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Al-Saadi, M., Mu, W., Hulme-Smith, C., Sandberg, F. & Jönsson, P. (2021). Effect of Trace Magnesium Additions on the Dynamic Recrystallization in Cast Alloy 825 after One-Hit Hot-Deformation. Metals, 11(1), Article ID 36.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Trace Magnesium Additions on the Dynamic Recrystallization in Cast Alloy 825 after One-Hit Hot-Deformation
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2021 (English)In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Alloy 825 is widely used in several industries, but its useful service life is limited by both mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. The current work explores the effect of the addition of magnesium on the recrystallization and mechanical behavior of alloy 825 under hot compression. Compression tests were performed under conditions representative of typical forming processes: temperatures between 1100 and 1250 °C and at strain rates of 0.1–10 s−1 to a true strain of 0.7. Microstructural evolution was characterized by electron backscattered diffraction. Dynamic recrystallization was found to be more prevalent under all test conditions in samples containing magnesium, but not in all cases of conventional alloy 825. The texture direction ⟨101⟩ was the dominant orientation parallel to the longitudinal direction of casting (also the direction in which the samples were compressed) in samples that contained magnesium under all test conditions, but not in any sample that did not contain magnesium. For all deformation conditions, the peak stress was approximately 10% lower in material with the addition of magnesium. Furthermore, the differences in the peak strain between different temperatures are approximately 85% smaller if magnesium is present. The average activation energy for hot deformation was calculated to be 430 kJ mol−1 with the addition of magnesium and 450 kJ mol−1 without magnesium. The average size of dynamically recrystallized grains in both alloys showed a power law relation with the Zener–Hollomon parameter, DD~Zn, and the exponent of value, n, is found to be 0.12. These results can be used to design optimized compositions and thermomechanical treatments of alloy 825 to maximize the useful service life under current service conditions. No experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of such changes on the service life and such experiments should now be performed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2021
Keywords
nickel alloys; alloy 825; magnesium; stress/strain measurements; grains and interfaces; texture
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-293866 (URN)10.3390/met11010036 (DOI)000610505500001 ()2-s2.0-85098666947 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20210517

Available from: 2021-05-03 Created: 2021-05-03 Last updated: 2022-06-25Bibliographically approved
Al-Saadi, M., Hulme-Smith, C., Sandberg, F. & Jönsson, P. (2021). Hot Deformation Behaviour and Processing Map of Cast Alloy 825. Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hot Deformation Behaviour and Processing Map of Cast Alloy 825
2021 (English)In: Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), ISSN 1059-9495, E-ISSN 1544-1024Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Alloy 825 is a nickel-based alloy that is commonly used in applications where both high strength and corrosion resistance are required, such as tanks in the chemical, food and petrochemical industries and oil and gas pipelines. Components made from Alloy 825 are often manufactured using hot deformation. However, there is no systematic study to optimise the processing conditions reported in literature. In this study, a processing map for as-cast Alloy 825 is established to maximise the power dissipation efficiency of hot deformation in the temperature range of 950 to 1250 °C at an interval of 50 °C and strain rate range of 0.01s−1 to 10.0s−1 to a true strain of 0.7 using a Gleeble-3500 thermomechanical simulator. The processing conditions are also correlated to the Vickers hardness of the final material, which is also characterised using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, including electron backscattered diffraction. The true stress-true strain curves exhibit peak stresses followed by softening due to occurrence of dynamic recrystallization. The activation energy for plastic flow in the temperature range tested is approximately 450 kJ mol−1, and the value of the stress exponent in the (hyperbolic sine-based) constitutive equation, n=5.0, suggests that the rate-limiting mechanism of deformation is dislocation climb. Increasing deformation temperature led to a lower Vickers hardness in the deformed material, due to increased dynamic recrystallization. Raising the strain rate led to an increase in Vickers hardness in the deformed material due to increased work hardening. The maximum power dissipation efficiency is over 35%, obtained for deformation in the temperature range 1100-1250 °C and a strain rate of 0.01s−1-0.1s−1. These are the optimum conditions for hot working.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2021
Keywords
Alloy 825; Activation energy; Dynamically recrystallised; Grain size; Hot deformation; Stress-strain curve
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Materials Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-301146 (URN)10.1007/s11665-021-05957-0 (DOI)000664426000003 ()2-s2.0-85108603380 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20210906

Available from: 2021-09-05 Created: 2021-09-05 Last updated: 2022-06-25Bibliographically approved
Al-Saadi, M., Sandberg, F., Hulme-Smith, C. & Jönsson, P. (2021). Modelling of strengthening mechanisms in wrought nickel-based 825 alloy subjected to solution annealing. Metals, 11(5), 771-20
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling of strengthening mechanisms in wrought nickel-based 825 alloy subjected to solution annealing
2021 (English)In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 771-20Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wrought nickel‐based Alloy 825 is widely used in the oil and gas industries, attributed toits high strength at temperatures up to 540 °C. However, differences in mechanical properties arisein finished components due to variations in both grain size and dislocation density. Numerous ex‐perimental studies of the strengthening mechanisms have been reported and many models havebeen developed to predict strengthening under thermomechanical processing. However, there aredebates surrounding some fundamental issues in modeling and the interpretation of experimentalobservations. Therefore, it is important to understand the evolution of strain within the materialduring the hot‐forging process. In addition, there is a lack of research around the behavior duringhot deformation and subsequent stabilization of Alloy 825. This article investigates the origin of thisstrength and considers a variety of strengthening mechanisms, resulting in a quantitative predictionof the contribution of each mechanism. The alloy is processed with a total forging strain of 0.45, 0.65,or 0.9, and subsequent annealing at a temperature of 950 °C, reflecting commercial practice. Themicrostructure after annealing is similar to that before annealing, suggesting that static recovery isdominant at this temperature. The maximum yield strength and ultimate tensile strength were348 MPa and 618 MPa, respectively, obtained after forging to a true strain of 0.9, with a ductility of40%. The majority of strengthening was attributed to grain refinement, the dislocation densities thatarise due to the large forging strain deformation, and solid solution strengthening. Precipitatestrengthening was also quantified using the Brown and Ham modification of the Orowan bowingmodel. The results of yield strength calculations are in excellent agreement with experimental data,with less than 1% difference. The interfacial energy of Ti(C,N) in the face‐centered cubic matrix of. These results can bethe current alloy has been assessed for the first time, with a value of 0.8 mJm−2used by future researchers and industry to predict the strength of Alloy 825 and similar alloys, es‐pecially after hot‐forging.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel, Switzerland.: MDPI AG, 2021
Keywords
Alloy 825; strain level; strength properties; annealing; strengthening mechanisms
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-295470 (URN)10.3390/met11050771 (DOI)000662504700001 ()2-s2.0-85105421222 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20220503

Available from: 2021-05-21 Created: 2021-05-21 Last updated: 2022-06-25Bibliographically approved
Al-Saadi, M. (2021). Thermomechanical Processing of Nickel-Base Alloy 825. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm, Sweden: Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, 2021. , p. 269: Kungliga Tekniska högskolan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermomechanical Processing of Nickel-Base Alloy 825
2021 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Alloy 825 material was studied using a Gleeble-3800 thermosimulatorby performing single-hot compression experiments.Optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction wereutilized to characterize the microstructure. Dynamicrecrystallization is not considerable in the as-cast alloy anddislocation recovery is deemed to be dominant. Based on thisfinding, the effect of adding trace amounts of alloying additionson the mechanical properties of cast alloy 825 was studied, withemphasis on whether or not dynamic recrystallization occurred.The results show that dynamic recrystallization was moreprevalent under all test conditions in samples containing a traceamount of magnesium, but not for the conventional alloy.However, alloying with trace magnesium did not lead to animprovement of the mechanical properties. Instead, processingmaps for hot forging of conventional Alloy 825 were required toidentify optimal working parameters and to achieve dynamicrecrystallization. The hot deformation behavior of cast Alloy 825was characterized by using dynamic materials modelling of hotcompression data. The results show that the maximum powerdissipation efficiency is over 35%. The highest efficiency isachieved in the temperature range of 1100 ℃ - 1250 ℃ and instrain rates in the range of 0.01 ≤ strain rate / s ≤ 0.1. The optimumprocessing parameters for good strain hardening are obtained inthe temperature range between 950 ℃ and 1100 ℃ with strainrates of 0.3 ≤ strain rate/ s ≤ 10.0. In addition, the influence of thedeformation level on the recrystallization and microstructuralchanges in Alloy 825 during hot forging operations attemperatures between 950 °C and 1200 °C was studied. Themaximum yield strength and ultimate tensile strength wereobtained after forging to achieve a true strain of 0.9 were 413 MPa and 622 MPa , respectively, with a ductility of 40%.However, Alloy 825 is often supplied as annealed bars.Therefore, the effect of the forging strain magnitude andsubsequent annealing on the microstructure, strengtheningmechanisms and room temperature mechanical properties wereinvestigated to assess the suitability of current industrialpractice. The results showed that the majority of strengtheningwas attributed to grain refinement, the dislocation densities thatarise due to the large forging strain, and due to solid solutionstrengthening. The results of calculations are in excellentagreement with experimental data, with less than 1% difference.These results can be used by future researchers and industry topredict the strength of Alloy 825 and similar alloys, especially inmaterial after a completed hot forging operation.

Abstract [sv]

denna avhandling studerades effekten av deformationsgrad pådynamisk rekristallisation av gjuten Alloy 825 genomexperiment i Gleeble-3800 termomekanisk simulator. Måletmed arbetet är att använda ljusmikroskop och EBSD för attstudera dynamisk rekristallisation i A 825 och dess effekt påmikrostrukturen. Dynamisk rekristallisation är inte betydande,men istället har en substruktur formats med lågvinkligakorngränser.Baserat på dessa resultat, studerades effekten av småmagnesiumtillsatser på de mekaniska egenskaperna av gjutenstruktur med fokus på huruvida dynamisk rekristallisation skereller inte. Resultaten visar att dynamisk rekristallisation varvanligare under alla testförhållanden i prover innehållandemagnesium, men inte i något fall av konventionell A 825.Legering med magnesium ledde emellertid inte till enförbättring av de mekaniska egenskaperna. Av denna anledningdrog man slutsatsen att en varmbearbetningskarta för smittkonventionell (magnesiumfri) A 825 krävdes för att identifieraoptimala processparametrar och uppnå dynamiskrekristallisation.Deformationen av gjuten A 825 undersöktes med hjälp av endynamisk materialmodell och data från kompressionsprover.Resultaten visar att den maximala effektöverföringen är över 35%. Den högsta verkningsgraden är vid ett temperaturintervall av1100 ℃ - 1250 ℃ och en töjningshastighet på 0.01 ≤  töjningshastighet / s ≤0.1 . De optimala varmbearbetningsparametrarna för goddeformationshärdning erhålls i temperaturområdet mellan 950℃ och 1100 °C med en töjningshastighet av 0.3 ≤  töjningshastighet/ s ≤ 10.0.Vidare undersöktes effekten av reduktionsgrad pårekristallisation och mikrostrukturutveckling vid smide inomtemperaturområde 950° C och 1200° C. Den maximala sträckochbrottgränsen erhölls efter smide till sann töjning av 0,9. Sträckgränsen var 413 MPa och brottgränsen 622 MPa, med enbrottförlängning på 40 %. Emellertid levereras materialet ofta isläckglödgat tillstånd. Därför undersöktes effekten av smidemed olika reduktionsgrad följt av mjukglödgning därhärdningsmekanismer och mekaniska egenskaper vidrumstemperatur undersöktes. Detta genomfördes för attbedöma lämpligheten av nuvarande industriell praxis.Resultaten visade att majoriteten av hårdnade tillskrevs småkorn, dislokationstäthet som uppstod på grund av den storasmides-deformationen och härdning genom fast lösning.Resultaten av beräkningarna överensstämmer medexperimentella data med mindre än 1 % skillnad. Resultaten kani framtiden användas av andra forskare och i industrin föroptimering av mekaniska egenskaperna för A 825 och liknadelegeringar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm, Sweden: Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, 2021. , p. 269: Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, 2021. p. 269
Series
TRITA-ITM-AVL ; 2021:32
Keywords
Alloy 825; Cast and wrought structures; Hot compression test; Microstructural evaluation, Modelling, Yield strength, Strengthening mechanisms
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Materials Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-295594 (URN)978-91-7873-827-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2021-06-14, https://kth-se.zoom.us/j/68764816247, Sockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2021-05-25 Created: 2021-05-24 Last updated: 2022-06-25Bibliographically approved
Al-Saadi, M., Sandberg, F., Hulme-Smith, C., Karasev, A. & Jönsson, P. (2019). A study of the static recrystallization behaviour of cast Alloy 825 after hot-compressions. In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series: . Paper presented at 7th International Conference on Recrystallization and Grain Growth, Ghent,August 4-9, 2019. , 1270, Article ID 012023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study of the static recrystallization behaviour of cast Alloy 825 after hot-compressions
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2019, Vol. 1270, article id 012023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The static recrystallization behaviour of a columnar and equiaxed Alloy 825 material was studied on a Gleeble-3800 thermo-simulator by single-hit compression experiments. Deformation temperatures of 1000-1200 °C, a strain of up to 0.8, a strain rate of 1s-1, and relaxation times of 30, 180, and 300 s were selected as the deformation conditions to investigate the effects of the deformation parameters on the SRX behaviour. Furthermore, the influences of the initial grain structures on the SRX behaviors were studied. The microstructural evolution was studied using optical microscopy and EBSD. The EBSD measurements showed a relaxation time of 95 % for fractional recrystallization grains, 𝑡95, in both structures, was less than 30 seconds at the deformation temperatures 1100 °C and 1200 °C. However, fewer than 95% of recrystallized grains recrystallized when the deformation temperature was lowered to 1000 °C. From the grain-boundary misorientation distribution in statically recrystallized samples, the fraction of high-angle grain boundaries decreased with an increasing deformation temperature from 1000 °C to 1200 °C for a given relaxation time. This was attributed to grain coarsening

Series
Journal of Physics: Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588
Keywords
Alloy 825, Static recrystallization, hot compression, Gleeble-3800 thermo simulator
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Materials Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-258210 (URN)10.1088/1742-6596/1270/1/012023 (DOI)2-s2.0-85072107757 (Scopus ID)
Conference
7th International Conference on Recrystallization and Grain Growth, Ghent,August 4-9, 2019
Note

QC 20190916

Available from: 2019-09-10 Created: 2019-09-10 Last updated: 2022-09-08Bibliographically approved
Al-Saadi, M., Karasev, A., Jönsson, P. & Sandberg, F. (2018). Comparative Study of Microstructures Evolution of Columnar and Equiaxed Grain Structurs in Alloy 825 after Hot Compression. In: 3rd InternationalConference on Ingot Casting, Rolling and Forging, ICRF2018, in Stockholm, 16-19October: . Paper presented at 3rd International Conference on Ingot Casting, Rolling and Forging, ICRF2018, in Stockholm, 16-19 October. , Article ID 114.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparative Study of Microstructures Evolution of Columnar and Equiaxed Grain Structurs in Alloy 825 after Hot Compression
2018 (English)In: 3rd InternationalConference on Ingot Casting, Rolling and Forging, ICRF2018, in Stockholm, 16-19October, 2018, article id 114Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-235343 (URN)
Conference
3rd International Conference on Ingot Casting, Rolling and Forging, ICRF2018, in Stockholm, 16-19 October
Note

QCR 20181008

Available from: 2018-09-21 Created: 2018-09-21 Last updated: 2022-09-08Bibliographically approved
Al-Saadi, M., Jönsson, P., Sandberg, F., Karasev, A. & Jonsson, S. (2018). Microstructure characterisation in alloy 825. In: : . Paper presented at 17th International Conference on Metal Forming, Metal Forming 2018, 16-19 September 2018, Toyohashi, Japan (pp. 1626-1634). , 15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstructure characterisation in alloy 825
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-234261 (URN)10.1016/j.promfg.2018.07.294 (DOI)000547828500212 ()2-s2.0-85063780828 (Scopus ID)
Conference
17th International Conference on Metal Forming, Metal Forming 2018, 16-19 September 2018, Toyohashi, Japan
Note

QC 20180906

Available from: 2018-09-05 Created: 2018-09-05 Last updated: 2024-03-07Bibliographically approved
Al-Saadi, M. (2016). Microstructures and mechanical properties: Forged vs rolled bar in Sanmac 2205. Stainless Steel World, 28(July/August), 45-48
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstructures and mechanical properties: Forged vs rolled bar in Sanmac 2205
2016 (English)In: Stainless Steel World, ISSN 1383-7184, Vol. 28, no July/August, p. 45-48Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-234690 (URN)
Note

QCR 20180918

Available from: 2018-09-09 Created: 2018-09-09 Last updated: 2022-06-26Bibliographically approved
Al-Saadi, M., Hulme-Smith, C., Sandberg, F. & Jönsson, P.Hot Deformation Behaviour and Processing Map of Cast Alloy 825.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hot Deformation Behaviour and Processing Map of Cast Alloy 825
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Alloy 825 is a nickel-based alloy that is commonly used in applications where both high strength and corrosion resistance are required. Applications include tanks in the chemical, food and petrochemical industries and oil and gas pipelines. Components made from Alloy 825 are often manufactured using hot deformation. However, there is no systematic study to optimise the processing conditions reported in literature. In this study, a processing map for as-cast Alloy 825 is established to maximise the power dissipation efficiency of hot deformation and correlate the processing conditions to final materials properties. The hot deformation behaviour of equiaxed Alloy 825 is characterized on the basis of the dynamic materials model and compression data in the temperature range of 950 °C to 1250 °C at an interval of 50°C and strain rate range of 0.01 s-1 to 10 s-1 to a true strain of 0.7 using a Gleeble-3500 thermomechanical simulator. Flow stress is modelled by the constitutive equation based on a hyperbolic sine function. The deformed material is characterized using Vickers hardness, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, including electron backscattered diffraction. The true stress-true strain curves exhibit peak stresses followed by softening due to occurrence of dynamic recrystallization. The value of stress exponent in the hyperbolic sine-based constitutive equation, n=5.0. This suggests that the rate-limiting mechanism of deformation is climb (diffusion)-mediated dislocation glide. The activation energy for plastic flow in the temperature range tested is about 450 kJ mole-1, and the relationship between flow stress and temperature-compensated strain rate (via the Zener-Hollomon parameter) was found to be valid across this temperature range. The maximum power dissipation efficiency is over 35%. The highest efficiency is observed over temperature range of 1100 °C – 1250 °C and a strain rate of 0.01 s-1 – 0.1s-1. These are the optimum conditions for hot working. The optimum processing parameters for good strain hardening are obtained in the temperature range of between  950 °C  and  1100 °C with a strain rate between  0.3/s  and 10.0/s. 

Keywords
Alloy 825, Hot-deformation; Stress-strain curve; Activation energy; Dynamically recrystallized; grain size
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Materials Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-295474 (URN)
Note

QC 20210525

Available from: 2021-05-21 Created: 2021-05-21 Last updated: 2022-06-25Bibliographically approved
Al-Saadi, M., Sandberg, F., Jönsson, P. & Hulme-Smith, C.Influence of Strain Magnitude on Microstructure, Texture and Mechanical Properties of Alloy 825 during hot-forging.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Strain Magnitude on Microstructure, Texture and Mechanical Properties of Alloy 825 during hot-forging
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Alloy 825 is a nickel-base alloy that is common in applications with high stresses and corrosive environments. It is commonly processed by hot forging, but there are few data about how hot forging affects the microstructure, which is critical for both mechanical and corrosion performance. Here, the alloy was hot forged in a commercial thermomechanical process to three industrially-relevant strains and the microscture was examined using scanning electron microscopy and EBSD. The tensile properties were also measured after thermomechanical treatment. Dynamic recrystallization was prevalent during the process, so increasing the forging strain leads to smaller grains and also higher dislocation density. Data were combined to allow the 0.2% proof stress to be calculated as a function of forging strain. All forging strains were sufficient to meet the criteria of the relevant industrial standard for this material. The maximum yield strength and ultimate tensile strength were obtained after forging to a true strain of 0.9 were 413 MPa and 622 MPa, respecitvely, with a ductlity of 40%. This may be used to tailor thermomechanical treatments to achieve precise mechanical properties and serve as a basis for future studies into the corrosion performance of this alloy as a function of forging strain.

Keywords
Alloy 825, Hot forging, Grain structure, Yield strength, Strengthening mechanisms
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Materials Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-295473 (URN)
Note

QC 20210525

Available from: 2021-05-21 Created: 2021-05-21 Last updated: 2022-06-25Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0381-5494

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