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Malmaeus, M., Hasselström, L., Mellin, A., Nyblom, A. & Åkerman, J. (2023). Addressing rebound effects in transport policy-Insights from exploring five case studies. Transport Policy, 131, 45-55
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Addressing rebound effects in transport policy-Insights from exploring five case studies
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2023 (English)In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 131, p. 45-55Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although rebound effects are well-known as a phenomenon, the question of how to avoid and minimize rebound effects have largely been ignored in practical policy. In this study, five concrete cases of measures and policies in the transport sector illustrate primary effects, rebound effects and possible strategies to avoid or minimize rebound effects. The cases were explored and analyzed in a series of workshops involving in total 15 researchers and societal actors. In addition to the net impact of primary and rebound effects, factors such as the time horizon and the reversibility of the effect may also be important for the evaluation of measures and policies. To detect and avoid rebound effects - and to assess the effectiveness of a policy - a system perspective is needed rather than a narrow sector focus. When designing measures, broad system-wide strategies or specific measures addressing particularly emission-intensive activities tend to be most effective for avoiding rebound.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2023
Keywords
Rebound effect, Jevons? paradox, Transport policy, Climate policy, System boundaries
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-323230 (URN)10.1016/j.tranpol.2022.12.004 (DOI)000900068500001 ()2-s2.0-85143688548 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230124

Available from: 2023-01-24 Created: 2023-01-24 Last updated: 2023-12-07Bibliographically approved
Hasselström, L. & Thomas, J.-B. (2022). A critical review of the life cycle climate impact in seaweed value chains to support carbon accounting and blue carbon financing. CLEANER ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS, 6, Article ID 100093.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A critical review of the life cycle climate impact in seaweed value chains to support carbon accounting and blue carbon financing
2022 (English)In: CLEANER ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS, ISSN 2666-7894, Vol. 6, article id 100093Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Seaweed is often touted as a blue economy resource with climate benefits. Several calls are made to scale the industry up and to use blue carbon financing to create additional incentives for the sector to expand. But how much of a climate crisis panacea is seaweed, and under which conditions can climate benefits be realized? The article reviews the literature on climate impacts from seaweed value chains and proposes a cradle-to-grave structure for carbon accounting in seaweed value chains. While the literature points towards several ways in which climate benefits can be generated, the evidence base for net negative emissions across the value chain is not robust enough to suggest seaweed value chains, by default, are a climate solution. Instead, climate effects depend on the specific production setup, product choice and the fate of the product on the market. Climate benefits can only be claimed by tracking blue carbon flows across whole life cycles and over time. Knowledge gaps relate to effects at sea, the role of temporarily locking carbon into products and the effects of introducing this resource to the market. Blue carbon financing should be directed only to setups proven to lead to additional and permanent carbon storage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2022
Keywords
Blue carbon, Seaweed, Aquaculture, Climate benefits, Carbon accounting
National Category
Climate Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-323576 (URN)10.1016/j.cesys.2022.100093 (DOI)000906612100012 ()2-s2.0-85138499406 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230208

Available from: 2023-02-08 Created: 2023-02-08 Last updated: 2023-02-08Bibliographically approved
Söderqvist, T., Nathaniel, H., Franzén, D., Franzén, F., Hasselström, L., Gröndahl, F., . . . Thomas, J.-B. (2022). Cost–benefit analysis of beach-cast harvest: Closing land-marine nutrient loops in the Baltic Sea region. Ambio, 51(5), 1302-1313
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cost–benefit analysis of beach-cast harvest: Closing land-marine nutrient loops in the Baltic Sea region
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2022 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 1302-1313Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Harvesting beach-cast can help mitigate marine eutrophication by closing land-marine nutrient loops and provide a blue biomass raw material for the bioeconomy. Cost–benefit analysis was applied to harvest activities during 2009–2018 on the island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea, highlighting benefits such as nutrient removal from the marine system and improved recreational opportunities as well as costs of using inputs necessary for harvest. The results indicate that the activities entailed a net gain to society, lending substance to continued funding for harvests on Gotland and assessments of upscaling of harvest activities to other areas in Sweden and elsewhere. The lessons learnt from the considerable harvest experience on Gotland should be utilized for developing concrete guidelines for carrying out sustainable harvest practice, paying due attention to local conditions but also to what can be generalized to a wider national and international context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2022
Keywords
Beach recreation, Beach wrack, Bioeconomy, Circular economy, Eutrophication, Nutrient loops, biomass, cost-benefit analysis, marine environment, pollutant removal, spatiotemporal analysis, Atlantic Ocean, Baltic Sea, Gotland, Sweden, nitrogen, Baltic States, cost benefit analysis, Nutrients
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-313251 (URN)10.1007/s13280-021-01641-8 (DOI)000719717500001 ()34787831 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85119203226 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20220613

Available from: 2022-06-13 Created: 2022-06-13 Last updated: 2023-11-09Bibliographically approved
Lu, Z., Hasselström, L., Finnveden, G. & Johansson, N. (2022). Cost-benefit analysis of two possible deposit-refund systems for reuse and recycling of plastic packaging in Sweden. Cleaner Waste Systems, 3, Article ID 100048.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cost-benefit analysis of two possible deposit-refund systems for reuse and recycling of plastic packaging in Sweden
2022 (English)In: Cleaner Waste Systems, E-ISSN 2772-9125, Vol. 3, article id 100048Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Plastic packaging is a major contributor to the environmental impacts associated with the linear plastic production and consumption system due to the prevalence of short-lived single-use plastic (SUP) packaging. Deposit-refund system (DRS), as an alternative policy instrument to Extended Producer Responsibility in waste management, is deemed as a potentially promising way to address the failure of the current plastic waste management and facilitate circular plastic packaging production and consumption for food contact use. In this paper, two DRS scenarios for recycling and reuse respectively are explored, with PET trays for food-grade use in Sweden in focus. Their costs and benefits are investigated relative to the business-as-usual scenario over a 25-year period. Results show that the costs are greater than the benefits for the recycling scenario but not for the reuse scenario and that the benefit-cost ratio (1,67) of the reuse scenario is 2.3 times as high as that (0,73) of the recycling scenario. The distributive analysis reveals major cost drivers such as deposit handling and recycling in the recycling case and deposit handling, dishwashing and packaging in the reuse case and major cost takers such as materials industry and hospitality/supermarkets in both scenarios. However, the results are uncertain, as is indicated by sensitivity analysis. Several parameters with high uncertainty are identified and highlighted for system development and innovation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2022
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-322089 (URN)10.1016/j.clwas.2022.100048 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2019–02254
Note

QC 20221201

Available from: 2022-12-01 Created: 2022-12-01 Last updated: 2024-02-28Bibliographically approved
Cole, S., Hasselström, L., Jonsson, K. I., Lindblom, E. & Soderqvist, T. (2022). Expert guidance for environmental compensation is consistent with public preferences - Evidence from a choice experiment in Sweden. Land use policy, 118, 106127, Article ID 106127.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expert guidance for environmental compensation is consistent with public preferences - Evidence from a choice experiment in Sweden
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2022 (English)In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 118, p. 106127-, article id 106127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Public acceptance of environmental compensation (offsetting) as a mechanism to address negative human impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services is critical. Given that "in-kind/on-site" compensation is rarely possible, proposals must address trade-offs with respect to design. We measure Swedish citizens' support for compensation and analyze preferences for design attributes based on a choice experiment in which respondents choose between various compensation alternatives to address the hypothetical loss of green space due to urban development. We find citizens' support for compensation is high, but the activity causing the damage affects acceptance. Our model suggests that several design attributes affect choice but size of the compensation area was valued highest, both in relative and absolute terms. Further, our results suggest that compensation should be primarily focused on creating or improving biodiversity and nature values in order to be in line with public preferences. Additionally, choice depends on interactions between attributes: a larger compensation site matters more when it is relatively further away; and the importance of size and distance from damage depends on whether compensation type focuses on nature or recreational values. Observable characteristics such as a respondent's age, income and education affect compensation design preferences, but perceptions and previous experiences have the largest effect on choice. Our findings suggest that public preferences are consistent with many of the general recommendations found in guidance documents, but local context may argue for alternative priorities with respect to certain species, habitats, and/or the wellbeing of certain groups. To engender broad support, compensatory offsets will need to balance scientific rigor with transparent involvement of the public.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2022
Keywords
Biodiversity offsets, Choice modeling, No net loss, Public acceptance, Environmental valuation
National Category
Ecology Environmental Sciences Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-313740 (URN)10.1016/j.landusepol.2022.106127 (DOI)000797328500010 ()2-s2.0-85129380300 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20220613

Available from: 2022-06-13 Created: 2022-06-13 Last updated: 2022-06-25Bibliographically approved
Sinha, R., Thomas, J.-B., Strand, A., Soderqvist, T., Stadmark, J., Franzen, F., . . . Hasselström, L. (2022). Quantifying nutrient recovery by element flow analysis: Harvest and use of seven marine biomasses to close N and P loops. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 178, Article ID 106031.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantifying nutrient recovery by element flow analysis: Harvest and use of seven marine biomasses to close N and P loops
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2022 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 178, article id 106031Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Anthropogenic consumption of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) has pushed their respective planetary boundaries beyond a safe operating space causing environmental problems, and simultaneously, the depletion of finite mineral P resources is of growing concern. Previous research has found that marine biomass such as kelp, reed and mussels have a high potential for taking up N and P, which could potentially contribute both to alleviating environmental problems and recirculating P from marine environments back to human consumption systems. This paper thus examines these nutrient flows and the extent to which marine biomass can contribute to close the loop. The study utilizes an element flow analysis (EFA) to establish the mapping of N and P flows and explore plausible scenarios of biomass utilisation by 2030 and 2050 for P loop closure in Sweden. The current uptake of P and N through the seven marine biomass cases (mariculture of mussels on both the Swedish east and west coasts, kelp and ascidians and the harvest of wild oysters, beach-cast and reed) contributes to 1.1% and 0.3% respectively of the full loop closure (relative to 2016 loading). Approximately 22% of the total P (and 23% N) uptake (in the biomasses) is currently being used in products, while the rest remains unused. The plausible future scenario for 2050 expects to contribute to around 10% P and 2.8% N loop closure (relative to 2016) if all nutrients in the uptake are used.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2022
Keywords
Element flow analysis, Blue growth, Circular economy, Nutrient recovery, Phosphorus, Nitrogen
National Category
Ecology Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-310589 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2021.106031 (DOI)000767524900013 ()2-s2.0-85119441368 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20220405

Available from: 2022-04-05 Created: 2022-04-05 Last updated: 2022-06-25Bibliographically approved
Cole, S., Moksnes, P.-O., Soderqvist, T., Wikstrom, S. A., Sundblad, G., Hasselström, L., . . . Bergstrom, L. (2021). Environmental compensation for biodiversity and ecosystem services: A flexible framework that addresses human wellbeing. Ecosystem Services, 50, Article ID 101319.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental compensation for biodiversity and ecosystem services: A flexible framework that addresses human wellbeing
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2021 (English)In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, E-ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 50, article id 101319Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Environmental compensation should address negative impacts from human activities on nature, including loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, successful compensation, achieving no net loss, requires broad quantitative information on different types of losses and gains. We find that the scope of compensatory schemes varies in what is considered compensable, which makes it challenging to apply a conceptual approach consistently across schemes with different needs. We propose a flexible yet structured framework for determining which values should be compensated and how. Our framework focuses specifically on habitat deterioration and is illustrated with a case study involving loss of eelgrass habitat. The framework helps identify compensation needs and selects among suitable compensation options, merging science-based information with normative issues and local concerns. By integrating the ecosystem services cascade model, it encompasses aspects from biodiversity structure to human wellbeing. The framework prefers in-kind compensation because this targets the structure level and thus meets compensation needs in all subsequent levels of the cascade model; further, it is more likely to capture non-instrumental values (i.e. in nature) and reduce exposure to uncertainty. We highlight the importance of spatial aspects of ecosystem functions, services and their subsequent impacts on wellbeing. Although our selection hierarchy assumes a "similar and nearby" principle for habitat restoration (preference for in-kind/on-site), this criterion is not universal. We underscore the hierarchy's implicit normative assumptions and suggest that apparent disagreement about who should benefit may be traced to an unresolved conflict between egalitarianism and utilitarianism.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2021
Keywords
Biodiversity offset, Cascade model, Instrumental values, Coastal habitat, Deterioration, Habitat loss
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-299618 (URN)10.1016/j.ecoser.2021.101319 (DOI)000679918800003 ()2-s2.0-85109886768 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20210818

Available from: 2021-08-18 Created: 2021-08-18 Last updated: 2022-06-25Bibliographically approved
Thomas, J.-B., Sinha, R., Strand, Å., Söderqvist, T., Stadmark, J., Franzén, F., . . . Hasselström, L. (2021). Marine biomass for a circular blue‐green bioeconomy? A life cycle perspective on closing nitrogen and phosphorus land‐marine loops. Journal of Industrial Ecology, Article ID jiec.13177.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Marine biomass for a circular blue‐green bioeconomy? A life cycle perspective on closing nitrogen and phosphorus land‐marine loops
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2021 (English)In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, article id jiec.13177Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A blue-green bioeconomy revolution is underway in Europe, with particular attention being paid to the development of new or underutilized marine biomass resources. The wild harvest and mariculture of low-trophic non-fed species of marine biomass may be contributing to circular economies, the mitigation of environmental problems such as eutrophication and climate change through the uptake of nutrients and carbon, while also recovering finite phosphorus from marine coastal environments, thus contributing to food security. The present study provides a cradle-to-gate life cycle perspective on seven established or innovative/emerging marine biomass utilization cases in Sweden: mariculture of sugar kelp, blue mussels, and ascidians and the harvest of invasive Pacific oysters along the Skagerrak coast, the mariculture of blue mussels in the Baltic sea, the harvest of common reed in the Stockholm archipelago, and the harvest of beach-cast seaweed in Gotland. Results showed that the mariculture cases were found to contribute to eutrophication and climate impact mitigation (at gate). All cases were found to contribute to closing the loop on phosphorus by enabling recovery from marine or coastal environments, bridging marine–land flows, all while performing well from an environmental perspective with a relatively low cumulative energy demand and low carbon and nutrient footprints. This highlights the potential of low-trophic biomass to contribute to phosphorus security in the future, and demonstrates the value of industrial ecology tools such as LCA in support of this imminent Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development. 

Keywords
General Social Sciences, General Environmental Science
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering Environmental Management Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-303328 (URN)10.1111/jiec.13177 (DOI)000673656800001 ()2-s2.0-85110303357 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20211110

Available from: 2021-10-12 Created: 2021-10-12 Last updated: 2022-06-25Bibliographically approved
Soderqvist, T., Cole, S., Franzen, F., Hasselström, L., Beery, T. H., Bengtsson, F., . . . Jonsson, K. I. (2021). Metrics for environmental compensation: A comparative analysis of Swedish municipalities. Journal of Environmental Management, 299, Article ID 113622.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metrics for environmental compensation: A comparative analysis of Swedish municipalities
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2021 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 299, article id 113622Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Environmental compensation (EC) aims at addressing environmental losses due to development projects and involves a need to compare development losses with compensation gains using relevant metrics. A conceptual procedure for computing no net loss is formulated and used as a point of departure for a comparative analysis of metrics used by five Swedish municipalities as a part of their EC implementation in the spatial planning context of detailed development plans. While Swedish law does not require EC in this context, these municipalities have still decided to introduce EC requirements for development projects that occur on municipality-owned land and to promote voluntary EC among private actors in development projects on private land. There is substantial variation across the municipalities studied with respect to both metrics and attributes subject to measurement, but there are also similarities: The attributes considered when assessing the need for EC in conjunction with development are not only about nature per se, but also about recreational opportunities and other types ecosystem services; semi-quantitative metrics such as scores are common while quantitative or monetary metrics are rare; and metrics are rarely applied to assess compensatory gains, focusing instead on losses from development. Streamlining across municipalities might be warranted for increasing predictability and transparency for developers and citizens, but it also introduces considerable challenges such as a need for developing consistent guidelines for semi-quantitative metrics, and to handle substitutability issues if metrics are not only applied on individual attributes but also on groups of attributes. The broad scope of attributes used by the municipalities is in line with an international tendency to broaden EC to include not only biodiversity aspects but also ecosystem services. Moreover, the EC systems applied by the municipalities are of particular importance for highlighting the crucial role of environmental management for maintaining and enhancing biodiversity and ecosystem services not only in areas having formal protection status but also in the everyday landscape. The municipalities' experience and strengths and weaknesses associated with their EC systems are therefore relevant also in an international perspective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2021
Keywords
No net loss, Net gain, Biodiversity offset, Mitigation hierarchy, Balancing principle, Spatial planning
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-304757 (URN)10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113622 (DOI)000709687600007 ()34479152 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85114025457 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20211112

Available from: 2021-11-12 Created: 2021-11-12 Last updated: 2022-06-25Bibliographically approved
Hasselström, L. & Gröndahl, F. (2021). Payments for nutrient uptake in the blue bioeconomy & ndash; When to be careful and when to go for it. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 167, Article ID 112321.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Payments for nutrient uptake in the blue bioeconomy & ndash; When to be careful and when to go for it
2021 (English)In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 167, article id 112321Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Harvesting of marine biomass for various applications may generate ecosystem services that currently lack a market price. One of these is nutrient uptake, which could counteract eutrophication. Market-based instruments (MBIs) such as cap & trade, compensatory mitigation, and payment for ecosystem services could help internalize such positive externalities. However, activities of the blue bioeconomy are diverse. We show that identifiable market characteristics can provide guidance concerning when to use these instruments and not. We find that the activities most suitable for MBIs are those that have positive environmental impacts but that are not (yet) financially viable. For activities that are already profitable on the biomass market, ensuring 'additionality' may be a significant problem for MBIs, especially for cap & trade systems or compensatory mitigation. We provide an overview of how some current biomass options fit into this framework and give suggestions on which biomass types to target.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2021
Keywords
Blue economy, Payment for ecosystem services, Market-based instruments, Bioeconomy, Eutrophication
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-298139 (URN)10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112321 (DOI)000655696000005 ()33839571 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85103766550 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20210629

Available from: 2021-06-29 Created: 2021-06-29 Last updated: 2022-06-25Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7840-9189

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