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Publications (8 of 8) Show all publications
Zhou, N., Pettersson, R., Schönning, M. & Lin Peng, R. (2018). Influence of surface grinding on corrosion behavior of ferritic stainless steels in boiling magnesium chloride solution. Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of surface grinding on corrosion behavior of ferritic stainless steels in boiling magnesium chloride solution
2018 (English)In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence of grinding operations on surface properties and corrosion behavior of a ferritic stainless steel (FSS), EN 1.4509, has been investigated and limited comparisons also made to the grade EN 1.4622. Surface grinding was performed along the rolling direction of the material. Corrosion tests were conducted in boiling magnesium chloride solution according to ASTM G36; specimens were exposed both without external loading and under four‐point bend loading. The surface topography and cross‐section microstructure before and after exposure were investigated, and residual stresses were measured on selected specimens before and after corrosion tests using X‐ray diffraction. In addition, in situ surface stress measurements were performed to evaluate the actual surface stresses of specimens subject to four‐point bend loading according to ASTM G39. Micro‐pits showing branched morphology initiated from the highly deformed ground surface layer which contained fragmented grains, were observed for all the ground specimens but not those in the as‐delivered condition. Grain boundaries under the surface layer appeared to hinder the corrosion process. No macro‐cracking was found on any specimen after exposure even at high calculated applied loads.

National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-236498 (URN)10.1002/maco.201810206 (DOI)000451781100006 ()2-s2.0-85055888824 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20181119

Available from: 2018-10-18 Created: 2018-10-18 Last updated: 2019-03-20Bibliographically approved
Hägg Mameng, S., Pettersson, R. & Jonson, J. Y. (2017). Limiting conditions for pitting corrosion of stainless steel EN 1.4404 (316L) in terms of temperature, potential and chloride concentration. Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, 68(3), 272-283
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Limiting conditions for pitting corrosion of stainless steel EN 1.4404 (316L) in terms of temperature, potential and chloride concentration
2017 (English)In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 272-283Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The main stainless steel grades used for water applications are 1.4307 and 1.4404. The grade selection depends on the conditions: 1.4404 is a more conservative choice and has an improved corrosion resistance over 1.4307. This paper addresses the concept of defining limiting conditions for pitting corrosion of 1.4404 in terms of the environmental parameters such as temperature, potential and chloride concentration. Extensive testing has been done with a combination of short-term electrochemical measurements and long-term chlorination experiments. Results are discussed in the light of the current understanding of the critical levels of key parameters for pitting corrosion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Materials and Corrosion: , 2017
Keywords
Pitting corrosion, stainless steel, chloride ion, temperature, 316L, chlorination, pitting diagram
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-263817 (URN)10.1002/maco.201609061 (DOI)000395403000001 ()2-s2.0-84978915409 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20191115

Available from: 2019-11-14 Created: 2019-11-14 Last updated: 2019-11-19Bibliographically approved
Zhou, N., Peng, R. L., Schönning, M. & Pettersson, R. (2017). SCC of 2304 duplex stainless steel-microstructure, residual stress and surface grinding effects. Materials, 10(3), Article ID 221.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SCC of 2304 duplex stainless steel-microstructure, residual stress and surface grinding effects
2017 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 221Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence of surface grinding and microstructure on chloride induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of 2304 duplex stainless steel has been investigated. Grinding operations were performed both parallel and perpendicular to the rolling direction of the material. SCC tests were conducted in boiling magnesium chloride according to ASTM G36; specimens were exposed both without external loading and with varied levels of four-point bend loading. Residual stresses were measured on selected specimens before and after exposure using the X-ray diffraction technique. In addition, in-situ surface stress measurements subjected to four-point bend loading were performed to evaluate the deviation between the actual applied loading and the calculated values according to ASTM G39. Micro-cracks, initiated by grinding induced surface tensile residual stresses, were observed for all the ground specimens but not on the as-delivered surfaces. Loading transverse to the rolling direction of the material increased the susceptibility to chloride induced SCC. Grinding induced tensile residual stresses and micro-notches in the as-ground surface topography were also detrimental.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2017
Keywords
Duplex stainless steel 2304, Grinding, Microstructure, Residual stress, Stress corrosion cracking, Chlorine compounds, Corrosion, Cracks, Grinding (machining), Residual stresses, Stress analysis, Surface topography, X ray diffraction, Calculated values, Duplex stainless steel, Grinding operations, Magnesium chlorides, Rolling direction, Surface stress measurement, Tensile residual stress, X-ray diffraction techniques, Stainless steel
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207426 (URN)10.3390/ma10030221 (DOI)000400863500004 ()2-s2.0-85015077550 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170524

Available from: 2017-05-24 Created: 2017-05-24 Last updated: 2018-10-19Bibliographically approved
Zhou, N., Peng, R. L. & Pettersson, R. (2017). Surface characterization of austenitic stainless steel 304L after different grinding operations. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING, 12, Article ID 6.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surface characterization of austenitic stainless steel 304L after different grinding operations
2017 (English)In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING, ISSN 1823-0334, Vol. 12, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The austenitic stainless steel 304L is widely used as a structural material for which the finished surface has significant effect on the service performance. A study of the grinding process with regard to the quality of the ground surfaces is therefore interesting from the point of view of both industrial application and scientific research. Method: This work investigates the influence of grinding parameters including abrasive grit size, machine power, and grinding lubrication on the surface integrity of the austenitic stainless steel 304L. The induced normal grinding force, grinding surface temperature, metal removal rate, and surface property changes have been investigated and compared. Results and Conclusion: Using grinding, lubrication significantly enhanced the metal removal rate. Surface defects (deep grooves, smearing, adhesive chips, and indentations), a highly deformed thin surface layer up to a few microns in thickness, and high surface tensile residual stresses parallel to the grinding direction have been observed as the main damage induced by the grinding operations. Surface finish and deformation were found to be improved by using smaller abrasive grits or by using lubrication during grinding. Increasing the machine power increased surface deformation while reducing surface defects. The results obtained can provide a reference for choosing appropriate grinding parameters when machining 304L; and can also help to understand the failure mechanism of ground austenitic stainless steel components during service.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Keywords
Austenitic stainless steel 304L, Grinding, Surface characterization, Microstructure, Residual stress
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-203823 (URN)10.1186/s40712-017-0074-6 (DOI)000394390400001 ()2-s2.0-85055874513 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170324

Available from: 2017-03-24 Created: 2017-03-24 Last updated: 2020-03-09Bibliographically approved
Hägg Mameng, S., Pettersson, R., Leygraf, C. & Wegrelius, L. (2016). Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel: Results of a Field Exposure Program in the Middle-East. Berg- und Huttenmännische Monatshefte (BHM), 161(1), 33-43
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel: Results of a Field Exposure Program in the Middle-East
2016 (English)In: Berg- und Huttenmännische Monatshefte (BHM), ISSN 0005-8912, E-ISSN 1613-7531, Vol. 161, no 1, p. 33-43Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stainless steels have been widely used as architectural and construction materials because of their high degree of corrosion resistance, unique aesthetic quality, and stability in an unpolluted atmosphere. Although stainless steel is highly corrosion resistant, localized corrosion can occur in certain environments, especially in marine atmospheric conditions if the appropriate grade is not used. Exposure of stainless steel to an environment more aggressive than the limiting conditions may be harmful to its aesthetic appearance and ultimately even to its load-bearing capacity. Selecting a suitable stainless steel grade requires knowledge of the actual location of the application and the atmospheric conditions. In terms of materials selection, the austenitic stainless steel grade 316/316L has proved a very popular choice for architectural applications in many locations, but it is not always suitable at demanding sites such as marine environments in the Middle-East. In such cases the use of a higher-performance grade, often in combination with a good surface finish and established cleaning routines, is required to maintain pristine surfaces.

The main objective of this paper is to present information about the atmospheric corrosion resistance of a number of stainless steels in the Middle-East at a marine site. The results obtained are analysed and discussed in terms of factors affecting atmospheric corrosion of stainless steel such as the, alloying element level, surface roughness, surface treatment, and microclimate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016
Keywords
Atmospheric corrosion of stainless steel, marine environment
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-263806 (URN)10.1007/s00501-016-0447-9 (DOI)
Note

QC 20191115

Available from: 2019-11-14 Created: 2019-11-14 Last updated: 2019-11-19Bibliographically approved
Hägg Mameng, S., Pettersson, R., Leygraf, C. & Wegrelius, L. (Eds.). (2016). Effect of surface finishes on the atmospheric corrosion of duplex grade UNS S32205: results of a field exposure program in Dubai. Paper presented at Nace Corrosion Conference 2016. NACE International
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of surface finishes on the atmospheric corrosion of duplex grade UNS S32205: results of a field exposure program in Dubai
2016 (English)Conference proceedings (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

The duplex grade UNS S32205 is an excellent choice in many marine environments where UNS S31603 is on the borderline in regards to atmospheric corrosion resistance. The properties of S32205 make it well suited for construction with respect to strength, reduced maintenance, durability and long-term service. In marine environments the use of a sufficiently highly alloyed stainless steel, often in combination with a good surface finish and adequate maintenance, is required to maintain pristine surfaces.

The main objective with this paper is to present information about the effect of different surface finishes on the corrosion and aesthetic appearance of the duplex grade S32205 exposed at a marine test site in Dubai, UAE. The results obtained include the effect of characteristics such as surface roughness, surface treatment and surface orientation after several years of exposure. Results show that duplex grade UNS S32205 can be considered for architectural materials in severe marine locations such as the Dubai site. A smooth surface and an appropriate surface treatment give improved corrosion resistance. Chromium and silicon in the passive film were found to be beneficial in terms of resistance to aesthetic degradation. A correlation was observed between aqueous corrosion resistance measured in laboratory pitting corrosion tests and the atmospheric field test results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NACE International, 2016. p. 15
Keywords
duplex stainless steel UNS S32205, atmospheric corrosion, appearance, surface finish, pitting
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-263808 (URN)
Conference
Nace Corrosion Conference 2016
Note

QC 20191210

Available from: 2019-11-14 Created: 2019-11-14 Last updated: 2019-12-10Bibliographically approved
Hägg Mameng, S. & Pettersson, R. (2014). Limiting conditions of pitting corrosion for lean duplex stainless steel as a substitute for standard austenitic grades. In: Proceedings EUROCORR Conference 2014: . Paper presented at EUROCORR Conference 2014, 8-12 September 2014, Pisa, Italy.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Limiting conditions of pitting corrosion for lean duplex stainless steel as a substitute for standard austenitic grades
2014 (English)In: Proceedings EUROCORR Conference 2014, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

Lean duplex stainless steels such as EN 1.4162 (LDX 2101Ò) are today used in many applications where they can substitute for the standard austenitic stainless steel 304L and 316L. The advantages include higher strength, better resistance to stress corrosion cracking, good uniform corrosion resistance and better price stability due to the lower nickel content.

This paper focuses on the performance of the lean duplex stainless steel LDX 2101Ò as a substitute for type 304L and 316L in chloride containing environments ranging from potable water to seawater. A combination of short term electrochemical testing and long term exposures is used to investigate the tendency to pitting corrosion as a function of chloride concentration and temperature. This is used to define the limiting conditions for pitting corrosion and construct engineering diagrams showing the risk areas for localised corrosion as a function of environmental parameters. Results are discussed in terms of the role of alloying elements and microstructure.

 

Keywords
Lean duplex stainless steel, EN 1.4162 (LDX 2101Ò), temperature, potential, chloride concentration, pitting potential, engineering diagram.
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-263813 (URN)
Conference
EUROCORR Conference 2014, 8-12 September 2014, Pisa, Italy
Note

QC 20191115

Available from: 2019-11-14 Created: 2019-11-14 Last updated: 2019-11-19Bibliographically approved
Hägg Mameng, S. & Pettersson, R. (2011). Localised corrosion of stainless steels depending on chlorine dosage in chlorinated water. In: Proceedings Eurocorr 2011: . Paper presented at EUROCORR 2011, 4-8 September 2011, Stockholm, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Localised corrosion of stainless steels depending on chlorine dosage in chlorinated water
2011 (English)In: Proceedings Eurocorr 2011, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

In drinking water systems, the main stainless steel grades used are the standard austenitic stainless steel grades 4307 (304L) and 4404 (316L), with the grade selection depending on the chloride and chlorine levels in the water. The lean duplex grades LDX 2101® and LDX 2404® provides attractive alternatives, with a more stable price and higher strength level, but there is little available data on their use in drinking water systems.

The European Drinking Water Directive sets a maximum limit of 250 ppm (mg/L) for chlorides in drinking water but does not contain guidelines for chlorine. Drinking water is normally treated to give a residual level of 0.2 to 0.5 ppm of chlorine to kill bacteria, but the actual concentrations added are usually higher. The WHO drinking water standard states that 2-3 ppm chlorine should be added to water in order to gain a satisfactory disinfection and adequate residual concentration. For a more effective disinfection the residual amount of free chlorine should exceed 0.5 ppm after at least 30 minutes of contact time at a pH value of 8 or less.

The residual chlorine has a significant influence on the corrosion behavior of stainless steels. The remaining of residual chlorine in drinking water is a major factor leading to the ennoblement of the natural potential of stainless steel. This oxidizing effect of chlorine may have detrimental consequences in that stainless steels may suffer from localized corrosion if an inappropriate grade is used.

The aim was to understand and determine to what extent residual chlorine levels at various chloride contents will affect the localized corrosion behaviour of the standard austenitic stainless steel grades 4307 and 4404, also the duplex grades LDX 2101®, LDX 2404® and 2205. A simulated chlorination system was created in which the specimens were immersed for 30 days at 30°C and 50°C at chloride levels of 200 ppm and 500 ppm, with residual chlorine levels of 0.2, 0.5 and 1 ppm at pH 6.5-7.5. The specimens were investigated by visual examination and microscopy.

The duplex grades LDX 2404® and 2205 perform very well in all the chlorinated environments tested. The lean duplex grade LDX 2101® performed as well as or better than 304L at both 30°C and 50°C. The results also indicated that the presence of a crevice increased the risk for localized corrosion in a chlorinated environment. This study demonstrates that duplex stainless steels are good candidates to use in water pipes or water storage tanks.

Keywords
drinking water, chloride, chlorination, total residual chlorine (TRC), localised corrosion, stainless steel
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-263815 (URN)
Conference
EUROCORR 2011, 4-8 September 2011, Stockholm, Sweden
Note

QC 20191115

Available from: 2019-11-14 Created: 2019-11-14 Last updated: 2019-11-19Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0980-0560

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