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Liljenström, CarolinaORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0231-7111
Publications (6 of 6) Show all publications
Liljenström, C., Toller, S., Åkerman, J. & Björklund, A. (2019). Annual climate impact and primary energy use of Swedish transport infrastructure. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, 19(2), 77-+
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Annual climate impact and primary energy use of Swedish transport infrastructure
2019 (English)In: European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, ISSN 1567-7133, E-ISSN 1567-7141, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 77-+Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

By 2045, Sweden is to have zero net emissions of greenhouse gases. To reach this goal, stakeholders involved in planning and construction of Swedish transport infrastructure aim to half their climate impact by 2030. Planning for emission reduction measures require network level studies showing environmental impacts of the infrastructure network. Previous studies do not allow assessment of current hotspots in the infrastructure network, which limits their relevance for decision-support in this question. The aim of this paper is to assess the current annual climate impact and primary energy use of Swedish transport infrastructure by using a methodological approach based on life cycle assessment. The scope includes new construction and management (operation, maintenance, and reinvestment) of existing roads, railways, airports, ports, and fairway channels. The annual climate impact was estimated to 2.8 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalents and the annual primary energy use was estimated to 27 terawatt hours. Mainly road and rail infrastructure contributed to these impacts. Environmental hotspots of the infrastructure network were management of the infrastructure stock (particularly reinvestment of road and rail infrastructure) and material production (particularly production of asphalt, steel, and concrete). If climate targets are to be met, these areas are particularly important to address. Additional research on impacts of small construction measures, the size of biogenic carbon emissions (in standing biomass as well as soil carbon), and the use and impacts of asphalt for road construction and management would further increase the understanding of impacts related to Swedish transport infrastructure at the network level.

Keywords
climate impact, energy use, life cycle assessment, network level, Sweden, transport infrastructure
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-255372 (URN)000474896700001 ()2-s2.0-85071697384 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190730

Available from: 2019-07-30 Created: 2019-07-30 Last updated: 2019-10-04Bibliographically approved
Liljenström, C. (2018). Life cycle assessment in early planning of transport systems: Decision support at project and network levels. (Licentiate dissertation). Stockholm, Sweden: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life cycle assessment in early planning of transport systems: Decision support at project and network levels
2018 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Swedish Climate Policy Framework implies that the Swedish transport sector must reduce its greenhouse gas emissions to nearly zero by 2045. Previous studies have – using life cycle assessment – shown that indirect greenhouse gas emissions from the vehicle and infrastructure life cycle are significant and should be considered in transport policy and planning of transport systems, in addition to direct emissions of vehicle operation.

The aim of this thesis is to contribute with knowledge on climate impact and primary energy use of transport systems for decision-support in early planning at project and network levels, and evaluate and demonstrate how life cycle climate impact and primary energy use can be assessed in early planning. This thesis includes three papers that contribute to achieving this aim. Paper I developed a methodological approach to assess annual climate impact and primary energy use of Swedish road, rail, air, and sea transport infrastructure at a network level. Paper II then expanded this system to the assessment of the Swedish transport system at a network level, including national and international freight and passenger transport by road, rail, air, and sea. At the project level, Paper III examined how LCA can be used as decision-support in choice of road corridor, considering the practical prerequisite of data availability in early planning and usefulness of results in the decision-making process.

Paper I showed that the annual climate impact of Swedish transport infrastructure is around 3 million tonnes CO2 equivalents and that the annual primary energy use is around 27 TWh. Road infrastructure accounted for the largest proportion of impacts – around 70% of the climate impact and around 80% of the energy use. Paper II showed that the annual climate impact of the Swedish transport system was around 44 million tonnes CO2 equivalents and the primary energy use was around 178 TWh. Road transport and aviation together accounted for 90% of the climate impact and primary energy use. Indirect impacts were significant, especially for road and rail transport, accounting for 30% of the total climate impact and primary energy use. Paper III found that (1) collection of project specific data should focus on parameters that differentiate the road corridors, that can be influenced in early planning, and that are not directly related to the road length and (2) life cycle assessment based models used in early planning should include nation specific generic data approved by the national road authority. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm, Sweden: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018
Series
TRITA-ABE-DLT ; 1826
National Category
Other Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-239600 (URN)978-91-7873-013-1 (ISBN)
Presentation
2018-12-20, Pacific, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 10B, Stockholm, Sweden, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20181128

Available from: 2018-11-28 Created: 2018-11-27 Last updated: 2018-11-28Bibliographically approved
Neuvonen, A., Wangel, J., Liljenström, C., Annala, M., Parkkinen, M., Valladares, A., . . . Vesanen, V. (2014). Smart Retro: Novel Ways to Develop Cities: Baseline Report. Demos Helsinki
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Smart Retro: Novel Ways to Develop Cities: Baseline Report
Show others...
2014 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

WHAT WILL your home and neighbourhood look like in twenty years? The radical development in smart solutions, the ageing of building stock, our need to radically cut our greenhouse gas emissions and many other strong drivers are changing the way we live, faster than ever before. That change is particularly significant

in areas with older building stock – but it is not deterministic change. This is a baseline report for Smart Retro: a project exploring how we can rein in the strength of emerging trends – like digitalisation and the sharing economy – and use them to steer the development of our cities into a desirable direction.

Many smart city projects focus on newly- built areas1. This makes the integration of new smart technologies into “dumb” walls, roads and buildings relatively easy. Unfortunately, the model of building entirely new stock doesn’t solve the challenges and needs of our existing cities: in 30 years, the majority of urban dwellers will most likely still live in neighbourhoods built in the 20th century.

The starting point for Smart Retro is therefore existing building stock: smartness must be retrofitted into old buildings and previously constructed areas. The word Retro refers to buildings and areas that are ageing and in need of renovation at an accelerating pace. They require retrofitting with new solutions. These practices are introduced in the Retrofitting Projects section of this report. Smart refers to the inevitable digitalization and the new ways in which we can harness our distributed resources. This development has strong disruptive effects but also opens a plethora of new possibilities.

The sustainable city is tomorrow’s necessity: greenhouse gas emissions must be cut by a large margin and resource efficiency needs to be radically improved. Sustainable urban services are an integral part of that advancement – these digital, local services provide new jobs and make our cities more livable. They improve our quality of life. A selection of companies at the frontline of these new service providers are presented in the SmartUps section. Many Nordic areas are dilapidating not only in terms of buildings but also in services and urban activity. That is why

it is important to look at the case studies in the Placemaking section, which demonstrates that the strongest urban vitality often derives from the engagement of locals, good services and suitable infrastructure.

THE SMART RETRO PROJECT develops new service concepts with experts and end-users. The most promising services are proofed in real city environments. The project aims to create new services, valuable partnerships, and ultimately, a new model that – in the Nordic context – effectively combines the refurbishment of buildings with service development.

This baseline report examines the current state and future prospects of our case areas in Lahti, Stockholm and Oslo, to gain knowledge of emerging practices in the domain of built environment. These examples do not unfortunately reveal how our homes will look in the future. But they do convince us of the radical changes awaiting our urban environment in the coming decades. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Demos Helsinki, 2014. p. 74
Keywords
smartretro, smartups, urban, renewal, local economy, energy, smart city, retrofitting, startup, place making
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-159250 (URN)
Projects
Smart Retro
Funder
Nordic Council of MinistersSwedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20150203

Available from: 2015-01-27 Created: 2015-01-27 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Liljenström, C., Toller, S., Åkerman, J. & Björklund, A.Annual climate impact and primary energy use of Swedish transport infrastructure.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Annual climate impact and primary energy use of Swedish transport infrastructure
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

By 2045, Sweden is to have zero net emissions of greenhouse gases, implying that also the transport sector must reduce its emissions to nearly zero by that year. Planning for emission reduction measures require network level studies showing environmental impacts of the transport network. Previous studies do not allow assessment of current hotspots in the infrastructure network, which limits their relevance for decision-support in this question. The aim of this paper is to assess the current annual climate impact and primary energy use of Swedish transport infrastructure by using a methodological approach based on life cycle assessment. The scope includes new construction and management of roads, railways, airports, ports, and fairway channels. The climate impact was estimated to 3 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalents and the primary energy use was estimated to 27 terawatt hours. Mainly road and rail infrastructure contributed to these impacts. The environmental hotspots in the infrastructure network were identified as management of the infrastructure stock (particularly reinvestment of road and rail infrastructure) and material production (particularly production of asphalt, steel, and concrete). Planners should work systematically with emission and energy efficiency in these areas to reduce impacts of Swedish transport infrastructure. Additional research on impacts of small construction measures, the size of biogenic carbon emissions (in standing biomass as well as soil carbon), and the use and impacts of asphalt used in road construction and management would further increase the understanding of Swedish transport infrastructure at the network level.

National Category
Other Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-239597 (URN)
Note

QC 20181213

Available from: 2018-11-27 Created: 2018-11-27 Last updated: 2018-12-13Bibliographically approved
Liljenström, C., Åkerman, J., Björklund, A. & Toller, S.Direct and indirect climate impact and primary energy use of the Swedish transport system.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Direct and indirect climate impact and primary energy use of the Swedish transport system
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Other Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-239598 (URN)
Note

QC 20181213

Available from: 2018-11-27 Created: 2018-11-27 Last updated: 2018-12-13Bibliographically approved
Liljenström, C., Miliutenko, S., O'Born, R., Brattebo, H., Birgisdottir, H., Toller, S., . . . Potting, J.Life cycle assessment as decision-support in choice of road corridor: case study and stakeholder perspectives.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life cycle assessment as decision-support in choice of road corridor: case study and stakeholder perspectives
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The possibilities to influence environmental impacts during the road life cycle are greatest in early planning; however, the lack of project specific data makes it difficult to use life cycle assessment as decision-support. This paper examines how life cycle assessment can be used to support the choice of road corridor, considering the practical prerequisit of simplicity and usefulness of results for decision-making. The model LICCER was used to quantify life cycle impacts of road corridors in a construction project in Sweden. Availability of input data and usefulness of results was discussed with road authorities in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. Traffic operation contributed most to life cycle impacts in all road corridors, thus the shortest construction alternative had the lowest life cycle impacts. However, the shortest alternative had the highest infrastructure related impacts due to large quantities of earthworks. Parameters that had the highest influence on results were those that affected the impacts of traffic, earthworks, and pavement. While workshop participants agreed that project specific data are scarce and uncertain in early planning, they also believed that planners can make satisfactory estimations and that the model output is useful to support the choice of road corridor. To balance simplicity and usefulness of results, data collection should focus on parameters that have high contribution to environmental impacts, that differentiate the road corridors, and are not proportional to the road length. To implement life cycle assessment in practice, models should preferably include nation specific data approved by the national road authority.

National Category
Other Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-239599 (URN)
Note

QC 20181213

Available from: 2018-11-27 Created: 2018-11-27 Last updated: 2018-12-13Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0231-7111

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