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Shi, Z., Jin, Y., Han, T., Yang, H., Gond, R., Subasi, Y., . . . Yang, W. (2024). Bio-based anode material production for lithium–ion batteries through catalytic graphitization of biochar: the deployment of hybrid catalysts. Scientific Reports, 14(1), Article ID 3966.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bio-based anode material production for lithium–ion batteries through catalytic graphitization of biochar: the deployment of hybrid catalysts
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2024 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 3966Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Producing sustainable anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) through catalytic graphitization of renewable biomass has gained significant attention. However, the technology is in its early stages due to the bio-graphite's comparatively low electrochemical performance in LIBs. This study aims to develop a process for producing LIB anode materials using a hybrid catalyst to enhance battery performance, along with readily available market biochar as the raw material. Results indicate that a trimetallic hybrid catalyst (Ni, Fe, and Mn in a 1:1:1 ratio) is superior to single or bimetallic catalysts in converting biochar to bio-graphite. The bio-graphite produced under this catalyst exhibits an 89.28% degree of graphitization and a 73.95% conversion rate. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) reveals the dissolution–precipitation mechanism involved in catalytic graphitization. Electrochemical performance evaluation showed that the trimetallic hybrid catalyst yielded bio-graphite with better electrochemical performances than those obtained through single or bimetallic hybrid catalysts, including a good reversible capacity of about 293 mAh g−1 at a current density of 20 mA/g and a stable cycle performance with a capacity retention of over 98% after 100 cycles. This study proves the synergistic efficacy of different metals in catalytic graphitization, impacting both graphite crystalline structure and electrochemical performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2024
Keywords
Bio-graphite, Biochar, Catalytic graphitization, Lithium-ion battery, Pyrolysis
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-344002 (URN)10.1038/s41598-024-54509-8 (DOI)38368434 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85185354006 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20240229

Available from: 2024-02-28 Created: 2024-02-28 Last updated: 2024-02-29Bibliographically approved
Yang, H., Zaini, I. N., Pan, R., Jin, Y., Wang, Y., Li, L., . . . Han, T. (2024). Distributed electrified heating for efficient hydrogen production. Nature Communications, 15(1), Article ID 3868.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributed electrified heating for efficient hydrogen production
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2024 (English)In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 3868Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study introduces a distributed electrified heating approach that is able to innovate chemical engineering involving endothermic reactions. It enables rapid and uniform heating of gaseous reactants, facilitating efficient conversion and high product selectivity at specific equilibrium. Demonstrated in catalyst-free CH4 pyrolysis, this approach achieves stable production of H2 (530 g h−1 L reactor−1) and carbon nanotube/fibers through 100% conversion of high-throughput CH4 at 1150 °C, surpassing the results obtained from many complex metal catalysts and high-temperature technologies. Additionally, in catalytic CH4 dry reforming, the distributed electrified heating using metallic monolith with unmodified Ni/MgO catalyst washcoat showcased excellent CH4 and CO2 conversion rates, and syngas production capacity. This innovative heating approach eliminates the need for elongated reactor tubes and external furnaces, promising an energy-concentrated and ultra-compact reactor design significantly smaller than traditional industrial systems, marking a significant advance towards more sustainable and efficient chemical engineering society.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Research, 2024
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-346497 (URN)10.1038/s41467-024-47534-8 (DOI)38719793 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85192354703 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20240517

Available from: 2024-05-16 Created: 2024-05-16 Last updated: 2024-05-17Bibliographically approved
Cui, Y., Han, T. & Svagan, A. J. (2023). Achieving carbonized minitablet-shaped structures from lignin: The importance of heating rate on shape. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 176, 106260, Article ID 106260.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Achieving carbonized minitablet-shaped structures from lignin: The importance of heating rate on shape
2023 (English)In: Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, ISSN 0165-2370, E-ISSN 1873-250X, Vol. 176, p. 106260-, article id 106260Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Shape-anisotropic building blocks are vital in the creation of hierarchical materials in nature, as it enables directional alignment, property anisotropy and overall functionality improvement in biological materials. Likewise, the performance of carbonized superstructures could potentially be more precisely designed by using anisotropic building blocks. Lignin represents an important and sustainable alternative in the production of carbonized materials, which is due to its abundance and high carbon content (∼60%). However, to expand its utility, for producing carbonized shape-anisotropic materials, adequate synthesis and pyrolysis-protocols are essential. Here, a fractionated and acetylated Kraft lignin was used to successfully self-assemble shape-anisotropic microcapsules. Then a carbonization procedure (slow heating at 0.6 °C min−1), that retained the original shape-anisotropy after carbonization, was developed. The formation mechanism was discussed as a function of the heating rate. The overall strategy was template-free and the attained shape-anisotropies were well-defined and narrow in size distribution. This is a scalable route for achieving shape-anisotropic carbonized building blocks from lignin.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2023
Keywords
Carbonized particles, Fractionated Kraft lignin, Shape-anisotropy, Slow pyrolysis
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-340974 (URN)10.1016/j.jaap.2023.106260 (DOI)001125414800001 ()2-s2.0-85178079458 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20231218

Available from: 2023-12-18 Created: 2023-12-18 Last updated: 2024-01-16Bibliographically approved
Bolívar Caballero, J. J., Han, T., Svanberg, R., Zaini, I. N., Yang, H., Gond, R., . . . Yang, W. (2023). Advanced application of a geometry-enhanced 3D-printed catalytic reformer for syngas production. Energy Conversion and Management, 287, Article ID 117071.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Advanced application of a geometry-enhanced 3D-printed catalytic reformer for syngas production
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2023 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 287, article id 117071Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Catalyst research on reforming processes for syngas production has mainly focused on the active metals and support materials, while the effect of the catalyst's geometry on the reforming reactions has been poorly studied. The application of 3D-printed materials with enhanced geometries has recently started to be studied in heterogeneous catalysis and is of interest to be implemented for reforming biomass and plastic waste to produce H2-rich syngas. In this study, a geometry-enhanced 3D-printed Ni/Al2O3/FeCrAl-based monolithic catalyst with a periodic open cellular structure (POCS) was designed and fabricated. The catalyst was used for batch steam reforming biomass pyrolysis volatiles for syngas production at different parameters (temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio). The results showed complete reforming of pyrolysis volatiles in all experimental cases, a high H2 yield of ≈ 7.6 wt% of biomass was obtained at the optimized steam-to-carbon ratio of 8 and a reforming temperature of 800 °C, which is a higher yield compared to other batch reforming tests reported in the literature. Moreover, CFD simulation results in COMSOL Multiphysics demonstrated that the POCS configuration improves the reforming of pyrolysis volatiles for tar/bio-oil reforming and H2 production thanks to enhanced mass and heat transfer properties compared to the regular monolithic single-channel configuration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2023
Keywords
Additive manufacturing, Bioenergy, Hydrogen production, Process intensification, Steam reforming, Tar cracking
National Category
Energy Engineering Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-331686 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2023.117071 (DOI)2-s2.0-85153854885 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230713

Available from: 2023-07-13 Created: 2023-07-13 Last updated: 2023-07-13Bibliographically approved
Jin, Y., Yang, H., Guo, S., Shi, Z., Han, T., Gond, R., . . . Yang, W. (2023). Carbon and H-2 recoveries from plastic waste by using a metal-free porous biocarbon catalyst. Journal of Cleaner Production, 404, Article ID 136926.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbon and H-2 recoveries from plastic waste by using a metal-free porous biocarbon catalyst
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 404, article id 136926Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carbon and H2 recoveries from plastic waste enable high value-added utilizations of plastic waste while mini-mizing its GHG emissions. The objective of this study is to explore the use of a metal-free biocarbon catalyst for waste plastic pyrolysis and in-line catalytic cracking to produce H2-rich gases and carbon. The results show that the biocarbon catalyst exhibits a good catalytic effect and stability for various plastic wastes. Increasing the C/P ratio from 0 to 2, induce an increase in the conversion rate of C and H in plastics to carbon and H2 from 57.1% to 68.7%, and from 22.7% to 53.5%, respectively. Furthermore, a carbon yield as high as 580.6 mg/gplastic and an H2 yield as high as 68.6 mg/gplastic can be obtained. The hierarchical porous structure with tortuous channels of biocarbon extends the residence time of pyrolysis volatiles in the high-temperature catalytic region and thereby significantly promotes cracking reactions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2023
Keywords
Biocarbon catalyst, Plastic pyrolysis, Hydrogen, Catalytic cracking
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-327174 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2023.136926 (DOI)000971689600001 ()2-s2.0-85151275989 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230524

Available from: 2023-05-24 Created: 2023-05-24 Last updated: 2023-11-03Bibliographically approved
Shi, Z., Jin, Y., Svanberg, R., Han, T., Minidis, A. B. E., Ann-Sofi, K. D., . . . Yang, W. (2023). Continuous catalytic pyrolysis of biomass using a fluidized bed with commercial-ready catalysts for scale-up. Energy, 273, Article ID 127288.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Continuous catalytic pyrolysis of biomass using a fluidized bed with commercial-ready catalysts for scale-up
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2023 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 273, article id 127288Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of biomass to produce high-quality bio-oils as potential substitutes for conventional fuels plays an essential role in the decarbonization of the world. In this study, continuous CFP tests of sawdust using three commercial-ready catalysts were performed. The overall objective is to screen appropriate catalysts and catalyst loading amounts for further commercialization and upgrading by evaluating the quality of the organic fraction bio-oils and clarifying the relationship between the hydrogen-to-carbon atomic effective (H/ Ceff) ratio and bio-oil yield. The results displayed that, owing to a cracking effect of the catalyst, all catalytic cases had higher H/Ceff ratios and larger relative area percentages of hydrocarbons determined by NMR. Thermogravimetric analysis reveals that, compared to non-catalytic bio-oils, catalytic bio-oils showed more distillates in the diesel range. Increasing the catalyst-loading amount also showed the same effect. Overall, all bio-oil products from catalytic cases had H/Ceff ratios higher than 0.6, indicating the production of promising oil for hydrodeoxygenation. By analyzing and fitting the data from this work and comparing with the literature, it could be concluded that its yield would decrease as the bio-oil product quality increases (the H/Ceff ratios increase).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2023
Keywords
Biomass, Bio-oil, Catalytic fast pyrolysis, The hydrogen-to-carbon atomic effective ratio
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-326644 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2023.127288 (DOI)000965087900001 ()2-s2.0-85150893147 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230509

Available from: 2023-05-09 Created: 2023-05-09 Last updated: 2023-05-09Bibliographically approved
Yang, H., Cui, Y., Jin, Y., Lu, X., Han, T., Sandström, L., . . . Yang, W. (2023). Evaluation of Engineered Biochar-Based Catalysts for Syngas Production in a Biomass Pyrolysis and Catalytic Reforming Process. Energy & Fuels, 37(8), 5942-5952
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Engineered Biochar-Based Catalysts for Syngas Production in a Biomass Pyrolysis and Catalytic Reforming Process
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2023 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 37, no 8, p. 5942-5952Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biochar, originating from biomass pyrolysis, has been proven a promising catalyst for tar cracking/reforming with great coke resistance. This work aims to evaluate various engineered biochar-based catalysts on syngas production in a biomass pyrolysis and catalytic reforming process without feeding extra steam. The tested engineered biochar catalysts include physical- and chemical-activated, nitrogen-doped, and nickel-doped biochars. The results illustrated that the syngas yields were comparable when using biochar and activated biochar as catalysts. A relatively high specific surface area (SSA) and a hierarchical porous structure are beneficial for syngas and hydrogen production. A 2 h physical-activated biochar catalyst induced the syngas with the highest H2/CO ratio (1.5). The use of N-doped biochar decreased the syngas yield sharply due to the collapse of the pore structure but obtained syngas with the highest LHVgas (18.5MJ/Nm3). The use of Ni-doped biochar facilitated high syngas and hydrogen yields (78.2 wt % and 26 mmol H2/g-biomass) and improved gas energy conversion efficiency (73%). Its stability and durability test showed a slight decrease in performance after a three-time repetitive use. A future experiment with a longer time is suggested to determine when the catalyst will finally deactivate and how to reduce the catalyst deterioration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2023
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-330966 (URN)10.1021/acs.energyfuels.3c00410 (DOI)000962149600001 ()2-s2.0-85151322199 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230705

Available from: 2023-07-05 Created: 2023-07-05 Last updated: 2023-11-03Bibliographically approved
Jin, Y., Shi, Z., Han, T., Yang, H., Asfaw, H. D., Gond, R., . . . Yang, W. (2023). From Waste Biomass to Hard Carbon Anodes: Predicting the Relationship between Biomass Processing Parameters and Performance of Hard Carbons in Sodium-Ion Batteries. Processes, 11(3), Article ID 764.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From Waste Biomass to Hard Carbon Anodes: Predicting the Relationship between Biomass Processing Parameters and Performance of Hard Carbons in Sodium-Ion Batteries
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2023 (English)In: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 764Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) serve as the most promising next-generation commercial batteries besides lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Hard carbon (HC) from renewable biomass resources is the most commonly used anode material in SIBs. In this contribution, we present a review of the latest progress in the conversion of waste biomass to HC materials, and highlight their application in SIBs. Specifically, the following topics are discussed in the review: (1) the mechanism of sodium-ion storage in HC, (2) the HC precursor's sources, (3) the processing methods and conditions of the HCs production, (4) the impact of the biomass types and carbonization temperature on the carbon structure, and (5) the effect of various carbon structures on electrochemical performance. Data from various publications have been analyzed to uncover the relationship between the processing conditions of biomass and the resulting structure of the final HC product, as well as its electrochemical performance. Our results indicate the existence of an ideal temperature range (around 1200 to 1400 degrees C) that enhances the formation of graphitic domains in the final HC anode and reduces the formation of open pores from the biomass precursor. This results in HC anodes with high storage capacity (>300 mAh/g) and high initial coulombic efficiency (ICE) (>80%).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2023
Keywords
waste biomass, hard carbon, sodium ion batteries, sodium-ion storage, anode material
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-326634 (URN)10.3390/pr11030764 (DOI)000967839300001 ()2-s2.0-85151727689 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230509

Available from: 2023-05-09 Created: 2023-05-09 Last updated: 2023-05-09Bibliographically approved
Cui, Y., Subramaniyam, C. M., Li, L., Han, T., Kang, M., Li, J., . . . Hamedi, M. (2022). Hierarchical soot nanoparticle self-assemblies for enhanced performance as sodium-ion battery anodes. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 10(16), 9059-9066
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hierarchical soot nanoparticle self-assemblies for enhanced performance as sodium-ion battery anodes
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 10, no 16, p. 9059-9066Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The drawbacks of amorphous hard carbon are its low conductivity and structural instability, due to its large volume change and the occurrence of side reactions with the electrolyte during cycling. Here, we propose a simple and rapid method to address these disadvantages; we used an emulsion solvent-evaporation method to create hierarchically structured microparticles of hard carbon nanoparticles, derived from soot, and multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes at a very low threshold of 2.8 wt%. These shrub-ball like microparticles have well-defined void spaces between different nanostructures of carbon, leading to an increased surface area, lower charge-resistance and side reactions, and higher electronic conductivity for Na+ insertion and de-insertion. They can be slurry cast to assemble Na+ anodes, exhibiting an initial discharge capacity of 713.3 mA h g(-1) and showing long-term stability with 120.8 mA h g(-1) at 500 mA g(-1) after 500 cycles, thus outperforming neat hard carbon nanoparticles by an order of magnitude. Our work shows that hierarchical self-assembly is attractive for increasing the performance of microparticles used for battery production.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), 2022
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-311641 (URN)10.1039/d1ta10889a (DOI)000780328500001 ()2-s2.0-85127876353 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20220502

Available from: 2022-05-02 Created: 2022-05-02 Last updated: 2022-11-29Bibliographically approved
Yang, H., Cui, Y., Han, T., Sandström, L., Jönsson, P. & Yang, W. (2022). High-purity syngas production by cascaded catalytic reforming of biomass pyrolysis vapors. Applied Energy, 322, 119501, Article ID 119501.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-purity syngas production by cascaded catalytic reforming of biomass pyrolysis vapors
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2022 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 322, p. 119501-, article id 119501Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A novel pyrolysis followed by in-line cascaded catalytic reforming process without additional steam was developed to produce high-purity syngas from woody biomass. The key to the proposed process is the construction of a cascaded biochar + NiAl2O4 catalytic reforming process in which biochar acts as a pre-reforming catalyst, and NiAl2O4 acts as a primary reforming catalyst. The large oxygenates in the pyro-vapors are deeply cracked in the biochar layer due to the increased residence time in the hot-biochar bed. The remaining small molecules are then reformed with the autogenerated steam from pyrolysis catalyzed by the reduced Ni0 species in the NiAl2O4 catalyst (NiAlO). The results showed that the yield of syngas for the optimized process was 71.28 wt% (including 44.44 mg-H2/g-biomass and 536.48 mg-CO/g-biomass), and the CO2 yield of the process was only 3 kg-CO2/kg-hydrogen. High-purity syngas with 89.47 vol% of (H2 + CO) was obtained, and the gas energy conversion efficiency (GECE) of the process reached 75.65%. The study shows that in the cascaded catalytic reforming process, cracking of the large oxygenates and reforming of the small molecules are promoted sequentially in separated biochar + NiAlO catalyst layers, which maximizes the syngas production and improves the activity and stability of the Ni-based catalyst.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2022
Keywords
Syngas, Biomass, Pyrolysis, Cascaded catalysts, Reforming
National Category
Bioenergy Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-316430 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2022.119501 (DOI)000833364400004 ()2-s2.0-85132935348 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correction in: DO 10.1016/j.apenergy.2022.120417 and DOI 10.1016/j.apenergy.2022.119501

QC 20220818

Available from: 2022-08-18 Created: 2022-08-18 Last updated: 2023-11-03Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7929-5985

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