybrid catalysts, including a good reversible capacity of about 293 mAh g−1 at a current density of 20 mA/g and a stable cycle performance with a capacity retention of over 98% after 100 cycles. This study proves the synergistic efficacy of different metals in catalytic graphitization, impacting both graphite crystalline structure and electrochemical performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2024
Keywords
Bio-graphite, Biochar, Catalytic graphitization, Lithium-ion battery, Pyrolysis
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-344002 (URN)10.1038/s41598-024-54509-8 (DOI)38368434 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85185354006 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20240229

Available from: 2024-02-28 Created: 2024-02-28 Last updated: 2024-02-29Bibliographically approved
Yang, H., Zaini, I. N., Pan, R., Jin, Y., Wang, Y., Li, L., . . . Han, T. (2024). Distributed electrified heating for efficient hydrogen production. Nature Communications, 15(1), Article ID 3868.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributed electrified heating for efficient hydrogen production
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2024 (English)In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 3868Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study introduces a distributed electrified heating approach that is able to innovate chemical engineering involving endothermic reactions. It enables rapid and uniform heating of gaseous reactants, facilitating efficient conversion and high product selectivity at specific equilibrium. Demonstrated in catalyst-free CH4 pyrolysis, this approach achieves stable production of H2 (530 g h−1 L reactor−1) and carbon nanotube/fibers through 100% conversion of high-throughput CH4 at 1150 °C, surpassing the results obtained from many complex metal catalysts and high-temperature technologies. Additionally, in catalytic CH4 dry reforming, the distributed electrified heating using metallic monolith with unmodified Ni/MgO catalyst washcoat showcased excellent CH4 and CO2 conversion rates, and syngas production capacity. This innovative heating approach eliminates the need for elongated reactor tubes and external furnaces, promising an energy-concentrated and ultra-compact reactor design significantly smaller than traditional industrial systems, marking a significant advance towards more sustainable and efficient chemical engineering society.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Research, 2024
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-346497 (URN)10.1038/s41467-024-47534-8 (DOI)38719793 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85192354703 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20240517

Available from: 2024-05-16 Created: 2024-05-16 Last updated: 2024-05-17Bibliographically approved
Akbarnejad, S., Sheng, D.-y. & Jönsson, P. (2023). A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study on Physical Refining of Steel Melts by Filtration. Metals, 13(6), Article ID 1022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study on Physical Refining of Steel Melts by Filtration
2023 (English)In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 13, no 6, article id 1022Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, a previous experimental investigation on physical refining of steel melts by filtration was numerically studied. To be specific, the filtration of non-metallic alumina inclusions, in the size range of 1-100 & mu;m, was stimulated from steel melt using a square-celled monolithic alumina filter. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies, including simulations of both fluid flow and particle tracing using the one-way coupling method, were conducted. The CFD predicted results for particles in the size range of & LE;5 & mu;m were compared to the published experimental data. The modeled filtration setup could capture 100% of the particles larger than 50 & mu;m. The percentage of the filtered particles decreased from 98% to 0% in the particle size range from 50 & mu;m to 1 & mu;m.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2023
Keywords
steel refining, steel filtration, alumina filters, ceramic filters
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-331697 (URN)10.3390/met13061022 (DOI)001015281000001 ()
Note

QC 20230714

Available from: 2023-07-14 Created: 2023-07-14 Last updated: 2023-07-14Bibliographically approved
Bolívar Caballero, J. J., Han, T., Svanberg, R., Zaini, I. N., Yang, H., Gond, R., . . . Yang, W. (2023). Advanced application of a geometry-enhanced 3D-printed catalytic reformer for syngas production. Energy Conversion and Management, 287, Article ID 117071.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Advanced application of a geometry-enhanced 3D-printed catalytic reformer for syngas production
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2023 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 287, article id 117071Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Catalyst research on reforming processes for syngas production has mainly focused on the active metals and support materials, while the effect of the catalyst's geometry on the reforming reactions has been poorly studied. The application of 3D-printed materials with enhanced geometries has recently started to be studied in heterogeneous catalysis and is of interest to be implemented for reforming biomass and plastic waste to produce H2-rich syngas. In this study, a geometry-enhanced 3D-printed Ni/Al2O3/FeCrAl-based monolithic catalyst with a periodic open cellular structure (POCS) was designed and fabricated. The catalyst was used for batch steam reforming biomass pyrolysis volatiles for syngas production at different parameters (temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio). The results showed complete reforming of pyrolysis volatiles in all experimental cases, a high H2 yield of ≈ 7.6 wt% of biomass was obtained at the optimized steam-to-carbon ratio of 8 and a reforming temperature of 800 °C, which is a higher yield compared to other batch reforming tests reported in the literature. Moreover, CFD simulation results in COMSOL Multiphysics demonstrated that the POCS configuration improves the reforming of pyrolysis volatiles for tar/bio-oil reforming and H2 production thanks to enhanced mass and heat transfer properties compared to the regular monolithic single-channel configuration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2023
Keywords
Additive manufacturing, Bioenergy, Hydrogen production, Process intensification, Steam reforming, Tar cracking
National Category
Energy Engineering Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-331686 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2023.117071 (DOI)2-s2.0-85153854885 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230713

Available from: 2023-07-13 Created: 2023-07-13 Last updated: 2023-07-13Bibliographically approved
Compañero, R. J., Feldmann, A., Samuelsson, P., Tilliander, A., Jönsson, P. & Gyllenram, R. (2023). Appraising the value of compositional information and its implications to scrap-based production of steel. Mineral Economics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Appraising the value of compositional information and its implications to scrap-based production of steel
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2023 (English)In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The current nature of steel design and production is a response to meet increasingly demanding applications but without much consideration of end-of-life scenarios. The scrap handling infrastructure, particularly the characterization and sorting, is unable to match the complexity of scrapped products. This is manifested in problems of intermixing and contamination in the scrap flows, especially for obsolete scrap. Also, the segmentation of scrap classes in standards with respect to chemical compositions is based on tolerance ranges. Thus, variation in scrap composition exists even within the same scrap type. This study applies the concept of expected value of perfect information (EPVI) to the context of steel recycling. More specifically, it sets out to examine the difference between having partial and full information on scrap composition by using a raw material optimization software. Three different scenarios with different constraints were used to appraise this difference in terms of production and excess costs. With access to perfect information, production costs decreased by 8–10%, and excess costs became negligible. Overall, comparing the respective results gave meaningful insights on the value of reestablishing the compositional information of scrap at the end of its use phase. Furthermore, the results provided relevant findings and contribute to the ongoing discussions on the seemingly disparate prioritization of economic and environmental incentives with respect to the recycling of steel.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
Keywords
Steel recycling, Steel scrap, Value of information, Excess cost, EVPI
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Metallurgical process science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-322972 (URN)10.1007/s13563-022-00361-z (DOI)000907055700002 ()2-s2.0-85145554276 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230116

Available from: 2023-01-10 Created: 2023-01-10 Last updated: 2024-03-15Bibliographically approved
Jin, Y., Yang, H., Guo, S., Shi, Z., Han, T., Gond, R., . . . Yang, W. (2023). Carbon and H-2 recoveries from plastic waste by using a metal-free porous biocarbon catalyst. Journal of Cleaner Production, 404, Article ID 136926.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbon and H-2 recoveries from plastic waste by using a metal-free porous biocarbon catalyst
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 404, article id 136926Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carbon and H2 recoveries from plastic waste enable high value-added utilizations of plastic waste while mini-mizing its GHG emissions. The objective of this study is to explore the use of a metal-free biocarbon catalyst for waste plastic pyrolysis and in-line catalytic cracking to produce H2-rich gases and carbon. The results show that the biocarbon catalyst exhibits a good catalytic effect and stability for various plastic wastes. Increasing the C/P ratio from 0 to 2, induce an increase in the conversion rate of C and H in plastics to carbon and H2 from 57.1% to 68.7%, and from 22.7% to 53.5%, respectively. Furthermore, a carbon yield as high as 580.6 mg/gplastic and an H2 yield as high as 68.6 mg/gplastic can be obtained. The hierarchical porous structure with tortuous channels of biocarbon extends the residence time of pyrolysis volatiles in the high-temperature catalytic region and thereby significantly promotes cracking reactions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2023
Keywords
Biocarbon catalyst, Plastic pyrolysis, Hydrogen, Catalytic cracking
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-327174 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2023.136926 (DOI)000971689600001 ()2-s2.0-85151275989 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230524

Available from: 2023-05-24 Created: 2023-05-24 Last updated: 2023-11-03Bibliographically approved
Shi, Z., Jin, Y., Svanberg, R., Han, T., Minidis, A. B. E., Ann-Sofi, K. D., . . . Yang, W. (2023). Continuous catalytic pyrolysis of biomass using a fluidized bed with commercial-ready catalysts for scale-up. Energy, 273, Article ID 127288.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Continuous catalytic pyrolysis of biomass using a fluidized bed with commercial-ready catalysts for scale-up
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2023 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 273, article id 127288Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of biomass to produce high-quality bio-oils as potential substitutes for conventional fuels plays an essential role in the decarbonization of the world. In this study, continuous CFP tests of sawdust using three commercial-ready catalysts were performed. The overall objective is to screen appropriate catalysts and catalyst loading amounts for further commercialization and upgrading by evaluating the quality of the organic fraction bio-oils and clarifying the relationship between the hydrogen-to-carbon atomic effective (H/ Ceff) ratio and bio-oil yield. The results displayed that, owing to a cracking effect of the catalyst, all catalytic cases had higher H/Ceff ratios and larger relative area percentages of hydrocarbons determined by NMR. Thermogravimetric analysis reveals that, compared to non-catalytic bio-oils, catalytic bio-oils showed more distillates in the diesel range. Increasing the catalyst-loading amount also showed the same effect. Overall, all bio-oil products from catalytic cases had H/Ceff ratios higher than 0.6, indicating the production of promising oil for hydrodeoxygenation. By analyzing and fitting the data from this work and comparing with the literature, it could be concluded that its yield would decrease as the bio-oil product quality increases (the H/Ceff ratios increase).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2023
Keywords
Biomass, Bio-oil, Catalytic fast pyrolysis, The hydrogen-to-carbon atomic effective ratio
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-326644 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2023.127288 (DOI)000965087900001 ()2-s2.0-85150893147 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230509

Available from: 2023-05-09 Created: 2023-05-09 Last updated: 2023-05-09Bibliographically approved
Wang, Y., Liu, C., Ni, H., Karasev, A., Mu, W., Jönsson, P. & Park, J. H. (2023). Effect of ferrochromium (FeCr) and ferroniobium (FeNb) alloys on inclusion and precipitate characteristics in austenitic stainless steels. Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 25, 4989-5002
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of ferrochromium (FeCr) and ferroniobium (FeNb) alloys on inclusion and precipitate characteristics in austenitic stainless steels
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Materials Research and Technology, ISSN 2238-7854, Vol. 25, p. 4989-5002Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lab-scale alloying experiments were carried out by first adding commercial low-carbon ferrochrome (LCFeCr) alloys and then adding ferroniobium (FeNb) alloys in 316-grade austenitic stainless steel in this study. The inclusion and precipitation characteristics in LCFeCr and FeNb were evaluated as well as in a 316 austenitic stainless steel after the alloy additions by using two- and three-dimensional characterization methods in combination with thermodynamic calculations. The results showed that MnCr2O4 spinels and pure Al2O3 were the main types of inclusions in LCFeCr alloys, while pure TiOx, Al2O3 inclusions and complex TiOx-Al2O3 aggregates were mainly found in FeNb alloys. After the addition of LCFeCr alloy to the steel, the SiO2 contents in liquid inclusions decreased to some extent, while more inclusions containing higher MnO contents were observed. Some MnCr2O4 spinel inclusions can be reduced by Si in steel and form liquid inclusions. Some MnCr2O4 spinel and Al2O3 inclusions from LCFeCr alloy can remain in the steel melt, which decreased the steel cleanliness. After the addition of FeNb alloy, pure TiOx inclusions present in this alloy can hardly be found in the steel melt. The inclusion types in steel were not changed so much but high Nb-containing phases were found around the inclusions and coarse Laves phases were formed in the matrix. Overall, this work aims to understand the impurity particle behavior during the alloying process when using ferroalloys to produce high-performance stainless steels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2023
Keywords
Alloying, Ferrochromium, Ferroniobium, Non-metallic inclusion, Precipitate
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-333902 (URN)10.1016/j.jmrt.2023.07.011 (DOI)2-s2.0-85164302982 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230822

Available from: 2023-08-22 Created: 2023-08-22 Last updated: 2023-11-28Bibliographically approved
Wei, W., Samuelsson, P., Jönsson, P. G., Gyllenram, R. & Glaser, B. (2023). Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of High-Carbon Ferrochrome Production. JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, 75(4), 1206-1220
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of High-Carbon Ferrochrome Production
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2023 (English)In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, JOM, ISSN 1047-4838, Vol. 75, no 4, p. 1206-1220Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Abstract [en]

This work presents a process model developed based on mass and energy conservation to assess high carbon ferrochrome production from cradle to gate through four supply routes: (1) a conventional submerged arc furnace (SAF), (2) a closed submerged arc furnace with preheating (CSAF+PH), (3) a closed submerged arc furnace with 60% prereduction (CSAF+PR60%) and (4) a direct-current arc furnace (DCAF). The energy requirements are between 40 and 59 GJ/t FeCr (74–111 GJ/t Cr), and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions range between 1.8 and 5.5 tCO2-eq/t FeCr (3.3–10.3 tCO2-eq/t Cr). The upgrading of coal-powered SAF process to a closed furnace CSAF+PH and CSAF+PR60% contributes to an emission reduction of 23% and 18%, respectively. Moreover, the use of hydro-powered electricity leads to a further emission reduction of 68% and 47%, respectively. For CSAF+PR process, the GHG emissions can be reduced by 14% when increasing the pre-reduction ratio from 30% to 80% and decreased by 10% when charging hotter feed from 100 °C to 1000 °C. The proposed process model is feasible in generating site-specific inventory data and allowing for parameter studies as well as supporting companies to improve the transparency of the environmental performance in the FeCr value chain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
Keywords
Energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, High carbon ferrochrom
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Materials Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-327233 (URN)10.1007/s11837-023-05707-8 (DOI)000944096100006 ()2-s2.0-85149409488 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230523

Available from: 2023-05-22 Created: 2023-05-22 Last updated: 2023-05-23Bibliographically approved
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