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Publications (10 of 12) Show all publications
Canovas, R., Sanchez, S. P., Parrilla, M., Cuartero, M. & Crespo, G. A. (2019). Cytotoxicity Study of Ionophore-Based Membranes: Toward On Body and in Vivo Ion Sensing. ACS SENSORS, 4(9), 2524-2535
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cytotoxicity Study of Ionophore-Based Membranes: Toward On Body and in Vivo Ion Sensing
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2019 (English)In: ACS SENSORS, ISSN 2379-3694, Vol. 4, no 9, p. 2524-2535Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present the most complete study to date comprising in vitro cytotoxicity tests of ion-selective membranes (ISMs) in terms of cell viability, proliferation, and adhesion assays with human dermal fibroblasts. ISMs were prepared with different types of plasticizers and ionophores to be tested in combination with assays that focus on the medium-term and long-term leaching of compounds. Furthermore, the ISMs were prepared in different configurations considering (i) inner-filling solution-type electrodes, (ii) all-solid-state electrodes based on a conventional drop-cast of the membrane, (iii) peeling after the preparation of a wearable sensor, and (iv) detachment from a microneedle-based sensor, thus covering a wide range of membrane shapes. One of the aims of this study, other than the demonstration of the biocompatibility of various ISMs and materials tested herein, is to create an awareness in the scientific community surrounding the need to perform biocompatibility assays during the the very first steps of any sensor development with an intended biomedical application. This will foster meeting the requirements for subsequent on-body application of the sensor and avoiding further problems during massive validations toward the final in vivo use and commercialization of such devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2019
Keywords
biocompatibility, cytotoxicity tests, ion-selective electrodes, biomedical applications, point-of-care
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-262801 (URN)10.1021/acssensors.9b01322 (DOI)000488424100039 ()31448593 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85072673080 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20191021

Available from: 2019-10-21 Created: 2019-10-21 Last updated: 2019-10-21Bibliographically approved
Cuartero, M., Chai, L., Zhang, B., De Marco, R. & Crespo, G. A. (2019). Ferrocene self assembled monolayer as a redox mediator for triggering ion transfer across nanometer-sized membranes. Electrochimica Acta, 315, 84-93
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ferrocene self assembled monolayer as a redox mediator for triggering ion transfer across nanometer-sized membranes
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2019 (English)In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 315, p. 84-93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Modulation of ion-transfer processes across nanometer-sized voltammetry membranes by ferrocene-based self-assembled monolayer on regular glassy carbon electrode is herein demonstrated. The composition of the membrane is advantageously tuned to promote either cation or anion transfer: the presence of an exchangeable cation results in cation transfer, whereas a lipophilic salt induces anion transfer through the fulfilment of the electroneutrality of the system. When an anodic scan oxidizes ferrocene moieties in the monolayer, these are stabilized by the pairing of lipophilic anions present in the membrane. As a result, either, hydrophilic cations present in the membrane are expelled into the solution or anions enter from the solution generating hence reversible and voltammetric waves for these transfers. The use of a redox active monolayer rather than a conducting polymer film or a redox active compound into the membrane overcomes a number of drawbacks previously manifested by these systems. The confinement of the redox process in a thin film at the immediate vicinity of the membrane allows to avoid the need of elevated number of redox moieties to be sued in the membrane, therefore suppressing its acute leaching and being compatible with the incorporation of both cation and anion ionophores for the first time. In this sense, assisted transfer of lithium and chloride are shown as proof-of-concept. Here, the peak potential of the associated voltammetric waves shifts according to the Nernst equation, in analogy to potentiometric sensors. Analytical detection of lithium and chloride ions in real samples is additionally presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Voltammetry membranes, Self-assembled monolayer, Ion transfer, Ionophores
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-254066 (URN)10.1016/j.electacta.2019.05.091 (DOI)000470108800011 ()2-s2.0-85066091769 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190624

Available from: 2019-06-24 Created: 2019-06-24 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Cánovas, R., Cuartero, M. & Crespo, G. A. (2019). Modern creatinine (Bio)sensing: Challenges of point-of-care platforms. Biosensors & bioelectronics, 130, 110-124
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modern creatinine (Bio)sensing: Challenges of point-of-care platforms
2019 (English)In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 130, p. 110-124Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The importance of knowing creatinine levels in the human body is related to the possible association with renal, muscular and thyroid dysfunction. Thus, the accurate detection of creatinine may indirectly provide information surrounding those functional processes, therefore contributing to the management of the health status of the individual and early diagnosis of acute diseases. The questions at this point are: to what extent is creatinine information clinically relevant?; and do modern creatinine (bio)sensing strategies fulfil the real needs of healthcare applications? The present review addresses these questions by means of a deep analysis of the creatinine sensors reported in the literature over the last five years. There is a wide range of techniques for detecting creatinine, most of them based on optical readouts (20 of the 33 papers collected in this review). However, the use of electrochemical techniques (13 of the 33 papers) is recently emerging in alignment with the search for a definitive and trustworthy creatinine detection at the point-of-care level. In this sense, biosensors (7 of the 33 papers) are being established as the most promising alternative over the years. While creatinine levels in the blood seem to provide better information about patient status, none of the reported sensors display adequate selectivity in such a complex matrix. In contrast, the analysis of other types of biological samples (e.g., saliva and urine) seems to be more viable in terms of simplicity, cross-selectivity and (bio)fouling, besides the fact that its extraction does not disturb individual's well-being. Consequently, simple tests may likely be used for the initial check of the individual in routine analysis, and then, more accurate blood detection of creatinine could be necessary to provide a more genuine diagnosis and/or support the corresponding decision-making by the physician. Herein, we provide a critical discussion of the advantages of current methods of (bio)sensing of creatinine, as well as an overview of the drawbacks that impede their definitive point-of-care establishment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Blood analysis, Creatinine, Early diagnosis, Enzymatic biosensors, Healthcare, POC devices
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-246460 (URN)10.1016/j.bios.2019.01.048 (DOI)000461526200012 ()30731344 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85060939971 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190320

Available from: 2019-03-20 Created: 2019-03-20 Last updated: 2019-04-05Bibliographically approved
Endrodi, B., Stojanovic, A., Cuartero, M., Simic, N., Wildlock, M., de Marco, R., . . . Cornell, A. M. (2019). Selective Hydrogen Evolution on Manganese Oxide Coated Electrodes: New Cathodes for Sodium Chlorate Production. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 7(14), 12170-12178
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selective Hydrogen Evolution on Manganese Oxide Coated Electrodes: New Cathodes for Sodium Chlorate Production
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2019 (English)In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 7, no 14, p. 12170-12178Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The safety and feasibility of industrial electrochemical production of sodium chlorate, an important chemical in the pulp and paper industry, depend on the selectivity of the electrode processes. The cathodic reduction of anodic products is sufficiently suppressed in the current technology by the addition of chromium(VI) to the electrolyte, but due to the high toxicity of these compounds, alternative pathways are required to maintain high process efficiency. In this paper, we evaluate the electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction kinetics and selectivity on thermally formed manganese oxide-coated titanium electrodes in hypochlorite and chlorate solutions. The morphology and phase composition of manganese oxide layers were varied via alteration of the annealing temperature during synthesis, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, synchrotron radiation X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy measurements. As shown in mass spectroscopy coupled electrochemical measurements, the hydrogen evolution selectivity in hypochlorite and chlorate solutions is dictated by the phase composition of the coating. Importantly, a hydrogen evolution efficiency of above 95% was achieved with electrodes of optimized composition (annealing temperature, thickness) in hypochlorite solutions. Further, these electrode coatings are nontoxic and Earth-abundant, offering the possibility of a more sustainable chlorate production.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2019
Keywords
Cathode selectivity, HER, Industrial electrochemistry, Chemical technology, Dichromate
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-255559 (URN)10.1021/acssuschemeng.9b01279 (DOI)000475838100027 ()
Note

QC 20190805

Available from: 2019-08-05 Created: 2019-08-05 Last updated: 2019-08-05Bibliographically approved
Parrilla, M., Cuartero, M., Sanchez, S. P., Rajabi, M., Roxhed, N., Niklaus, F. & Crespo, G. A. (2019). Wearable All-Solid-State Potentiometric Microneedle Patch for Intradermal Potassium Detection. Analytical Chemistry, 91(2), 1578-1586
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wearable All-Solid-State Potentiometric Microneedle Patch for Intradermal Potassium Detection
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2019 (English)In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 91, no 2, p. 1578-1586Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new analytical all-solid-state platform for intradermal potentiometric detection of potassium in interstitial fluid is presented here. Solid microneedles are modified with different coatings and polymeric membranes to prepare both the potassium-selective electrode and reference electrode needed for the potentiometric readout. These microneedle-based electrodes are fixed in an epidermal patch suitable for insertion into the skin. The analytical performances observed for the potentiometric cell (Nernstian slope, limit of detection of 10(-4.9) potassium activity, linear range of 10(-4.2) to 10(-1.1), drift of 0.35 +/- 0.28 mV h(-1)), together with a fast response time, adequate selectivity, and excellent reproducibility and repeatability, are appropriate for potassium analysis in interstitial fluid within both clinical and harmful levels. The potentiometric response is maintained after several insertions into animal skin, confirming the resiliency of the microneedle-based sensor. Ex vivo tests based on the intradermal detection of potassium in chicken and porcine skin demonstrate that the microneedle patch is suitable for monitoring potassium changes inside the skin. In addition, the dimensions of the microneedles modified with the corresponding layers necessary to enhance robustness and provide sensing capabilities (1000 mu m length, 45 degrees tip angle, 15 mu m thickness in the tip, and 435 mu m in the base) agree with the required ranges for a painless insertion into the skin. In vitro cytotoxicity experiments showed that the patch can be used for at least 24 h without any side effect for the skin cells. Overall, the developed concept constitutes important progress in the intradermal analysis of ions related to an electrolyte imbalance in humans, which is relevant for the control of certain types of diseases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2019
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-243957 (URN)10.1021/acs.analchem.8b04877 (DOI)000456350000049 ()30543102 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85059747630 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190301

Available from: 2019-03-01 Created: 2019-03-01 Last updated: 2019-03-06Bibliographically approved
Parrilla, M., Ortiz-Gomez, I., Canovas, R., Salinas-Castillo, A., Cuartero, M. & Crespo, G. A. (2019). Wearable Potentiometric Ion Patch for On-Body Electrolyte Monitoring in Sweat: Toward a Validation Strategy to Ensure Physiological Relevance. Analytical Chemistry, 91(13), 8644-8651
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wearable Potentiometric Ion Patch for On-Body Electrolyte Monitoring in Sweat: Toward a Validation Strategy to Ensure Physiological Relevance
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2019 (English)In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 91, no 13, p. 8644-8651Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Herein, the reproducibility and a double validation of on-body measurements provided by new wearable potentiometric ion sensors (WPISs) is presented. Sweat collected during sport practice was first analyzed using the developed device, the pH-meter, and ion chromatography (IC) prior to onbody measurements (off-site validation). Subsequently, the accuracy of onbody measurements accomplished by the WPISs was evaluated by comparison with pH-meter readings and IC after collecting sweat (every 10-12.5 min) during sport practice. The developed device contains sensors for pH, Cl-, K+, and Na+ that are embedded in a flexible sampling cell for sweat analysis. The electrode array was fabricated employing MWCNTs (as an ion-to-electron transducer) and stretchable materials that have been exhaustively characterized in terms of analytical performance, presenting Nernstian slopes within the expected physiological range of each ion analyte (Cl-, 10-100 mM; 10-10 mM; and Na+, 10- 100 mM and pH, 4.5-7.5), drift suitable for midterm exercise practice (0.3 +/- 0.2 mV h(-1)), fast response time, adequate selectivity for sweat measurements, and excellent reversibility. Besides that, the designed sampling cell avoids any sweat contamination and evaporation issues while supplying a passive sweat flow encompassing specifically the individual's perspiration. The interpretation of ion concentration profiles may permit the identification of personal dynamic patterns in sweat composition while practicing sport.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2019
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-255387 (URN)10.1021/acs.analchem.9b02126 (DOI)000474477900090 ()31194514 (PubMedID)
Note

QC 20190801

Available from: 2019-08-01 Created: 2019-08-01 Last updated: 2019-08-01Bibliographically approved
Parrilla, M., Cuartero, M. & Crespo, G. A. (2019). Wearable potentiometric ion sensors. TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, 110, 303-320
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wearable potentiometric ion sensors
2019 (English)In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 110, p. 303-320Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wearable potentiometric ion sensors (WPISs) have become an exciting analytical platform that combines chemical, material and electronic efforts to supply physiological information during certain human activities. The real possibility of wearing an analytical device with diverse configurations-sweatband, patches, garments-without disturbing the welfare of the carrier has enabled potentiometric ion sensors both as health quality and sport performance controllers. Recent studies show a large involvement of WPISs in the following of critical biomarkers (timely or continuously), such as sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, ammonium and chloride, which are present at relatively high concentrations in sweat (similar to mM levels). Certainly, the non-invasive nature of WPISs and other significant features, e.g., simplicity and cost-effectiveness, have broadened new horizons in relation to applied analytical chemistry. This has been pointed out in the literature over the last decade with the predominance of two analytical outcomes: (i) the improvement of sport performance as a result of continuous detection of ions in sweat (health status of the individual) while decreasing physiological complications (injuries, muscle cramps, fatigue and dehydration) during practice; and (ii) advancements in clinical diagnostics and preventive medicine as a consequence of the monitoring of the health status of patients suffering from any kind of disorder. Beyond the undeniable importance of the integration of WPISs to satisfy current societal needs, the following crucial questions about misleading and missing analytical features need to be answered: To what extent is WPIS technology a reliable analytical tool for the quantification of ions? Is cross-validation the current bottleneck toward further progress? Which are the fundamental steps involving the ion-selective electrode side that would benefit WPIS outcomes? Why is sweat the main (and almost the only) biological fluid to be monitored by WPISs? What is the best sampling strategy to be incorporated into WPIS devices for on-body monitoring of sweat? Which precision limits should be considered to assure a reliable decision-making process? Accordingly, this review focuses on the progression of WPISs from an analytical perspective-merely our vision of the field-within the period between 2010 and 2018. An updated search using specific keywords (wearable, ion, potentiometry, sensor) provided 43 contributions, which are herein highlighted, with a sustainable acceleration over the last three years. Thus, this review describes the current state of WPIS technology, the construction of wearable all-solid-state potentiometric sensors, critical requirements of potentiometric sensors to be fulfilled in a wearable configuration and key features regarding the ideal implementation of WPISs as reliable messengers of physiological information in real scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2019
Keywords
Wearable sensors, All-solid-state ion-selective electrodes, Potentiometry, Sport performance, Health care, On-body monitoring, Sweat analysis
National Category
Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-242183 (URN)10.1016/j.trac.2018.11.024 (DOI)000454880400025 ()2-s2.0-85057825466 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190128

Available from: 2019-01-28 Created: 2019-01-28 Last updated: 2019-01-28Bibliographically approved
Cuartero, M. & Crespo, G. A. (2018). All-solid-state potentiometric sensors: A new wave for in situ aquatic research. Current Opinion in Electrochemistry, 10, 98-106
Open this publication in new window or tab >>All-solid-state potentiometric sensors: A new wave for in situ aquatic research
2018 (English)In: Current Opinion in Electrochemistry, ISSN 2451-9103, Vol. 10, p. 98-106Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Over the last few years, all-solid-state potentiometric ion-selective sensors have demonstrated a huge potential for environmental water analysis. Beyond the excellent analytical performances exhibited in benchtop conditions for the detection of important targets (e.g. pH, species relevant to the carbon and nitrogen cycles, trace metals), the challenge now lies in bringing those sensors to in situ format and obtaining valuable chemical information directly in the field while minimizing or avoiding the need for sampling. Technically speaking, the instrumentation for potentiometric assessment is extremely simple, low cost and requires minimal space. In addition, the all-solid-state configuration seems ideal to fabricate miniaturized sensors with sufficient analytical performance to detect certain ions in water resources. Herein, we highlight the power of all-solid-state potentiometric sensors applied to environmental water analysis providing a threefold overview: (i) the recent materials used in the fabrication of all-solid-state polymeric membrane electrodes, both the solid contact and ion-selective membrane; (ii) a collection of the main targets explored during the last 5 years; and (iii) examples of the most recent and relevant in situ applications employing submersible equipment. Throughout the review, issues such as ‘What are the real implications of all-solid-state membrane electrodes in the environmental field?’ and ‘To what extent has the effort in developing new sensors over time been well-exploited?’ are addressed. Convincingly, all-solid-state potentiometric sensors are positioning as a unique in situ interface providing real-time data that allow for an understanding of ongoing biogeochemical processes and possible anthropogenic activities implications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2018
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-238058 (URN)10.1016/j.coelec.2018.04.004 (DOI)000442800000016 ()2-s2.0-85046138362 (Scopus ID)
Note

Export Date: 30 October 2018; Review; Correspondence Address: Cuartero, M.; Applied Physical Chemistry Division, School of Engineering Science in Chemistry, Biochemistry and Health, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Teknikringen 30, Sweden; email: mariacb@kth.se; Funding details: UPD2017-0220, Wenner-Gren Foundation; Funding details: VR-2017-4887, VR, Vetenskapsrådet; Funding details: K-2017-0804; Funding details: K-2017-0371, KTH, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan; Funding text: The authors acknowledge the financial support of KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Starting Grant Programme, K-2017-0371 ), Swedish Research Council (Project Grant VR-2017-4887 ), WPCRN at KTH (Scholarship K-2017-0804) and Wenner-Gren Foundation (Scholarship UPD2017-0220 ). G.A.C. acknowledges Wehrli's group for the exciting collaboration in environmental water analysis since 2009.

QC 20190114

Available from: 2019-01-14 Created: 2019-01-14 Last updated: 2019-01-14Bibliographically approved
Jansod, S., Cuartero, M., Cherubini, T. & Bakker, E. (2018). Colorimetric Readout for Potentiometric Sensors with Closed Bipolar Electrodes. Analytical Chemistry, 90(11), 6376-6379
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Colorimetric Readout for Potentiometric Sensors with Closed Bipolar Electrodes
2018 (English)In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 90, no 11, p. 6376-6379Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present here a general strategy to translate potential change at a potentiometric probe into a tunable color readout. It is achieved with a closed bipolar electrode where the ion-selective component is confined to one end of the electrode while color is generated at the opposite pole, allowing one to physically separate the detection compartment from the sample. An electrical potential is imposed across the bipolar electrode by solution contact such that the potentiometric signal change at the sample side modulates the potential at the detection side. This triggers the turnover of a redox indicator in the thin detection layer until a new equilibrium state is established. The approach is demonstrated in separate experiments with a chloride responsive Ag/AgCl element and a liquid membrane based calcium-selective membrane electrode, using the redox indicator ferroin in the detection compartment. The principle can be readily extended to other ion detection materials and optical readout principles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2018
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-231713 (URN)10.1021/acs.analchem.8b01585 (DOI)000434893200008 ()29782152 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85047501148 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180821

Available from: 2018-08-21 Created: 2018-08-21 Last updated: 2018-08-21Bibliographically approved
Sateanchok, S., Pankratova, N., Cuartero, M., Cherubini, T., Grudpan, K. & Bakker, E. (2018). In-Line Seawater Phosphate Detection with Ion-Exchange Membrane Reagent Delivery. ACS Sensors, 3(11), 2455-2462
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In-Line Seawater Phosphate Detection with Ion-Exchange Membrane Reagent Delivery
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2018 (English)In: ACS Sensors, ISSN 2379-3694, Vol. 3, no 11, p. 2455-2462Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is an urgent need for reliable seawater phosphate measuring tools to better assess eutrophication. Today, most accepted sensing approaches are based on the established colorimetric molybdenum blue assay. It requires one to modify the sample to strongly acidic conditions and to add various reagents, principally molybdate and reducing agent (e.g., ascorbic acid), to form a blue colored phosphate complex that is subsequently detected spectrophotometrically. The associated need for large sample and mobile phase reservoirs and mixing coils are, unfortunately, not ideally adapted for the development of operationally simple in situ sensing instruments. It is here demonstrated for the first time that the key reagents needed to achieve phosphate detection by the molybdate method may be delivered by passive counter transport across ion-exchange membranes. A cation-exchange Donnan exclusion membrane placed in contact with a sample flow (450 μm thick) is shown to provide the strongly acidic conditions (pH ∼ 1) necessary for phosphate determination. Proton transport is driven, via cation-exchange, by the high sodium content of the seawater sample. Molybdate was similarly released through an anion-exchange membrane by chloride counter transport. Consequently, an in-line flow system containing the two membrane modules in series was used for delivering both hydrogen and molybdate ions into the sample to form the desired phosphomolybdate complex for subsequent spectrophotometric detection. A linear calibration in the range of 0.1-10 μM phosphate (3-300 ppb inorganic P) was achieved, which is sufficiently attractive for environmental work. A range of seawater samples was tested and the results from this membrane delivery device showed no significant differences compared to the classical molybdate assay chosen as the reference method.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2018
Keywords
inorganic phosphate, ion-exchange membrane, marine sensing, molybdate assay, molybdate delivery, seawater analysis, Ascorbic acid, Chlorine compounds, Eutrophication, Indium compounds, Ion exchange, Membranes, Molybdenum compounds, Negative ions, Positive ions, Seawater, Anion exchange membrane, Inorganic phosphates, Phosphate detections, Phosphate determination, Spectrophotometric detection, Ion exchange membranes
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-247042 (URN)10.1021/acssensors.8b01096 (DOI)000451495700033 ()2-s2.0-85057117322 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190625

Available from: 2019-06-25 Created: 2019-06-25 Last updated: 2019-10-17Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3858-8466

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