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Bykov, Igor
Publications (5 of 5) Show all publications
Ström, P., Petersson, P., Rubel, M., Bergsåker, H., Bykov, I., Frassinetti, L., . . . et al., . (2019). Analysis of deposited layers with deuterium and impurity elements on samples from the divertor of JET with ITER-like wall. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 516, 202-213
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of deposited layers with deuterium and impurity elements on samples from the divertor of JET with ITER-like wall
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 516, p. 202-213Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Inconel-600 blocks and stainless steel covers for quartz microbalance crystals from remote corners in the JET-ILW divertor were studied with time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis and nuclear reaction analysis to obtain information about the areal densities and depth profiles of elements present in deposited material layers. Surface morphology and the composition of dust particles were examined with scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The analyzed components were present in JET during three ITER-like wall campaigns between 2010 and 2017. Deposited layers had a stratified structure, primarily made up of beryllium, carbon and oxygen with varying atomic fractions of deuterium, up to more than 20%. The range of carbon transport from the ribs of the divertor carrier was limited to a few centimeters, and carbon/deuterium co-deposition was indicated on the Inconel blocks. High atomic fractions of deuterium were also found in almost carbon-free layers on the quartz microbalance covers. Layer thicknesses up to more than 1 micrometer were indicated, but typical values were on the order of a few hundred nanometers. Chromium, iron and nickel fractions were less than or around 1% at layer surfaces while increasing close to the layer-substrate interface. The tungsten fraction depended on the proximity of the plasma strike point to the divertor corners. Particles of tungsten, molybdenum and copper with sizes less than or around 1 micrometer were found. Nitrogen, argon and neon were present after plasma edge cooling and disruption mitigation. Oxygen-18 was found on component surfaces after injection, indicating in-vessel oxidation. Compensation of elastic recoil detection data for detection efficiency and ion-induced release of deuterium during the measurement gave quantitative agreement with nuclear reaction analysis, which strengthens the validity of the results.

Keywords
Fusion, Tokamak, Plasma-wall interactions, ToF-ERDA, NRA, SEM
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-240616 (URN)10.1016/j.jnucmat.2018.11.027 (DOI)000458897100020 ()2-s2.0-85060313456 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190125

Available from: 2018-12-20 Created: 2018-12-20 Last updated: 2019-10-29Bibliographically approved
Joffrin, E., Bergsåker, H., Bykov, I., Frassinetti, L., Fridström, R., Garcia Carrasco, A., . . . et al., . (2019). Overview of the JET preparation for deuterium-tritium operation with the ITER like-wall. Nuclear Fusion, 59(11), Article ID 112021.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overview of the JET preparation for deuterium-tritium operation with the ITER like-wall
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2019 (English)In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 59, no 11, article id 112021Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For the past several years, the JET scientific programme (Pamela et al 2007 Fusion Eng. Des. 82 590) has been engaged in a multi-campaign effort, including experiments in D, H and T, leading up to 2020 and the first experiments with 50%/50% D-T mixtures since 1997 and the first ever D-T plasmas with the ITER mix of plasma-facing component materials. For this purpose, a concerted physics and technology programme was launched with a view to prepare the D-T campaign (DTE2). This paper addresses the key elements developed by the JET programme directly contributing to the D-T preparation. This intense preparation includes the review of the physics basis for the D-T operational scenarios, including the fusion power predictions through first principle and integrated modelling, and the impact of isotopes in the operation and physics of D-T plasmas (thermal and particle transport, high confinement mode (H-mode) access, Be and W erosion, fuel recovery, etc). This effort also requires improving several aspects of plasma operation for DTE2, such as real time control schemes, heat load control, disruption avoidance and a mitigation system (including the installation of a new shattered pellet injector), novel ion cyclotron resonance heating schemes (such as the three-ions scheme), new diagnostics (neutron camera and spectrometer, active Alfven eigenmode antennas, neutral gauges, radiation hard imaging systems...) and the calibration of the JET neutron diagnostics at 14 MeV for accurate fusion power measurement. The active preparation of JET for the 2020 D-T campaign provides an incomparable source of information and a basis for the future D-T operation of ITER, and it is also foreseen that a large number of key physics issues will be addressed in support of burning plasmas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019
Keywords
fusion power, JET, tritium, isotope
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-260157 (URN)10.1088/1741-4326/ab2276 (DOI)000484122200001 ()2-s2.0-85070875113 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190926

Available from: 2019-09-26 Created: 2019-09-26 Last updated: 2019-10-04Bibliographically approved
Garzotti, L., Frassinetti, L., Stefániková, E., Bergsåker, H., Bykov, I., Garcia Carrasco, A., . . . Zychor, I. (2019). Scenario development for D-T operation at JET. Nuclear Fusion, 59(7), Article ID 076037.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scenario development for D-T operation at JET
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2019 (English)In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 59, no 7, article id 076037Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The JET exploitation plan foresees D-T operations in 2020 (DTE2). With respect to the first D-T campaign in 1997 (DTE1), when JET was equipped with a carbon wall, the experiments will be conducted in presence of a beryllium-tungsten ITER-like wall and will benefit from an extended and improved set of diagnostics and higher additional heating power (32 MW neutral beam injection + 8 MW ion cyclotron resonance heating). There are several challenges presented by operations with the new wall: a general deterioration of the pedestal confinement; the risk of heavy impurity accumulation in the core, which, if not controlled, can cause the radiative collapse of the discharge; the requirement to protect the divertor from excessive heat loads, which may damage it permanently. Therefore, an intense activity of scenario development has been undertaken at JET during the last three years to overcome these difficulties and prepare the plasmas needed to demonstrate stationary high fusion performance and clear alpha particle effects. The paper describes the status and main achievements of this scenario development activity, both from an operational and plasma physics point of view.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019
Keywords
tokamaks, magnetic confinement fusion, nuclear fusion power
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-262997 (URN)10.1088/1741-4326/ab1cca (DOI)000471317000001 ()2-s2.0-85069038696 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20191025

Available from: 2019-10-25 Created: 2019-10-25 Last updated: 2019-10-25Bibliographically approved
Krat, S., Mayer, M., Bykov, I., Lungu, C. P., de Saint Aubin, G., Widdowson, A. & Carvalho, I. S. (2017). Erosion at the inner wall of JET during the discharge campaign 2013-2014. NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND ENERGY, 11, 20-24
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Erosion at the inner wall of JET during the discharge campaign 2013-2014
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2017 (English)In: NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND ENERGY, ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 11, p. 20-24Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The erosion of Be and W marker layers was investigated using long-term samples containing marker layers during the second ITER-like wall discharge campaign 2013-2014 (ILW-2). The samples were mounted in Be coated Inconel tiles between the inner wall guard limiters (IWGL). They were analyzed using elastic backscattering (EBS) before and after exposure. All samples showed noticeable erosion. The results were compared to the data for Be and W erosion rates for the first 2011-2012 JET ITER-like wall (ILW-1) campaign, and to the data for C erosion during the 2005-2009 campaign when JET was operated with a carbon wall. The mean W erosion rates and the toroidal and poloidal distributions of the W erosion were nearly the same for the ILW-1 and ILW-2 campaigns. The mean erosion rate of Be during the ILW-2 campaign was smaller by a factor of about two compared to the ILW-1 campaign.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-211621 (URN)10.1016/j.nme.2017.02.026 (DOI)000405555100004 ()2-s2.0-85016637440 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170810

Available from: 2017-08-10 Created: 2017-08-10 Last updated: 2017-08-10Bibliographically approved
Zhou, Y., Bergsåker, H., Bykov, I., Petersson, P., Possnert, G., Likonen, J., . . . Widdowson, A. M. (2017). Microanalysis of deposited layers in the inner divertor of JET with ITER-like wall. NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND ENERGY, 12, 412-417
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microanalysis of deposited layers in the inner divertor of JET with ITER-like wall
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2017 (English)In: NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND ENERGY, ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 12, p. 412-417Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In JET with ITER-like wall, beryllium eroded in the main chamber is transported to the divertor and deposited mainly at the horizontal surfaces of tiles 1 and 0 (high field gap closure, HFGC). These surfaces are tungsten coated carbon fibre composite (CFC). Surface sampleswere collected following the plasma operations in 2011-2012 and 2013-2014 respectively. The surfaces, as well as polished cross sections of the deposited layers at the surfaces have been studied with micro ion beam analysis methods (mu-IBA). Deposition of Beand other impurities, and retention of D is microscopically inhomogeneous. Impurities and trapped deuterium accumulate preferentially in cracks, pits and depressed regions, and at the sides of large pits in the substrate (e.g. arc tracks where the W coating has been removed). With careful overlaying of mu-NRA elemental maps with optical microscopy images, it is possible to separate surface roughness effects from depth profiles at microscopically flat surface regions.

National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-220633 (URN)10.1016/j.nme.2017.02.015 (DOI)000417293300062 ()2-s2.0-85015310440 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180112

Available from: 2018-01-12 Created: 2018-01-12 Last updated: 2019-02-13Bibliographically approved
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