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Publications (3 of 3) Show all publications
Bölke, K., Ersson, M., Andersson, N. A. I., Imris, M. & Jönsson, P. (2019). Experimental Determinations of Mixing Times in the IronArc Pilot Plant Process. METALS, 9(1), Article ID 101.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Determinations of Mixing Times in the IronArc Pilot Plant Process
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2019 (English)In: METALS, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 101Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

IronArc is a newly developed technology and an emerging future process for pig iron production. The long-term goal with this technology is to reduce the CO2 emissions and energy consumption compared to existing technologies. The production rate of this process is dependent on the stirring, which was investigated in the pilot plant process by measuring the mixing time in the slag bath. Moreover, slag investigations were done both based on light optical microscope studies as well as by Thermo-Calc calculations in order to determine the phases of the slag during operation. This was done because the viscosity (which is another important parameter) is dependent on the liquid and solid fractions of the slag. The overall results show that it was possible to determine the mixing time by means of the addition of a tracer (MnO2 powder) to the slag. The mixing time for the trials showed that the slag was homogenized after seconds. For two of the trials, homogenization had already been reached in the second sample after tracer addition, which means <= 8 s. The phase analysis from the slag indicated that the slag is in a liquid state during the operation of the process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
IronArc process, Ironmaking, pig iron production, mixing time, CO2 reduction, slag investigation
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-246292 (URN)10.3390/met9010101 (DOI)000459738500100 ()2-s2.0-85060686372 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190325

Available from: 2019-03-25 Created: 2019-03-25 Last updated: 2019-05-13Bibliographically approved
Bölke, K., Ersson, M., Imris, M. & Jönsson, P. (2018). Importance of the Penetration Depth and Mixing in the IRONARC Process. ISIJ International, 58(7), 1210-1217
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Importance of the Penetration Depth and Mixing in the IRONARC Process
2018 (English)In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 58, no 7, p. 1210-1217Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One of the most important parameters for gas injection into liquid baths is the penetration depth of the gas into the bath. This is due to that it strongly influences the flow structure and hence the stirring and plume behavior in metallurgical processes. The IRONARC process is a new energy efficient process for reduction of iron oxide to produce pig iron. The future goal is to continuously scale up the process to an industrial scale from the current pilot scale. In this process, gas is injected horizontally through a submerged nozzle into a slag bath. Hence, the penetration depth is of great importance since it greatly affect several parameters in this process. Moreover, this information is essential when scaling up the reactor from a pilot scale to an industrial scale. In this work, the penetration depth of gas injection into water in a small scale side blown converter was studied numerically. Two different approaches with different multiphase models were tested, namely the Volume of Fluid (VOF) model and Eulerian multiphase model (EE). The penetration depth could be accurately determined for both numerical models, with a small expected deviation of 13.9% from the physical experiment results. Also, the simulation time was shorter for the Eulerian multiphase model. The penetration depth was then determined for the IRONARC pilot plant process. The results show that the plume is detached from the nozzle wall, which in turn results in a better energy usage of the gas along with a small refractory wear.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, 2018
Keywords
penetration depth, IronArc process, pig iron production, CO2 reduction, ironmaking, VOF, mathematical model
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-233302 (URN)10.2355/isijinternational.ISIJINT-2018-043 (DOI)000440393200005 ()2-s2.0-85050101039 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180815

Available from: 2018-08-15 Created: 2018-08-15 Last updated: 2019-12-20Bibliographically approved
Bölke, K., Ersson, M., Ni, P., Swartling, M. & Jönsson, P. (2018). Physical Modeling Study on the Mixing in the New IronArc Process. Steel Research International, 89(7), Article ID 1700555.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical Modeling Study on the Mixing in the New IronArc Process
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2018 (English)In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 89, no 7, article id 1700555Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

IronArc is a newly developed technology for pig iron production with the aim to reduce the CO2 emission and energy consumption, compared to a conventional blast furnace route. In order to understand the fluid flow and stirring in the IronArc reactor, water modeling experiments are performed. Specifically, a down scaled acrylic plastic model of the IronArc pilot plant reactor is used to investigate the mixing phenomena and gas penetration depth in the liquid bath. The mixing time is determined by measuring the conductivity in the bath, after a sodium chloride solution is added. Moreover, the penetration depth is determined by analyzing the pictures obtained during the experimental process by using both a video camera and a high speed camera. The results show that the bath movements are strong and that a circular movement of the surface is present. The mixing in the model for the flow rate of 282 NLmin(-1) is fast. Specifically, the average mixing times are 7.6 and 10.2s for a 95% and a 99% homogenization degree, respectively. This is 15% and 18% (per degree of homogenization) faster compared to the case when using 3 gas inlets and the same flow rate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2018
Keywords
Blast Furnace, CO2 Reduction, IronArc Process, Ironmaking, Mixing, Pig Iron Production
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-232398 (URN)10.1002/srin.201700555 (DOI)000437843900001 ()2-s2.0-85044956607 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20180726

Available from: 2018-07-26 Created: 2018-07-26 Last updated: 2018-07-26Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9413-4098

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