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Publications (10 of 20) Show all publications
Blum, K. M., Gallampois, C., Andersson, P. L., Renman, G., Renman, A. & Haglund, P. (2019). Comprehensive assessment of organic contaminant removal from on-site sewage treatment facility effluent by char-fortified filter beds. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 361, 111-122
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comprehensive assessment of organic contaminant removal from on-site sewage treatment facility effluent by char-fortified filter beds
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 361, p. 111-122Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To remove organic contaminants from wastewater using cost-efficient and currently existing methods, our study investigated char-fortified filter beds for on-site sewage treatment facilities (OSSFs) in a long-term field setting. OSSFs are commonly used in rural and semi-urban areas worldwide to treat wastewater when municipal wastewater treatment is not economically feasible. First, we screened for organic contaminants with gas chromatography and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-based targeted and untargeted analysis and then we developed quantitative structure-property relationship models to search for key molecular features responsible for the removal of organic contaminants. We identified 74 compounds (24 confirmed by reference standards) including plasticizers, UV stabilizers, fragrances, pesticides, surfactant and polymer impurities, pharmaceuticals and their metabolites, and many biogenic compounds. Sand filters that are used as a secondary step after the septic tank in OSSFs could remove hydrophobic contaminants. The addition of biochar significantly increased the removal of these and a few hydrophilic compounds (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, α = 0.05). Besides hydrophobicity-driven sorption, biodegradation was suggested to be the most important removal pathway in this long-term field application. However, further improvements are necessary to remove very hydrophilic contaminants as they were not removed with sand and biochar-fortified sand.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Biochar, Decentralized wastewater treatment systems, Ion mobility spectrometry, Quantitative structure-property relationship, Two-dimensional gas chromatography
National Category
Environmental Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-236333 (URN)10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.08.009 (DOI)000449125800013 ()30176409 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85054082864 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 216-2012-2101 216-2012-2101
Note

QC 20181109

Available from: 2018-11-09 Created: 2018-11-09 Last updated: 2018-11-23Bibliographically approved
Zhang, W., Gago-Ferrero, P., Gao, Q., Ahrens, L., Blum, K., Rostvall, A., . . . Renman, G. (2019). Evaluation of five filter media in column experiment on the removal of selected organic micropollutants and phosphorus from household wastewater. Journal of Environmental Management, 246, 920-928
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of five filter media in column experiment on the removal of selected organic micropollutants and phosphorus from household wastewater
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 246, p. 920-928Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A bench-scale column experiment was performed to study the removal of 31 selected organic micropollutants (MPs) and phosphorus by lignite, xyloid lignite (Xylit), granular activated carbon (GAC), Polonite (R) and sand over a period of 12 weeks. In total 29 out of the 31 MPs showed removal efficiency > 90% by GAC with an average removal of 97 +/- 6%. Xylit and lignite were less efficient with an average removal of 80 +/- 28% and 68 +/- 29%, respectively. The removal efficiency was found to be impacted by the characterization of the sorbents and physicochemical properties of the compounds, as well as the interaction between the sorbents and compounds. For instance, Xylit and lignite performed well for relatively hydrophobic (log octanol/water partition coefficient (K-ow) >= 3) MPs, while the removal efficiency of moderately hydrophilic, highly hydrophilic and negatively charged MPs were lower. The organic sorbents were found to have more functional groups at their surfaces, which might explain the higher adsorption of MPs to these sorbents. The removal of several MPs improved after four weeks in sand, Xylit, GAC and lignite which may be related to increased biological activity and biofilm development. GAC and sand had limited ability to remove phosphorus (12 +/- 27% and 14 +/- 2%, respectively), while the calcium-silicate material Polonite (R) precipitated phosphorus efficiently and increased the total phosphorus removal from 12% to 96% after the GAC filter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2019
Keywords
Micropollutant, Phosphorus, Sorbent, Surface functional group, Physicochemical property, Removal mechanism
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-259416 (URN)10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.05.137 (DOI)000482246700090 ()31279249 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85068255322 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190924

Available from: 2019-09-24 Created: 2019-09-24 Last updated: 2019-09-24Bibliographically approved
Kholoma, E., Renman, G., Zhang, W. & Renman, A. (2019). Leachability and plant -availability of phosphorus in post-sorption wastewater filters fortified with biochar. Environmental technology, 40(27), 3641-3651
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leachability and plant -availability of phosphorus in post-sorption wastewater filters fortified with biochar
2019 (English)In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 40, no 27, p. 3641-3651Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sand and gravel are widely applied for filtering pre- or primary-treated wastewater in small-scale wastewater treatment (SWT) systems. However, ecological materials continue to attract increasing interest in use as retrofits for achieving better performance in removing dissolved contaminants and recovering nutrients from wastewater. In this study, we assessed the plant availability and leachability of phosphorus (P) from sand (Sa) and gas concrete (GC) media previously fortified with biochar (BC) and used for phosphorus (P) removal in laboratory-scale packed bed reactors and field-scale constructed filter beds. Batch and leaching experiments were conducted, with distilled water and ammonium lactate (AL) solutions (1:20 solid–liquid (w/v) ratio) applied as extractants. In the findings, reference (Sa) and fortified (Sa-BC) sand filters leached 11.2 and 20.5 mg P kg−1 respectively, to percolating water while the P seemed less likely to leach from GC systems. Extraction with AL showed that P retained in GC was plant-available and that GC could release up to 90 mg kg−1 of the bound mass. These findings highlight the need to evaluate risks of nutrient leaching from filter media for SWT systems especially where groundwater and surface water are final recipients of such effluents. For greater sustainability of use of the media, the weakly bound P in media such as Sa and BC and strongly bound in media such as GC types of materials may be recovered by recycling the spent material to agriculture. However, this may require re-design of the treatment system especially with respect to particle size to make recycling technically feasible.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-242574 (URN)10.1080/09593330.2018.1483973 (DOI)000491475600011 ()29873605 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85048176680 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190213. QC 20200103

Available from: 2019-01-31 Created: 2019-01-31 Last updated: 2020-03-09Bibliographically approved
Hamisi, R., Renman, G., Renman, A. & Wörman, A. (2019). Modelling Phosphorus Sorption Kinetics and the Longevity of Reactive Filter Materials Used for On-site Wastewater Treatment. Water, 11(4), Article ID 811.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling Phosphorus Sorption Kinetics and the Longevity of Reactive Filter Materials Used for On-site Wastewater Treatment
2019 (English)In: Water, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 811Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Use of reactive filter media (RFM) is an emerging technology in small-scale wastewater treatment to improve phosphorus (P) removal and filter material longevity for making this technology sustainable. In this study, long-term sorption kinetics and the spatial dynamics of sorbed P distribution were simulated in replaceable P-filter bags filled with 700 L of reactive material and used in real on-site treatment systems. The input data for model calibration were obtained in laboratory trials with Filtralite P®, Polonite® and Top16. The P concentration breakthrough threshold value was set at an effluent/influent (C/C0) ratio of 1 and simulations were performed with P concentrations varying from 1 to 25 mg L−1. The simulation results showed that influent P concentration was important for the breakthrough and longevity, and that Polonite performed best, followed by Top16 and Filtralite P. A 100-day break in simulated intermittent flow allowed the materials to recover, which for Polonite involved slight retardation of P saturation. The simulated spatial distribution of P accumulated in the filter bags showed large differences between the filter materials. The modelling insights from this study can be applied in design and operation of on-site treatment systems using reactive filter materials

National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-256497 (URN)10.3390/w11040811 (DOI)000473105700181 ()2-s2.0-85065037122 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190903

Available from: 2019-08-26 Created: 2019-08-26 Last updated: 2019-09-03Bibliographically approved
Hamisi, R., Renman, G., Renman, A. & Wörman, A. (2019). Modelling phosphorus sorption kinetics and the longevity of reactive filter materials used for on-sitewastewater treatment. Water, 11(4), Article ID 811.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling phosphorus sorption kinetics and the longevity of reactive filter materials used for on-sitewastewater treatment
2019 (English)In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 811Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Use of reactive filter media (RFM) is an emerging technology in small-scale wastewater treatment to improve phosphorus (P) removal and filter material longevity for making this technology sustainable. In this study, long-term sorption kinetics and the spatial dynamics of sorbed P distribution were simulated in replaceable P-filter bags filled with 700 L of reactive material and used in real on-site treatment systems. The input data for model calibration were obtained in laboratory trials with Filtralite P®, Polonite® and Top16. The P concentration breakthrough threshold value was set at an effluent/influent (C/C 0 ) ratio of 1 and simulations were performed with P concentrations varying from 1 to 25 mg L -1 . The simulation results showed that influent P concentration was important for the breakthrough and longevity, and that Polonite performed best, followed by Top16 and Filtralite P. A 100-day break in simulated intermittent flow allowed the materials to recover, which for Polonite involved slight retardation of P saturation. The simulated spatial distribution of P accumulated in the filter bags showed large differences between the filter materials. The modelling insights from this study can be applied in design and operation of on-site treatment systems using reactive filter materials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2019
Keywords
Breakthrough, COMSOL modelling, P-filter bags, Phosphorus saturation, Solute transport, Effluents, Filtration, Phosphorus, Wastewater treatment, Design and operations, Emerging technologies, Filter bags, Phosphorus sorption, Reactive materials, Small scale wastewater treatment, Passive filters
National Category
Water Treatment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-255943 (URN)10.3390/w11040811 (DOI)000473105700181 ()2-s2.0-85065037122 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190815

Available from: 2019-08-15 Created: 2019-08-15 Last updated: 2020-02-19Bibliographically approved
Hamisi, R., Renman, A. & Renman, G. (2019). Performance of an On-Site Wastewater Treatment System Using Reactive Filter Media and a Sequencing Batch Constructed Wetland. Sustainability, 11(11), Article ID UNSP 3172.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance of an On-Site Wastewater Treatment System Using Reactive Filter Media and a Sequencing Batch Constructed Wetland
2019 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 11, article id UNSP 3172Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many on-site wastewater treatment systems, such as soil treatment systems, are not sustainable in terms of purification efficiency, nutrient recycling potential, and economics. In this case study, a sequencing batch constructed wetland (SBCW) was designed and added after a package treatment plant (PTP) using reactive filter media for phosphorus (P) removal and recycling. The treatment performance of the entire system in the start-up phase and its possible applicability in rural areas were investigated. Raw and treated effluents were sampled during a period of 25 weeks and analyzed for nitrogen, phosphorus, BOD7, and bacteria. Field measurements were made of wastewater flow, electrical conductivity, oxygen, and temperature. The entire system removed total-P and total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) by 83% and 22%, respectively. High salt concentration and very low wastewater temperature were possible reasons for these unexpectedly low P and TIN removal efficiencies. In contrast, removal rates of bacteria (Escherichia coli, enterococci) and organic matter (as BOD) were high, due to filtration in the alkaline medium Polonite((R)) (Ecofiltration Nordic AB, Stockholm, Sweden) and the fine sand used as SBCW substrate. High pH in effluent from the PTP was efficiently reduced to below pH 9 in the SBCW, meeting recommendations by environmental authorities in Sweden. We concluded that treating cold on-site wastewater can impair treatment performance and that technical measures are needed to improve SBCW performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
add-on unit, biofiltration, nitrogen, package treatment plant, phosphorus, Polonite, sand
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-255445 (URN)10.3390/su11113172 (DOI)000472632200177 ()2-s2.0-85067278721 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190820

Available from: 2019-08-20 Created: 2019-08-20 Last updated: 2019-10-09Bibliographically approved
De Colle, M., Jönsson, P., Karasev, A., Gauffin, A., Renman, A. & Renman, G. (2019). The Use of High-Alloyed EAF Slag for the Neutralization of On-Site Produced Acidic Wastewater: The First Step Towards a Zero-Waste Stainless-Steel Production Process. Applied Sciences, 9(19), Article ID 3974.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Use of High-Alloyed EAF Slag for the Neutralization of On-Site Produced Acidic Wastewater: The First Step Towards a Zero-Waste Stainless-Steel Production Process
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2019 (English)In: Applied Sciences, ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, no 19, article id 3974Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recycling of steelmaking slags has well-established applications, such as their use in cement, asphalt, or fertilizer industries. Although in some cases, such as the electric arc furnace (EAF) high-alloyed stainless-steel production, the slag’s high metal content prevents its use in such applications. This forces companies to accumulate it as waste. Using concepts such dematerialization, waste management, industrial symbiosis, and circular economy, the article drafts a conceptual framework on the best route to solving the landfilling issue, aiming at a zero-waste process re-design. An experimental part follows, with an investigation of the use of landfill slag as a substitute of limestone for the neutralization of acidic wastewater, produced by the rinsing of steel after the pickling process. Neutralization of acidic wastewater with both lime and slag samples was performed with two different methods. Two out of four slag samples tested proved their possible use, reaching desired pH values compared to lime neutralizations. Moreover, the clean waters resulting from the neutralizations with the use of both lime and slag were tested. In terms of hazardous element concentrations, neutralization with slag yielded similar results to lime. The results of these trials show that slag is a potential substitute of lime for the neutralization of acidic wastewater.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
EAF slag; recycling; re-use; wastewater treatment; sustainable production; dematerialization; zero waste; circular economy
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Materials Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-260091 (URN)10.3390/app9193974 (DOI)000496258100033 ()2-s2.0-85073266415 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20191001. QC 20200103

Available from: 2019-09-25 Created: 2019-09-25 Last updated: 2020-01-03Bibliographically approved
Zuo, M., Renman, G., Gustafsson, J. P. & Klysubun, W. (2018). Dual slag filters for enhanced phosphorus removal from domestic waste water: performance and mechanisms. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25(8), 7391-7400
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dual slag filters for enhanced phosphorus removal from domestic waste water: performance and mechanisms
2018 (English)In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 7391-7400Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The phosphorus (P) removal of five combinations of dual filters consisting of blast furnace slag (BFS), argon oxygen decarburisation slag (AOD) and electric arc furnace slag (EAF) was evaluated in column experiments with domestic waste water. The columns were fed with waste water for 24 days. The column with only EAF had the best P removal performance (above 93% throughout the experiment). The speciation of the bound P was evaluated by P K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. In all five columns, the main P species of the slag packed in the outlet chamber was amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP). In samples from the inlet chambers, the contributions from crystalline Ca phosphates, P adsorbed on gibbsite and P adsorbed on ferrihydrite were usually much greater, suggesting a shift of P removal mechanism as the waste water travelled from the inlet to the outlet. The results provide strong evidence that P was predominantly removed by the slags through the formation of ACP. However, as the pH decreased with time due to the progressively lower dissolution of alkaline silicate minerals from the slag, the ACP was rendered unstable and hence redissolved, changing the P speciation. It is suggested that this process strongly affected the lifespan of the slag filters. Of the slags examined, EAF slag had the best P removal characteristics and BFS the worst, which probably reflected different dissolution rates of alkaline silicates in the slags.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2018
Keywords
Metallurgical slags, Calcium phosphate, Phosphate speciation, Precipitation, Adsorption, Metal release
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-225206 (URN)10.1007/s11356-017-0925-y (DOI)000427398200029 ()29280098 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85039055686 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180403

Available from: 2018-04-03 Created: 2018-04-03 Last updated: 2020-06-05Bibliographically approved
Rostvall, A., Zhang, W., Dürig, W., Renman, G., Wiberg, K., Ahrens, L. & Gago-Ferrero, P. (2018). Removal of pharmaceuticals, perfluoroalkyl substances and other micropollutants from wastewater using lignite, Xylit, sand, granular activated carbon (GAC) and GAC+Polonite® in column tests – Role of physicochemical properties. Water Research, 137, 97-106
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Removal of pharmaceuticals, perfluoroalkyl substances and other micropollutants from wastewater using lignite, Xylit, sand, granular activated carbon (GAC) and GAC+Polonite® in column tests – Role of physicochemical properties
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2018 (English)In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 137, p. 97-106Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study evaluated the performance of five different sorbents (granular activated carbon (GAC), GAC + Polonite® (GAC + P), Xylit, lignite and sand) for a set of 83 micropollutants (MPs) (pharmaceuticals, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), personal care products, artificial sweeteners, parabens, pesticide, stimulants), together representing a wide range of physicochemical properties. Treatment with GAC and GAC + P provided the highest removal efficiencies, with average values above 97%. Removal rates were generally lower for Xylit (on average 74%) and lignite (on average 68%), although they proved to be highly efficient for a few individual MPs. The average removal efficiency for sand was only 47%. It was observed that the MPs behaved differently depending on their physicochemical properties. The physicochemical properties of PFASs (i.e. molecular weight, topological molecular surface area, log octanol water partition coefficient (Kow) and distribution coefficient between octanol and water (log D)) were positively correlated to observed removal efficiency for the sorbents Xylit, lignite and sand (p < 0.05), indicating a strong influence of perfluorocarbon chain length and associated hydrophobic characteristics. In contrast, for the other MPs the ratio between apolar and polar surface area (SA/SP) was positively correlated with the removal efficiency, indicating that hydrophobic adsorption may be a key feature of their sorption mechanisms. GAC showed to be the most promising filter medium to improve the removal of MPs in on-site sewage treatment facilities. However, more studies are needed to evaluate the removal of MPs in field trials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-227541 (URN)10.1016/j.watres.2018.03.008 (DOI)000430520200011 ()29544207 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85043450947 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 216-2012-2101
Note

QC 20180516

Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-16 Last updated: 2018-09-07Bibliographically approved
Blum, K. M., Andersson, P. L., Renman, G., Ahrens, L., Gros, M., Wiberg, K. & Haglund, P. (2017). Non-target screening and prioritization of potentially persistent, bioaccumulating and toxic domestic wastewater contaminants and their removal in on-site and large-scale sewage treatment plants. Science of the Total Environment, 575, 265-275
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-target screening and prioritization of potentially persistent, bioaccumulating and toxic domestic wastewater contaminants and their removal in on-site and large-scale sewage treatment plants
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2017 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 575, p. 265-275Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

On-site sewage treatment facilities (OSSFs), which are used to reduce nutrient emissions in rural areas, were screened for anthropogenic compounds with two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS). The detected compounds were prioritized based on their persistence, bioaccumulation, ecotoxicity, removal efficiency, and concentrations. This comprehensive prioritization strategy, which was used for the first time on OSSF samples, ranked galaxolide, a-tocopheryl acetate, octocrylene, 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol, several chlorinated organophosphorus flame retardants and linear alkyl benzenes as the most relevant compounds being emitted from OSSFs. Twenty-six target analytes were then selected for further removal efficiency analysis, including compounds from the priority list along with substances from the same chemical classes, and a few reference compounds. We found significantly better removal of two polar contaminants 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol (p = 0.0003) and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (p = 0.005) in soil beds, a common type of OSSF in Sweden, compared with conventional sewage treatment plants. We also report median removal efficiencies in OSSFs for compounds not studied in this context before, viz. a-tocopheryl acetate (96%), benzophenone (83%), 2-(methylthio)benzothiazole (64%), 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol (33%), and a range of organophosphorus flame retardants (19% to 98%). The environmental load of the top prioritized compounds in soil bed effluents were in the thousands of nanogram per liter range, viz. 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol (3000 ng L-1), galaxolide (1400 ng L-1), octocrylene (1200 ng L-1), and alpha-tocopheryl acetate (660 ng L-1).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Non-target analysis, Ranking, Decentralized sewage treatment, Removal efficiencies, Organic micropollutants
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-199467 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.09.135 (DOI)000390373400028 ()27744155 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84991581724 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170123

Available from: 2017-01-23 Created: 2017-01-09 Last updated: 2020-03-09Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6617-4001

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