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Djordjevic, B., Krmac, E., Lin, C. Y., Fröidh, O. & Kordnejad, B. (2024). An optimisation-based digital twin for automated operation of rail level crossings. Expert systems with applications, 239, Article ID 122422.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An optimisation-based digital twin for automated operation of rail level crossings
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2024 (English)In: Expert systems with applications, ISSN 0957-4174, E-ISSN 1873-6793, Vol. 239, article id 122422Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Railway level crossings (LCs), as the intersection of road and rail transport, are the weak points in terms of safety, as they are used by different modes of transport. The safety level at LCs can therefore be affected by the behaviour of the users. However, the level of safety can also be affected by failures and errors in the operation of LC equipment. Apart from safety, errors and failures of the LC devices can lead to longer waiting times for road users. As the volume of traffic on rail and road increases, so does the risk that the level of safety will decrease. The increase in traffic volume via LC leads to higher traffic volume on the road and more frequent trains on the rail, which leads to longer waiting times for road users on the LCs. The longer waiting times can disrupt the traffic flow, especially during peak hours when the growing volume of traffic on road and rail increases road user dissatisfaction. Moreover, in the era of Industry 4.0 and Digital Rail, new digital and automated technologies are being introduced to improve rail performance and competitiveness. These technologies are aligned with the LCs and are intended to ensure the efficient operation of LC and the efficient use of LCs by conventional trains as well. To achieve this, a concept is needed that simultaneously monitors and visualises the operation of LC in real time, identifies potential faults and failures of the LC equipment, and updates and monitors the proper operation of LC based on the historical data and information of the operation of LC according to the road traffic volume and the characteristics of the rail traffic and trains. Therefore, in this study, a digital twin system (DT) for rail LC was initiated and built as a concept that can meet the above requirements for proper LC operation in real time. DT of LC includes all components of LC and communication between them to synchronise the operation of LC according to the real-time requirements. The DT system is able to optimise the operation time of LC by monitoring the operation of LC and collecting data to ensure efficient use of LC and reduce unnecessary waiting time for road users. In this paper, the operation time of LCs on Swedish and Taiwanese railways was compared using the developed level crossing optimisation model (OLC). Since the introduction of new signalling concepts requires an improvement of LC operating characteristics and their design, the operating strategies were modelled using the OLC model. The results of the work show that the optimal values of LC operation time are different for the case studies investigated. The replacement of track circuits as detection devices and the introduction of balises can also positively influence the operation time, as well as increasing the speed of trains via LCs. However, due to the formulation of the OLC model, the impact of a longer train length on the operation of LC is not recognised. The OLC model can be used to estimate the real-time operation time of LC under different traffic conditions as well as the impact of different changes and extensions of LC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2024
Keywords
Digital twin, DT, Level crossing, Operation time, Optimisation, Railway
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-340838 (URN)10.1016/j.eswa.2023.122422 (DOI)001112027900001 ()2-s2.0-85177775453 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20231218

Available from: 2023-12-18 Created: 2023-12-18 Last updated: 2023-12-18Bibliographically approved
Hallesius, H., Kordnejad, B. & Nordmark, I. (2023). A pre-study for a new efficient transshipment technology for combined transports.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A pre-study for a new efficient transshipment technology for combined transports
2023 (English)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Alternative title[sv]
Förstudie för ny effektiv horisontell omlastningsteknik för kombinerade transporter
Abstract [en]

The project addresses the need for green end-to-end long-distance transportation over land and the need to shift more cargo from road to rail. The overarching target is to shift a considerable part of present long-distance road transports to combined transportation, by providing seamless transshipment between road and rail, with the aim to accelerate the shift from energy-consuming fossil transportation to a combination of energy-efficient and fossil-free long-distance transportation on rail and flexible and fossil-free short-distance trucking.

Combined transport (CT) of semi-trailers combines the sustainability (electrification & energy efficiency) of rail with the flexibility of road, enabling green transport chains. The availability and competitiveness of CT is however limited by inefficiencies related to the transshipment, as most trailers cannot be managed by present methods, as CT terminals are capital intensive and therefore typically few and far apart, and as large part of transport costs and time are related to the transshipment.

The proposed solution “Assisted RoRo Transshipment” is an innovative & competitive way for loading trailers onto railway wagons at terminals, through horizontal loading of trailers onto flat railway wagons by the use of assisted precision driving (Ro-Ro). The trailer can be pushed onto the railway wagon directly by the tractor bringing it to the terminal, or alternatively by a terminal tractor.

One objective of the pre-study project has been to achieve a deeper understanding of the fit within the transport system in Sweden, including relevant market, and the needs of all relevant stakeholders. Another objective has been to review the feasibility of the technology in different implementations. A further objective has been to identify relevant use cases, and propose an actionable project plan for a full scale demo project.

The following general research questions were addressed:

  • How well does the concept fit in the present system and market? 
  • How feasible is the concept in relation to risks and regulations? 
  • How should a suitable full scale demo project (FSDP) be designed and planned and what should be considered regarding technology?

To review the fit of the new concept in present systems and market, a review has been made from the perspectives system, behaviour and application. A thorough review on the market mechanics has been made and the different components of the intermodal transport system have been addressed. Simulations of effects by the introduction of the Assisted RoRo Transshipment concept in various environments was carried out.

As a summary, the conclusion is that Assisted RoRo Transshipments have the potential of bringing relevant improvements to the marked in various situations. The costs for transshipment are estimated to be considerably lower than present alternatives and new opportunities are created for the establishment of intermediate terminals along the railway line. Faster transshipments together with the possibility to use also non-liftable trailers in CT provides opportunities or growing the CT market. Based upon these conclusions, further development and demonstrations are suggested, as well as further research.

In the study regarding the feasibility of the concept, various risks related to CT and an implementation of Assisted RoRo Transshipments were reviewed and analysed. Applicable legislation and requirements related to intermodal railway transports were also reviewed and analysed in view of various levels of implementation. The main conclusions from the feasibility study are that the Assisted RoRo Transshipment concept appears to be feasible for implementation in an FSDP as well as in large scale and that the risks involved in transshipments and transportation call for focus on safety and reliability in all implementations. 

Various alternatives for an FSDP were simulated and analysed. The technology concept has been tested from different perspectives. The conclusions were that there is a number of variations as to how a demonstration and pilot project can be set up in various stages of the development of the concept. The suggestion is however to set up a limited FSDP, with one or a few wagons in commercial pilot traffic between two terminals as part of an existing intermodal shuttle. The railway wagon should be adapted for Assisted RoRo Transshipments. Temporary platforms for Assisted RoRo Transshipments should be arranged on or close to the terminals. The project also proposes a project plan for such FSDP.

Abstract [sv]

Projektet tar upp behovet av gröna långväga transporter över land och behovet att flytta mer gods från väg till järnväg. Det övergripande målet är att flytta en avsevärd del av nuvarande långväga vägtransporter till kombitransporter, genom att tillhandahålla sömlös omlastning mellan väg och järnväg, med målet att påskynda övergången från energikrävande fossila transporter till en kombination av energieffektiva och fossilfria långväga transporter på järnväg och flexibla och fossilfria, korta vägtransporter.

Kombitransporter av semitrailers kombinerar hållbarheten (elektrifiering och energieffektivitet) hos järnväg med vägens flexibilitet, vilket möjliggör gröna transportkedjor. Tillgängligheten och konkurrenskraften för kombitransporter begränsas dock av problem relaterade till omlastningen, eftersom de flesta trailers inte kan omlastas med nuvarande metoder, eftersom kombiterminaler är kapitalintensiva och därför vanligtvis är få och långt ifrån varandra, och eftersom en stor del av transportkostnaderna och -tiden är relaterade till omlastningen.

Den föreslagna lösningen “Assisted RoRo Transshipment” är ett innovativt och konkurrenskraftigt sätt att lasta semi-trailersläp på järnvägsvagnar vid terminaler, genom horisontell lastning (Ro-Ro) av släp på plana järnvägsvagnar med hjälp av assisterad precisionskörning. Släpet kan rullas över på järnvägsvagnen direkt av dragbilen som tar den till terminalen, eller av en terminaltruck.

Ett mål med förstudieprojektet är att nå djupare förståelse för hur metoden passar i transportsystemet i Sverige, inklusive relevant marknad, och behoven hos alla relevanta intressenter. Ett annat mål är att identifiera relevant första tillämpning och föreslå en projektplan för ett fullskaligt demoprojekt.

Följande generella frågor har varit utgångspunkt för arbetet:

  • Hur väl passar konceptet i nuvarande transportsystem och på marknaden?
  • Hur påverkas konceptet och den nya tekniken av risker och regleringar?
  • Hur planerar och genomför man en lämplig fullskalig demonstrations pilot av konceptet?

För att undersöka hur väl det nya konceptet passar med nuvarande transportsystem och marknad, har de olika perspektiven system, beteende och användning studerats. En grundlig genomgång har gjorts av marknadsmekanismerna och av de olika komponenterna i det intermodala transportsystemet. Simulering av effekterna av införandet av konceptet Assisted RoRo Transshipment i olika miljöer har genomförts.

Sammanfattningsvis är slutsatsen att Assisted RoRo Transhipments har potential att leverera relevanta fördelar i ett flertal situationer. Kostnaden för omlastning uppskattas bli väsentligt lägre. Nya möjligheter skapas för etablering av mindre terminaler utmed en järnvägslinje. Möjligheterna till snabbare omlastning och omlastning av trailers som ej är lyftbara, kan leda till att marknaden för kombitransporter växer. Baserat på dessa slutsatser föreslås att vidare demonstrationer genomförs och att konceptet görs till föremål för vidare forskning.

Vid studier av konceptets tillämplighet har olika risker relaterade till kombitransporter och till implementation av Assisted RoRo Transshipments studerats och analyserats. Tillämpliga lagar och regler relaterade till kombitransporter har också studerats och analyserats i förhållande till olika hög grad av implementation av konceptet. En slutsats är att varken identifierade risker eller regler bör förhindra implementation av konceptet, varken i en större demopilot eller i en fullskalig implementation. En annan slutsats är att de risker som föreligger föranleder ett starkt fokus på säkerhet och tillförlitlighet vid såväl större som mindre implementationer.

Olika alternativa implementationer av ett demopilotprojekt i full skala har simulerats och analyserats. Teknikkonceptet har även testats ur olika perspektiv. Slutsatsen är att det finns ett antal olika varianter på hur ett demonstrations- och pilotprojekt kan genomföras under olika skeden av konceptets utveckling. Det föreslås emellertid att ett begränsat fullskaligt demonstrationspilotprojekt genomförs, för bästa balans mellan kostnader och nytta. En sådan begränsad pilot skulle lämpligen utgöras av en eller ett fåtal vagnar i kommersiell trafik mellan två kombiterminaler som en del av en redan existerande intermodal pendel. Järnvägsvagnen utgörs lämpligen av en befintlig lågbyggd vagn som anpassas för Assisted RoRo Transshipment. Tillfälliga plattformar anordnas på eller i närheten av terminalerna. Projektet har även tagit fram en projektplan för genomförande av ett sådant begränsat fullskaligt demopilotprojekt.

Publisher
p. 50
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Effektiva tågsystem för godstrafik; Transport Science, Transport Infrastructure
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-343407 (URN)
Projects
Förstudie för ny effektiv horisontell omlastningsteknik för kombinerade transporter
Funder
Vinnova, 2023-00040
Note

QC 20240214

Available from: 2024-02-12 Created: 2024-02-12 Last updated: 2024-02-14Bibliographically approved
Al-Mousa, M. & Kordnejad, B. (2023). Capacity Allocation of Unmonitored Railway Yards. In: TRA Lisbon 2022 Conference Proceedings Transport Research Arena (TRA Lisbon 2022),14th-17th November 2022, Lisboa, Portugal: . Paper presented at 2022 Conference Proceedings Transport Research Arena, TRA Lisbon 2022, Lisboa, Portugal, Nov 14 2022 - Nov 17 2022 (pp. 4041-4048). Elsevier B.V.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Capacity Allocation of Unmonitored Railway Yards
2023 (English)In: TRA Lisbon 2022 Conference Proceedings Transport Research Arena (TRA Lisbon 2022),14th-17th November 2022, Lisboa, Portugal, Elsevier B.V. , 2023, p. 4041-4048Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The demand for railway service facilities in Europe has been rapidly increasing, prompting for more conflicts in capacity requests by railway undertakings. In Sweden, many of these facilities do not have any automatic monitoring possibilities and the infrastructure manager does not have accurate or real-time information about vehicles occupying the tracks. This introduces challenges in having efficient capacity utilization in such facilities. This paper proposes a framework for capacity allocation for facilities which are currently unmonitored in general and for railway yards in specific. The framework is proposed upon abessment of the feasibility of emerging technologies in monitoring railway service facilities, as well as evaluating the current capacity allocation process and the suitability of different pricing principles as a basis for a charging scheme for capacity reservation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2023
Series
Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2352-1465 ; 72
Keywords
Capacity allocation, Financial sustainability, Marshalling yards, Emerging technologies, Performance indicators, Pricing principles
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-342815 (URN)10.1016/j.trpro.2023.11.374 (DOI)2-s2.0-85182925177 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2022 Conference Proceedings Transport Research Arena, TRA Lisbon 2022, Lisboa, Portugal, Nov 14 2022 - Nov 17 2022
Note

QC 20240206

Available from: 2024-01-31 Created: 2024-01-31 Last updated: 2024-02-06Bibliographically approved
Kordnejad, B., Nordmark, I., Wolrath, R. & Klein, C. (2023). D25.3 Report on the basic functional and technical specifications regarding CMS as relevant input for FP3.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>D25.3 Report on the basic functional and technical specifications regarding CMS as relevant input for FP3
2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The present document constitutes the basic functional and technical specifications regarding CMS as relevant input for Flagship Project FP3 – IAM4RAIL. The term Condition monitoring systems (CMS) here refers to wayside monitoring systems and in particular the Intelligent Video Gate (IVG) concept developed within the Shift2Rail programme and the projects FR8HUB and FR8RAIL III. The concept is now further developed in a concept called “Standardised European Checkpoints” within Flagship Project FP5 – TRANS4M-R. As these checkpoints will also be developed within FP3 WP7, the main purpose of this deliverable is to provide FP3 basic functional and technical specifications developed previously for the concept within Shift2Rail as well as the vision for the further development of the concept within FP5. Moreover, as CMS also includes other wayside monitoring systems (WMS) than the IVG concept, previous work within Shift2Rail regarding these technologies will also be addressed in this deliverable. 

The IVG concept was first described and showcased on a model train within Shift2Rail and the project FR8HUB and the full scale demonstrated within FR8RAIL III, including installation of gate in Gothenburg, Sweden for terminal purposes, while for yard purposes the gate in Nurnberg yard in Germany was used. The work will now continue within FP5 with extending the concept with further functionalities for terminals, yards and borders and to further European countries, both on a local/national and a European level. 

Challenges experienced during the Shift2Rail projects regard first of all installation challenges; one should consider all the required steps i.e. finding a suitable location, contracting sub provider, obtaining all permissions for installation, purchasing components, transportation of equipment, construction, fine tuning while estimating costs and effort for each step. As for the technical challenges and the image processing, hit rates over 95% for character recognition (codes) are required i.e. ability to recognize more code types e.g. domestic ILU codes differs and are hard to recognize, as well as improved damage detection abilities. Regarding the technical challenges with data exchange, it is particularly worth considering that handling information of dangerous goods is strictly regulated. 

Regarding Wayside monitoring systems based on other detection technologies, the industry is already providing sensors to monitor a large number of freight wagon conditions. However, there are still areas of freight wagons that are difficult or impossible to monitor with stationary or on-board sensors. However, it will not be possible to deploy a comprehensive condition detection solution at one time but step by step. The gradual integration of domestic and international data will also present economic, technical and legal challenges.

Publisher
p. 41
Keywords
Condition monitoring systems (CMS), Intelligent Video Gate (IVG), Wayside monitoring systems (WMS)
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Transport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-344529 (URN)
Projects
FP5-TRANS4M-R
Funder
European Commission, 101102009
Note

QC 20240319

Available from: 2024-03-19 Created: 2024-03-19 Last updated: 2024-03-19Bibliographically approved
Djordjevic, B., Ståhlberg, A., Krmac, E., Mane, A. S. & Kordnejad, B. (2023). Efficient use of European rail freight corridors: current status and potential enablers. Transportation planning and technology (Print), 47(1), 62-88
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficient use of European rail freight corridors: current status and potential enablers
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2023 (English)In: Transportation planning and technology (Print), ISSN 0308-1060, E-ISSN 1029-0354, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 62-88Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Informa UK Limited, 2023
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-342912 (URN)10.1080/03081060.2023.2294344 (DOI)001124640200001 ()2-s2.0-85179924222 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Note

QC 20240202

Available from: 2024-02-01 Created: 2024-02-01 Last updated: 2024-02-02Bibliographically approved
Minbashi, N., Sipilä, H., Palmqvist, C.-W., Bohlin, M. & Kordnejad, B. (2023). Machine learning-assisted macro simulation for yard arrival prediction. Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, 25, Article ID 100368.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Machine learning-assisted macro simulation for yard arrival prediction
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 25, article id 100368Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Increasing the modal share of the single wagonload transport in Europe requires improving the reliability and predictability of freight trains running between the yards. In this paper, we propose a novel machine learning-assisted macro simulation framework to increase the predictability of yard departures and arrivals. Machine learning is applied through a random forest algorithm to implement a yard departure prediction model. Our yard departure prediction approach is less complex compared to previous yard simulation approaches, and provides an accuracy level of 92% in predictions. Then, departure predictions assist a macro simulation network model (PROTON) to predict arrivals to the succeeding yards. We tested this framework using data from a stretch between two main yards in Sweden; our experiments show that the current framework performs better than the timetable and a basic machine learning arrival prediction model by R2 of 0.48 and a mean absolute error of 35 minutes. Our current results indicate that combination of approaches, including yard and network interactions, can yield competitive results for complex yard arrival time prediction tasks which can assist yard operators and infrastructure managers in yard re-planning processes and yard-network coordination respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2023
Keywords
Yards, Delay prediction, Macroscopic simulation, Machine learning, Rail traffic
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-324874 (URN)10.1016/j.jrtpm.2022.100368 (DOI)000923576100001 ()2-s2.0-85145972631 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20231122

Available from: 2023-03-20 Created: 2023-03-20 Last updated: 2023-11-22Bibliographically approved
Djordjevic, B. & Kordnejad, B. (2023). Report on capacity/productivity gains, modal shift potential, marketopportunities and quantification of external effects.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Report on capacity/productivity gains, modal shift potential, marketopportunities and quantification of external effects
2023 (English)Report (Refereed)
Publisher
p. 61
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-343356 (URN)
Note

QC 20240212

Available from: 2024-02-12 Created: 2024-02-12 Last updated: 2024-02-12Bibliographically approved
Kordnejad, B. (2022). Deliverable 3.3 Demonstration and Evaluation including Best Usage of the Data Capture.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deliverable 3.3 Demonstration and Evaluation including Best Usage of the Data Capture
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2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The concept of Intelligent Video Gate (IVG) consists of a gate system installed at relevant railway nodes equipped with cameras and RFID readers for automatic identification of wagons and intermodal loading units (ILU; for example, containers, swap bodies, and semi-trailers) as well as damages, through image recognition and detection of wagon numbers, loading unit codes, placards and RFID units. The IVG is to be located at, or nearby, railway facilities where it can lead to significant improvements for processes within the supply chain, related to time, planning, work safety, maintenance and claims.

The aim of this deliverable is to describe a demonstrator of the IVG, a technique to enhance optimization of a fully operational terminal or yard, and with data management to enable fast and reliable detection of incoming and outgoing assets. Through automatic detection by an IVG of wagon numbers and intermodal loading units (ILU) handled, including recognition of dangerous goods, their sequence as well as visible damages, processes at terminals and yards can be optimized to achieve efficient dwell times and handling, as well as facilitate processes at other actors in the supply chain.

The R&I highlighted in this report are related to three tasks; Task 3.3: AI for images processing, Task 3.4: Data sharing and exploitation and Task 3.5: Demonstration and Evaluation. Task 3.3 and Task 3.4 have partially been reported in (D3.2, 2021) and further elaborated in this deliverable, Chapters 3 and 4. Task 3.5 entails the use cases considered in the exploitation plan, described in Chapter 5 and evaluated in Chapter 6.

Use cases evaluated in this deliverable are dependent on correct extraction of information from the images produced by the IVG, as well as on reliable storage and sharing of the resulting data. The current accuracy levels for the IVG of Trafikverket in Gothenburg, Sweden have been demonstrated in this deliverable. The evaluations that have been performed show that there is room for improvements of the information extraction, but also that the concept works well and that the extracted information has been successfully made available and makes several important use cases possible. The uses cases have also been demonstrated in the final event of FR8RAIL III on 2022/12/09.

It can be concluded that the IVG concept shows potential of automation and digitalization regarding reduction of time and speed-up of the technical checks on departure and arrival, use of image processing combined with machine learning as well as sharing and exploitation of data along the supply chain. However there are potentials for further improvements of the image processing and data sharing, to achieve accuracy levels above 95% through e.g. ability to recognize more code types (mainly national), using colour cameras and exploring common format for data sharing and semantics.

Keywords
Rail freight transports, Image processing, Data sharing; Automation, Digitalization
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Transport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-344636 (URN)
Projects
FR8RAIL III
Funder
European Commission, 881778
Note

QC 20240325

Available from: 2024-03-22 Created: 2024-03-22 Last updated: 2024-03-25Bibliographically approved
Kordnejad, B., Kjellin, M., Aronsson, M., Rius Garcia, G., Castro Vilabella, S., Wohlrath, R., . . . Bergstrand, J. (2022). Intelligent Video Gate -Automated Detection of Wagons and Intermodal Loading Units for Image Processing and Sharing and Exploitation of Data. In: 13th World Congresson Railway Research, Birminghem, UK, 6–10 June 2022: . Paper presented at 13th World Congresson Railway Research, Birminghem, UK, 6–10 June 2022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intelligent Video Gate -Automated Detection of Wagons and Intermodal Loading Units for Image Processing and Sharing and Exploitation of Data
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2022 (English)In: 13th World Congresson Railway Research, Birminghem, UK, 6–10 June 2022, 2022Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Emerging technologies and their applications within intermodal and rail freight terminals enable improvements in efficiency and existing business processes, relieving them of manual activities and enabling higher degree of automation and digitalization. To initiate the next logical step to a higher level of automation at marshalling yards and intermodal terminals and to reduce the lead-time needed for the identification/verification process of freight trains, the concept “Intelligent Video Gates” (IVG) is introduced within the Shift2Rail programme and the project FR8RAIL III WP3. The methodology is based on implementation and evaluation of full-scale demonstration gates that have been installed in Sweden and Germany. The gates capture data through optical character recognition (OCR) and radio-frequency identification (RFID) from wagons and intermodal loading units (ILUs). Use cases such as recognition of damages and dangerous goods placards are investigated. This study deals with two aspects of the concept, namely image processing and the sharing and exploitation of data. Image processing requires two main components: a physical architecture composed of devices that can acquire the images and a software architecture that is able to analyse the information contained within the image and interpret its content. For the software component, one way to accomplish the understanding of the image is the use of Deep Learning methods that learn representations and features through a sequence of transformations to the input image. An architecture is presented for how to retrieve data from the image processing. The data should then preferably be shared with stakeholders in the transportation chain. Within the project, a data sharing system called Deplide is used. The system is based on experience from similar platforms in several large-scale projects within the maritime sector, which is adapted to intermodal and rail transportation requirements. 

Keywords
Rail freight transports, Image processing, Data sharing, Automation, Digitalization
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-344611 (URN)
Conference
13th World Congresson Railway Research, Birminghem, UK, 6–10 June 2022
Projects
FR8Rail III
Funder
European Commission, 881778
Note

QC 20240322

Available from: 2024-03-21 Created: 2024-03-21 Last updated: 2024-03-22Bibliographically approved
Minbashi, N., Bohlin, M. & Kordnejad, B. (2021). Analysis of Railyard Congestion and Departure Delay Relationship: a Case Study from Swedish Railways. In: : . Paper presented at hEART 2020 : 9th Symposium of the European Association for Research in Transportation, Lyon, France.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of Railyard Congestion and Departure Delay Relationship: a Case Study from Swedish Railways
2021 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we propose a macroscopic model framework for departure delay prediction from railyards. The railyard is a large area comprising three sub-yards (arrival, classification, departure). In fact, timely operation at railyard is dependent on coordinated operations in these sub-yards. More importantly, punctual functioning of railyards is crucial for increasing competitiveness of rail freight services throughout the network. Despite previous models, we considered railyard congestion at the arrival yard, time availability of each wagon at the classification yard, and time availability of locomotive at the departure yard. The core part of this paper analyzes the effect of congestion at arrival yard on departure delays. Punctuality data from two Swedish railyards for a seven-year period is used. The congestion is defined as the number of arriving trains three hours before each departure. The results showed that the highest number of delayed departures occur at congestion levels of 4-10, while correlation coefficient is around zero. Analysing the whole dataset reveals that these congestion levels are common for all departures not just the delayed ones. Therefore, we conclude that as three sub-yards are interrelated, a comprehensive definition of congestion at railyard level is required. An elaborate definition of congestion can make it a proper predictor for further delay prediction models.

Keywords
Departure Delay Prediction, Congestion, Railyards, FR8HUB, Shift2Rail
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Transport Science; Transport Science, Transport Systems; Järnvägsgruppen - Effektiva tågsystem för godstrafik; Järnvägsgruppen - Kapacitet
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-284668 (URN)
Conference
hEART 2020 : 9th Symposium of the European Association for Research in Transportation, Lyon, France
Projects
Shift2RailFR8HUB
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Note

QC 20201130

Available from: 2020-11-02 Created: 2020-11-02 Last updated: 2022-06-25Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5269-4356

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