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Howells, Mark I.
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Publications (7 of 7) Show all publications
Engström, R. E., Howells, M. I., Destouni, G., Bhatt, V., Bazilian, M. & Rogner, H.-H. (2017). Connecting the resource nexus to basic urban service provision – with a focus on water-energy interactions in New York City. Sustainable cities and society, 31, 83-94.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Connecting the resource nexus to basic urban service provision – with a focus on water-energy interactions in New York City
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2017 (English)In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 31, 83-94 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Urban water and energy systems are crucial for sustainably meeting basic service demands in cities. This paper proposes and applies a technology-independent “reference resource-to-service system” framework for concurrent evaluation of urban water and energy system interventions and their ‘nexus’ or ‘interlinkages’. In a concrete application, data that approximate New York City conditions are used to evaluate a limited set of interventions in the residential sector, spanning from low-flow toilet shifts to extensive green roof installations. Results indicate that interventions motivated primarily by water management goals can considerably reduce energy use and contribute to mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Similarly, energy efficiency interventions can considerably reduce water use in addition to lowering emissions. However, interventions yielding the greatest reductions in energy use and emissions are not necessarily the most water conserving ones, and vice versa. Useful further research, expanding the present analysis should consider a broader set of resource interactions, towards a full climate, land, energy and water (CLEW) nexus approach. Overall, assessing the impacts, trade-offs and co-benefits from interventions in one urban resource system on others also holds promise as support for increased resource efficiency through integrated decision making.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keyword
Integrated resource assessment, Multi-resource impacts, New York City, Urban service provision, Urban sustainability, Water-energy nexus, Decision making, Economic and social effects, Energy efficiency, Energy utilization, Gas emissions, Greenhouse gases, Water management, Integrated resources, Multi-resource, Urban services, Water energy, Water resources
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207336 (URN)10.1016/j.scs.2017.02.007 (DOI)000406307300008 ()2-s2.0-85014923125 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170607

Available from: 2017-06-07 Created: 2017-06-07 Last updated: 2017-09-12Bibliographically approved
Moksnes, N., Korkovelos, A., Mentis, D. & Howells, M. I. (2017). Electrification pathways for Kenya-linking spatial electrification analysis and medium to long term energy planning. Environmental Research Letters, 12(9), Article ID 095008.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrification pathways for Kenya-linking spatial electrification analysis and medium to long term energy planning
2017 (English)In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 12, no 9, 095008Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In September 2015 UN announced 17 Sustainable Development goals (SDG) from which goal number 7 envisions universal access to modern energy services for all by 2030. In Kenya only about 46% of the population currently has access to electricity. This paper analyses hypothetical scenarios, and selected implications, investigating pathways that would allow the country to reach its electrification targets by 2030. Two modelling tools were used for the purposes of this study, namely OnSSET and OSeMOSYS. The tools were soft-linked in order to capture both the spatial and temporal dynamics of their nature. Two electricity demand scenarios were developed representing low and high end user consumption goals respectively. Indicatively, results show that geothermal, coal, hydro and natural gas would consist the optimal energy mix for the centralized national grid. However, in the case of the low demand scenario a high penetration of stand-alone systems is evident in the country, reaching out to approximately 47% of the electrified population. Increasing end user consumption leads to a shift in the optimal technology mix, with higher penetration of mini-grid technologies and grid extension.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017
Keyword
Kenya, OSeMOSYS, optimization, OnSSET, off-grid, SDG
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-214882 (URN)10.1088/1748-9326/aa7e18 (DOI)000410459000003 ()2-s2.0-85030751684 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20171023

Available from: 2017-10-23 Created: 2017-10-23 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Mentis, D., Howells, M. I., Rogner, H.-H., Korkovelos, A., Arderne, C., Zepeda, E., . . . Scholtz, E. (2017). Lighting the World: the first application of an open source, spatial electrification tool (OnSSET) on Sub-Saharan Africa. Environmental Research Letters, 12(8), Article ID 085003.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lighting the World: the first application of an open source, spatial electrification tool (OnSSET) on Sub-Saharan Africa
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2017 (English)In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 12, no 8, 085003Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In September 2015, the United Nations General Assembly adopted Agenda 2030, which comprises a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) defined by 169 targets. 'Ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all by 2030' is the seventh goal (SDG7). While access to energy refers to more than electricity, the latter is the central focus of this work. According to the World Bank's 2015 Global Tracking Framework, roughly 15% of the world's population (or 1.1 billion people) lack access to electricity, and many more rely on poor quality electricity services. The majority of those without access (87%) reside in rural areas. This paper presents results of a geographic information systems approach coupled with open access data. We present least-cost electrification strategies on a country-by-country basis for Sub-Saharan Africa. The electrification options include grid extension, mini-grid and stand-alone systems for rural, peri-urban, and urban contexts across the economy. At low levels of electricity demand there is a strong penetration of standalone technologies. However, higher electricity demand levels move the favourable electrification option from stand-alone systems to mini grid and to grid extensions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017
Keyword
sustainable development goals, energy access modelling, geospatial data
National Category
Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-212336 (URN)10.1088/1748-9326/aa7b29 (DOI)000406479300001 ()
Note

QC 20170823

Available from: 2017-08-23 Created: 2017-08-23 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Dhakouani, A., Gardumi, F., Znouda, E., Bouden, C. & Howells, M. I. (2017). Long-term optimisation model of the Tunisian power system. Energy, 141, 550-562.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-term optimisation model of the Tunisian power system
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2017 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 141, 550-562 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The electricity mix in Tunisia mainly relied on conventional energy sources for over 50 years. Recently, due to fossil fuel prices oscillations and national reserves shortage, the need arose for restructuring the energy supply system. Targeting the integration of renewable energies could be a plan for satisfying the increasing demand and the supply independence. However, several macroeconomic conditions and policies present barriers for the integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES), despite their abundance, availability and environmental benefits. This paper presents a long-term model of Tunisia electricity system, based on OSeMOSYS (Open Source energy MOdelling SYStem), aimed at unveiling potential benefits of increasing RES in electricity production. The paper first investigates peculiarities of Tunisia electricity system, arguing the necessity to include them in the electricity system model. Then, it explains the choice of OSeMOSYS and brought modifications, including peculiar system characteristics. Finally, the model is applied to two scenarios, a Business As Usual case and a 30% RES target in electricity production case, for time horizon 2010–2030. Results demonstrate the importance of system features detailed modelling. Specifically, they show that targeting RES state-invested integration in the electricity mix may allow higher energy independence to be reached, without increasing significantly system costs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2017
Keyword
Electricity mix, Energy systems modelling, Interconnections, Job creation, OSeMOSYS, Tunisian power system
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-218605 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2017.09.093 (DOI)2-s2.0-85030480696 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20171130

Available from: 2017-11-30 Created: 2017-11-30 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Pena Balderrama, J. G., Broad, O., Sevillano, R. C., Alejo, L. & Howells, M. (2017). Techno-economic demand projections and scenarios for the Bolivian energy system. Energy Strategy Reviews, 16, 96-109.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Techno-economic demand projections and scenarios for the Bolivian energy system
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2017 (English)In: Energy Strategy Reviews, ISSN 2211-467X, E-ISSN 2211-4688, Vol. 16, 96-109 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Increasing energy access in emerging economies has played an important role to maintain or achieve desirable social and economic development targets. As a consequence, the growing energy requirements need policy instruments to ensure energy supply for future generations. The literature reports many studies with different approaches to model and test policy measures in the energy sector, however few energy-related studies for Bolivia are available. This paper addresses this knowledge gap, representing the first national level energy demand model and projections for Bolivia. The model use demographic, economic, technology and policy trends with a pragmatic model structure that combines bottom-up and top-down modelling. The scenario analysis has a particular focus on alternatives for energy savings, energy mix diversification and air quality. Three scenarios were analysed: Energy Savings, Fuel Substitution and the aggregate effects in a Combined scenario. The reference scenario results show the overall energy consumption grows 134% in 2035 compared to 2012 with an annual average growth of 3.8%. The final energy demand in the energy savings scenario is 8.5% lower than the Reference scenario, 1.5% lower in the fuel substitution scenario and 9.4% lower in the combined Scenario. The aggregate impact of both energy savings and fuel substitution measures leads to potential avoided emissions of 25.84 million Tons of CO2 equivalent in the model horizon 2012-2035.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keyword
Energy demand projections, Bottom-up, Top-down, Energy savings, Avoided emissions
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-211031 (URN)10.1016/j.esr.2017.03.001 (DOI)000403986600008 ()2-s2.0-85018526871 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, 75000554-06Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20170712

Available from: 2017-07-12 Created: 2017-07-12 Last updated: 2017-07-12Bibliographically approved
Siyal, S. H., Mentis, D. & Howells, M. I. (2016). Mapping key economic indicators of onshore wind energy in Sweden by using a geospatial methodology. Energy Conversion and Management, 128, 211-226.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mapping key economic indicators of onshore wind energy in Sweden by using a geospatial methodology
2016 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 128, 211-226 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Due to modern advancements in renewable energy systems and increasing prices of fossil fuels wind energy is getting a lot of attention all over the world. In this regard, Sweden also fixed motivated targets to get energy supply from local renewable energy resources. So, local wind power could help the country in achieving the targets. In this study, economic indicators of wind energy were spatially estimated for Sweden by using ArcGIS tool. In order to do this, as input data one-year high resolution modeled annual average wind data was processed by means of Rayleigh distribution, wind turbine power curve, land use constraints, technical constraints and economic parameters. Based on the input data, it was concluded that Sweden possesses economically feasible wind energy resource. The results of the study indicate that southern and central regions could produce economically viable wind electricity in all aspects as compared to the northern region of the country. Lastly, it was recommended to speed up wind energy penetration in Sweden, communal awareness and acceptance regarding the resource should be increased to avoid possible misunderstanding. Additionally, the capability of the national electric grid should be enhanced to take up the large scale unpredictable wind energy resource.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keyword
Economic, GIS, Indicators, Spatial, Wind electricity, Economics, Energy resources, Fossil fuels, Geographic information systems, Indicators (instruments), Input output programs, Land use, Renewable energy resources, Wind effects, Wind power, Wind turbines, Economic indicators, Economic parameters, Economically viable, Rayleigh distributions, Renewable energy systems, Technical constraints, Economic analysis
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-195204 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2016.09.055 (DOI)000388047800019 ()2-s2.0-84989227706 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20161202

Available from: 2016-12-02 Created: 2016-11-02 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Taliotis, C., Howells, M. I., Bazilian, M., Rogner, H.-H. & Welsch, M. (2014). Energy security prospects in Cyprus and Israel: A focus on natural gas. International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management, 3, 5-20.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy security prospects in Cyprus and Israel: A focus on natural gas
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2014 (English)In: International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management, ISSN 2246-2929, E-ISSN 2246-2929, Vol. 3, 5-20 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The global production of natural gas has increased from 1226 bcm in 1973 to 3282 bcm in 2010 and is projected to continue rising by an annual growth rate of 1.6% between 2010 to 2035. Cyprus and Israel have recently made major offshore discoveries of natural gas, which can supply to a great extent the two countries’ current domestic energy needs for the next few decades and still export a substantial volume. MESSAGE, a global optimization model was used to explore the possible interactions between the two countries’ energy systems. Scenarios are presented that assess the export potential for electricity (generated by gas-fired power plants), liquefied natural gas (LNG) or gas-to-liquid products (GTL). The results are compared to a scenario without any available reserves to illustrate the financial benefits that will arise from the exploitation of the gas resources in the two countries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aalborg University press, 2014
Keyword
Gas-to-liquids, Liquefied natural gas, Natural gas markets, Power generation
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-201855 (URN)10.5278/ijsepm.2014.3.2 (DOI)2-s2.0-84994323151 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170309

Available from: 2017-03-09 Created: 2017-03-09 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
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