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Publications (10 of 14) Show all publications
Jahn, I., Hohn, F., Chaffey, G. & Norrga, S. (2020). An Open-Source Protection IED for Research and Education in Multiterminal HVDC Grids. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Open-Source Protection IED for Research and Education in Multiterminal HVDC Grids
2020 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, ISSN 0885-8950, E-ISSN 1558-0679Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The integration of large amounts of renewable energy will require multiterminal high-voltage direct-current (MTDC) grids to reliably transport the energy over long distances. However, before building an MTDC grid, a functional protection system design is needed. Realistic and industrial studies are required to validate the functionality of such a system. In addition, further academic research as well as education in the field are needed. This paper presents an open-source, low-cost protection intelligent electronic device (IED) prototype for use in a laboratory environment. In particular, the IED design, its fastest measured performance, example results for different fault scenarios, and an assessment of its use in education are shown. The open-source IED is useful to accelerate industrial and academic research, as well as to enable education in protection for MTDC grids.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-267207 (URN)10.1109/TPWRS.2020.2970477 (DOI)
Note

QC 20200206

Available from: 2020-02-04 Created: 2020-02-04 Last updated: 2020-02-06Bibliographically approved
Cowan, I., Chaffey, G., Ponnalagan, B., Rahman, M. H., Adeuyi, O. D., Van Hertem, D., . . . Kunjumuhammed, L. (2020). Demonstration of Partially Selective HVDC Grid Protection System with Hardware-in-the-loop IEDs. In: : . Paper presented at IET DPSP 2020, The 15th International Conference on Developments in Power System Protection, Liverpool.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demonstration of Partially Selective HVDC Grid Protection System with Hardware-in-the-loop IEDs
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2020 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper aims to demonstrate a partially selective protection strategy for multiterminal VSC-HVDC systems using a simulated industrial case study network. In order to increase confidence that such a protection strategy would be suitable for implementation on a future network, this paper uses hardware protection intelligent electronic devices (IED) prototypes from industry and academia, HVDC circuit breaker models that have been developed in collaboration with manufacturers, and a realistic case study network. The tests performed within this study are used to evaluate the performance of the protection IED in a realistic system, and examine the operation of the partially selective protection strategy at the system level. Results presented indicate that each IED achieved fast fault detection,reliable discrimination, and that the circuit breaker models were able to successfully isolate the faulted circuit, indicating the success of the partially selective protection strategy.         

Keywords
HVDC IED testing, HVDC grid protection, Real-time HIL testing
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-270728 (URN)
Conference
IET DPSP 2020, The 15th International Conference on Developments in Power System Protection, Liverpool
Available from: 2020-03-13 Created: 2020-03-13 Last updated: 2020-03-13
Wang, M., Chaffey, G., Van Hertem, D., Jahn, I., Page, F., Ishida, K., . . . Adeuyi, O. D. (2020). Multi-vendor interoperability tests of IEDs for HVDC grid protection. In: : . Paper presented at IET DPSP 2020, The 15th International Conference on Developments in Power System Protection, Liverpool.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-vendor interoperability tests of IEDs for HVDC grid protection
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2020 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Future large scale HVDC systems must have components from different manufacturers, however, this will require multi-vendor interoperability. This paper studies multi-vendor interoperability of HVDC protection IEDs using hardware IED prototypes developed by industrial and academic partners. Multi-vendor interoperability tests are performed using real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulations based on open-access converter models configured to represent the proposed three-terminal design of an extension to an existing point-to-point HVDC system in the UK. In particular, this paper focuses on developing testing procedures for IEDs in a multi-vendor environment and identifying possible interoperability issues. Interoperability of two hardware IEDs is demonstrated during primary protection, IED failure backup protection and breaker failure backup protection. In each case, the protection scheme operates correctly and it is shown that, in the studied scenarios,the protection IEDs are interoperable.

Keywords
Multi-vendor interoperability, HVDC IED testing, HVDC grid protection, fully selective protection strategy
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-270729 (URN)
Conference
IET DPSP 2020, The 15th International Conference on Developments in Power System Protection, Liverpool
Available from: 2020-03-13 Created: 2020-03-13 Last updated: 2020-03-13
Jahn, I., Hohn, F., Sharifabadi, K., Wang, M., Chaffey, G. & Norrga, S. (2020). Requirements for open specifications in multivendor HVDC protection systems. In: : . Paper presented at IET DPSP 2020, The 15th International Conference on Developments in Power System Protection, Liverpool, 9-12 March 2020.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Requirements for open specifications in multivendor HVDC protection systems
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2020 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Integrating multiterminal high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) connections into the existing alternating current (AC) power transmission system is a possible solution for transport of large amounts of renewable energy. Protection is considered a key enabler for multiterminal HVDC (MTDC) grids. Designing such a protection system is a challenge, in particular in a multivendor setup. Fault detection during transients might be required to achieve the stringent speed requirements for HVDC protection. This in turn requires knowledge about the expected system behaviour during faults and involves knowledge from all vendors supplying equipment in MTDC grid. Traditionally, HVDC projects are, however, supplied as turn-key solutions and the control and protection systems are the intellectual property of the vendors and not open for the HVDC end-users. This paper aims to provide a starting point on the discussion which information has to be shared between vendorsand HVDC end-users when designing MTDC grid protection. Simulations results show that missing information about certain aspects can lead to a failure of the protection system. A discussion on organization of the available information is added. Open specifications of the used equipment are useful to design safe and reliable MTDC grid protection.

Keywords
HVDC grid protection, multivendor, open specifications
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-270612 (URN)
Conference
IET DPSP 2020, The 15th International Conference on Developments in Power System Protection, Liverpool, 9-12 March 2020
Note

QC 20200313

Available from: 2020-03-10 Created: 2020-03-10 Last updated: 2020-03-13Bibliographically approved
Jahn, I., Bessegato, L., Björk, J., Hohn, F., Norrga, S., Svensson, N., . . . Despouys, O. (2019). A Proposal for Open-Source HVDC Control. In: : . Paper presented at 2019 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT-Europe).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Proposal for Open-Source HVDC Control
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Future multiterminal high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) grids are considered an enabling technology to efficiently integrate large amounts of renewable energy into the existing grid. However, already in today’s existing point-to-point HVDC links, harmonic interaction issues and instabilities related to the controland protection system of the converters have been reported. The converter control software is usually black-boxed and problems are therefore solved in close cooperation with the HVDC vendor. This paper aims to provide a starting point for a discussion onan open-source HVDC control system. In particular, it covers the control design including technical and non-technical aspects. The open-source approach can be useful to solve current as wellas future control-related problems, both in point-to-point links as well as in multiterminal and multivendor HVDC grids.

Keywords
HVDC transmission, Open source software
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-257736 (URN)
Conference
2019 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT-Europe)
Note

QC 20190917

Available from: 2019-09-03 Created: 2019-09-03 Last updated: 2019-10-14Bibliographically approved
Leterme, W., Jahn, I., Ruffing, P., Sharifabadi, K. & Van Hertem, D. (2019). Designing for High-Voltage dc Grid Protection: Fault Clearing Strategies and Protection Algorithms. IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, 17(3), 73-81
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing for High-Voltage dc Grid Protection: Fault Clearing Strategies and Protection Algorithms
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, ISSN 1540-7977, E-ISSN 1558-4216, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 73-81Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Abstract [en]

Protecting High-Voltage (HV) dc grids requires a different approach compared with that of ac power system protection and poses one of the major challenges that must be resolved before the realization of large scale HVdc grids that use equipment from multiple vendors. HVdc grid protection, which is essential for safe and reliable HVdc grid operation, entails the appropriate detection and fault clearing of dc-side short circuit faults (i.e., dc faults). In this context, fault clearing refers to interrupting the dc fault current and isolating the faulted component. Fault current interruption is much more complex in HVdc grids compared to ac systems because dc fault currents have no naturally recurring zero crossings and, without countermeasures, quickly increase to values that are unacceptable for power electronic components. Conversely, the technologies used within HVdc grids offer options for fault clearing beyond the well-known approach of using circuit breakers in existing ac systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2019
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-249981 (URN)10.1109/MPE.2019.2897188 (DOI)000466095200009 ()2-s2.0-85064981751 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190617

Available from: 2019-04-24 Created: 2019-04-24 Last updated: 2019-10-18Bibliographically approved
Wang, M., Jovcic, D., Leterme, W., van Hertem, D., Zaja, M. & Jahn, I. (2019). Pre-standardisation of Interfaces between DC Circuit Breaker and Intelligent Electronic Device to Enable Multivendor Interoperability. In: : . Paper presented at CIGRE Symposium Aalborg, 4-7-Juni 2019 Denmark.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pre-standardisation of Interfaces between DC Circuit Breaker and Intelligent Electronic Device to Enable Multivendor Interoperability
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

DC circuit breakers (DCCBs) are one of the key components to facilitate large meshed HVDC grids. Driven by the needs for achieving high speed, low loss and low cost, various DCCB technologies have been proposed for HVDC applications. Unlike AC circuit breakers (ACCBs), some DCCBs provide a variety of functions, such as proactive opening or fault current limiting (FCL), mainly attributed to the high controllability of the power electronic switches used in such DCCBs. To enable these functions, the intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) are expected to provide signals steering these functions in addition to a trip command. Interoperability between IEDs and DCCBs from different vendors is considered feasible, but expected to be more complex than their AC counterparts, due to the different functions provided by various DCCB technologies. It is therefore crucial to understand which of the functions are essential to fulfil the requirements imposed in HVDC grid protection, and to standardise the interfaces between the IEDs and DCCBs to achieve multivendor interoperability between IEDs and DCCBs provided by different vendors. This paper first classifies the DCCB functions into minimally required and auxiliary ones based on reviewing the existing literature. Then, standardised interfaces between the IEDs and DCCBs are proposed to enable both types of DCCB functions. An example of such IED is implemented in PSCAD/EMTDC to demonstrate that the proposed interfaces are adequate to enable both minimally required and auxiliary functions using a four-terminal test system. Auxiliary functions of hybrid DCCBs, such as proactive opening, fault current limiting, fast reclosing and reopening, breaker failure internal detection and repeated O-C-O operation are demonstrated by simulations.

Keywords
HVDC grid protection, DC circuit breaker, intelligent electronic device, standardised interfaces, multivendor interoperability
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-252358 (URN)
Conference
CIGRE Symposium Aalborg, 4-7-Juni 2019 Denmark
Note

QC 20190819

Available from: 2019-05-28 Created: 2019-05-28 Last updated: 2019-10-18Bibliographically approved
Chaffey, G., Jahn, I., Loenders, R., Leterme, W., Dejene, F. Z., Wang, M., . . . Van Hertem, D. (2019). Requirements for functional testing of HVDC protection IEDs. In: : . Paper presented at CIGRE B4 International Colloquium 1st - 4th October 2019 Johannesburg, South Africa.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Requirements for functional testing of HVDC protection IEDs
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Development of Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED) for HVDC protection is underway, driven in part by the prospective demands of future multiterminal HVDC systems. There is, however, no consensus on how to test the functionality of an HVDC protection IED. Successful operation of a future multivendor HVDC protection system requires functional specifications and harmonised test procedures for protection system components, including the protection IED. This paper presents an introduction to functional testing methods for HVDC protection IEDs. Evaluating the protection algorithm characteristic using synthetic waveforms is first performed, i.e. ’functional type testing’. Given that test procedures are in part dependent on the protection algorithm, tests are developed and presented for several algorithms. The behaviour of the IED in a power system simulation is then examined during generalised yet representative fault transients, i.e. equivalent to ’dynamic validation type testing’ of AC protection algorithms. The combination of functional and dynamic validation type testing allows the generalised functionality of the IED to be evaluated - testing the algorithm, hardware and software implementation, and overall performance. To provide examples of test procedures, an open-source HVDC IED prototype is tested in a hardware-in-the-loop configuration using a real-time simulator. The operation and accuracy of the protection characteristics are first examined, before the IED performance under representative waveforms is determined. Through tests of several non-unit line protection algorithms, it is shown that, depending on the algorithm applied, the IED is dependable for simulated faults within the protection zone, and secure during external faults. Moreover,the test configurations and procedures required to evaluate the functionality and the criteria for success are developed.

Keywords
HVDC protection, Functional type testing, Dynamic validation type testing, Real-time simulation, HVDC relaying, HVDC protection IED, Hardware in the loop, Standardisation, Harmonisation.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-260572 (URN)
Conference
CIGRE B4 International Colloquium 1st - 4th October 2019 Johannesburg, South Africa
Note

QCR 20191015

Available from: 2019-09-30 Created: 2019-09-30 Last updated: 2019-10-18Bibliographically approved
Jahn, I., Hohn, F. & Norrga, S. (2018). Impact of measurement and communication aspects on protection of multi-terminal DC grids. Paper presented at The 14th International Conference on Developments in Power System Protection (DPSP 2018). IET - The Journal of Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of measurement and communication aspects on protection of multi-terminal DC grids
2018 (English)In: IET - The Journal of Engineering, E-ISSN 2051-3305Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The increased demand for renewable energy generation requires the higher flexibility of transmission systems. This requirement together with technical progress in high-voltage DC technology has resulted in the ambition to build large-scale multi-terminal DC grids. To achieve this goal, vendor interoperability is considered a key element. Standards exist for AC systems, but not for DC systems. This work discusses and evaluates the suitability of AC standards for DC systems. As a result, a different view on substation architecture is developed and two communication protocols are suggested for further investigation in this context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2018
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-239179 (URN)10.1049/joe.2018.0166 (DOI)000447973200071 ()
Conference
The 14th International Conference on Developments in Power System Protection (DPSP 2018)
Projects
PROMOTioN
Note

This paper is the journal version of the corresponding conference paper (DPSP 2018). QC 20181130

Available from: 2018-11-19 Created: 2018-11-19 Last updated: 2019-05-10Bibliographically approved
Jahn, I., Hohn, F. & Norrga, S. (2018). Impact of Measurement and Communication on Protection of MTDC Grids. In: : . Paper presented at 14th IET International Conference on Developments in Power System Protection (DPSP) 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of Measurement and Communication on Protection of MTDC Grids
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The increased demand for renewable energy generation requires higher flexibility of transmission systems. This requirement together with technical progress in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) technology have resulted in the ambition to build large-scale multi-terminal DC (MTDC) grids. To achieve this goal, vendor interoperability is considered a key element. Standards exist for AC systems,but not for DC systems. This work discusses and evaluates the suitability of AC standards for DC systems. As a result, a different view on substation architecture is developed and two communication protocols are suggested for further investigation in this context.

Keywords
HVDC, protection, communication, delays
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-224212 (URN)
Conference
14th IET International Conference on Developments in Power System Protection (DPSP) 2018
Note

QCR 20180314

Available from: 2018-03-13 Created: 2018-03-13 Last updated: 2019-10-18Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0579-2639

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