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Shakir, Muhammad
Publications (8 of 8) Show all publications
Hou, S., Shakir, M., Hellström, P.-E., Malm, B. G., Zetterling, C.-M. & Östling, M. (2020). A Silicon Carbide 256 Pixel UV Image Sensor Array Operating at 400 degrees C. IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society, 8(1), 116-121
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Silicon Carbide 256 Pixel UV Image Sensor Array Operating at 400 degrees C
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2020 (English)In: IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society, ISSN 2168-6734, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 116-121Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An image sensor based on wide band gap silicon carbide (SiC) has the merits of high temperature operation and ultraviolet (UV) detection. To realize a SiC-based image sensor the challenge of opto-electronic on-chip integration of SiC photodetectors and digital electronic circuits must be addressed. Here, we demonstrate a novel SiC image sensor based on our in-house bipolar technology. The sensing part has 256 ( $16\times 16$ ) pixels. The digital circuit part for row and column selection contains two 4-to-16 decoders and one 8-bit counter. The digital circuits are designed in transistor-transistor logic (TTL). The entire circuit has 1959 transistors. It is the first demonstration of SiC opto-electronic on-chip integration. The function of the image sensor up to 400 degrees C has been verified by taking photos of the spatial patterns masked from UV light. The image sensor would play a significant role in UV photography, which has important applications in astronomy, clinics, combustion detection and art.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2020
Keywords
Silicon carbide (SiC), image sensor, ultraviolet (UV), photodiode, high temperature, bipolar junction transistor (BJT), transistor-transistor logic (TTL)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-270881 (URN)10.1109/JEDS.2020.2966680 (DOI)000515658000001 ()2-s2.0-85079349461 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20200325

Available from: 2020-03-25 Created: 2020-03-25 Last updated: 2020-03-25Bibliographically approved
Shakir, M., Hou, S., Metreveli, A., Rashid, A. U., Mantooth, H. A. & Zetterling, C.-M. (2019). 555-Timer and Comparators Operational at 500 degrees C. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 66(9), 3734-3739
Open this publication in new window or tab >>555-Timer and Comparators Operational at 500 degrees C
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 66, no 9, p. 3734-3739Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reports an industry standard monolithic 555-timer circuit designed and fabricated in the in-house silicon carbide (SiC) low-voltage bipolar technology. This paper demonstrates the 555-timer integrated circuits (ICs) characterization in both astable and monostable modes of operation, with a supply voltage of 15 V over the wide temperature range of 25 degrees C-500 degrees C. Nonmonotonic temperature dependence was observed for the 555-timer IC frequency, rise time, fall-time, and power dissipation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2019
Keywords
Bipolar SiC 555-timer integrated circuit (IC), high temperature ( HT) ICs, SiC ICs, transistor-transistor logic (TTL) comparator
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-259423 (URN)10.1109/TED.2019.2925915 (DOI)000482583200005 ()2-s2.0-85071318661 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190924

Available from: 2019-09-24 Created: 2019-09-24 Last updated: 2019-09-24Bibliographically approved
Shakir, M. (2019). 555-Timer IC Operational at 500 °C. Bipolar SiC 555-timer IC, High Temperature ICs, TTL Comparator, SiC Integrated Circuits
Open this publication in new window or tab >>555-Timer IC Operational at 500 °C
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2019 (English)In: Bipolar SiC 555-timer IC, High Temperature ICs, TTL Comparator, SiC Integrated CircuitsArticle in journal (Other academic) [Artistic work] Submitted
Abstract [en]

This paper reports an industry standard monolithic 555-timer circuit designed and fabricated in the in-house silicon carbide (SiC) low-voltage bipolar technology. The paper demonstrates the 555-timer ICs characterization in both astable and monostable modes of operation, with a supply voltage of 15 V over the wide temperature range of 25 to 500°C. Nonmonotonictemperature dependence was observed for the 555-timer IC frequency, rise-time, fall-time, and power dissipation.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251765 (URN)
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Note

QC 20190523

Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2019-05-23Bibliographically approved
Shakir, M., Hou, S. & Zetterling, C.-M. (2019). A Monolithic 500 °C D-flip flop Realized in Bipolar 4H-SiC TTL technology. In: : . Paper presented at Materials Science Forum, Proceedings of European Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Monolithic 500 °C D-flip flop Realized in Bipolar 4H-SiC TTL technology
2019 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic) [Artistic work]
Keywords
TTL-based DFF, Bipolar SiC integrated circuits, High-temperature integrated circuits (ICs), Transistor-transistor logic (TTL), Bipolar junction transistor (BJT), Digital gates
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251764 (URN)
Conference
Materials Science Forum, Proceedings of European Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 2018
Note

QC 20190523

Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2019-05-23Bibliographically approved
Hou, S., Shakir, M., Hellström, P.-E., Zetterling, C.-M. & Östling, M. (2019). Process Control and Optimization of 4H-SiC Semiconductor Devices and Circuits. In: Proceedings of the 3rd Electron Devices Technology and Manufacturing, (EDTM) Conference 2019: . Paper presented at The 3rd Electron Devices Technology and Manufacturing (EDTM) Conference. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Process Control and Optimization of 4H-SiC Semiconductor Devices and Circuits
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2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the 3rd Electron Devices Technology and Manufacturing, (EDTM) Conference 2019, IEEE, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-248421 (URN)
Conference
The 3rd Electron Devices Technology and Manufacturing (EDTM) Conference
Note

QC 20190411

Available from: 2019-04-08 Created: 2019-04-08 Last updated: 2019-04-11Bibliographically approved
Shakir, M. (2019). Process Design Kit and High-Temperature Digital ASICs in Silicon Carbide. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Process Design Kit and High-Temperature Digital ASICs in Silicon Carbide
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Electronics such as microprocessors are highly demanded to monitor or control a process or operation in temperature critical (300 ºC to 600 °C) applications. State-of-the-art silicon-based integrated circuits (ICs) have been improved significantly throughout the years but mainly for a low-temperature ambient. At a temperature higher than 300 ºC silicon-on-insulator (SOI) or bulk silicon-based electronics cannot operate reliably. Therefore the wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductor materials such as silicon carbide (SiC) come into play.

In recent years, many types of SiC-based devices and low complex ICs have been reported and are operational at a high temperature (HT). The main goal of the thesis is to explore and demonstrate the feasibility of SiC-based circuits that are complex, dense and monolithically integrated for high-temperature applications such as a central-processing-unit (CPU).

This thesis work demonstrates a Process Design Kit (PDK) for the SiC-based large scale integrated (LSI) circuits implementation. It consists of discrete devices, gate and module library, and SiC ICs verification programs. The thesis work reports the PDK results over the full temperature range of 25 to 500 °C with a power supply of 10 V to 20 V.

The thesis work demonstrates a 4-bit CPU architecture designed for a proposed instruction set. Manual place and route with around 10,000 devices and area of 150 mm2 were carried out using the PDK standard cell library. The CPU and integral parts have been implemented at the transistor level using the PDK gate/module library and simulated from 25 to 500 °C. The CPU has been fabricated in the in-house low-power SiC bipolar process and measured at a high temperature.

The thesis work also reports reference analog and mixed-signal ICs. A 555-timer consisting of both digital and analog circuits has been designed, integrated and characterized up to 500 °C. Flash and SAR ADCs have been implemented using the PDK for HT applications. A 256-pixel image-sensor design and layout were also carried out using the PDK.

This thesis work is an important step and has laid the foundation of SiC-based LSI circuits realization for extreme environment applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019. p. vii-xix, 148
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2019:53
Keywords
Silicon Carbide, high-temperature digital integrated circuits, process design kit (PDK), bipolar logic gates, transistor-transistor logic (TTL), TTL CPU, bipolar transistor, LSI Circuits, ASICs
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251766 (URN)978-91-7873-225-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-06-14, Sal-B, Kistagången 16, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Note

QC 20190521

Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2019-05-21Bibliographically approved
Shakir, M., Hou, S., Hedayati, R., Malm, B. G., Östling, M. & Zetterling, C.-M. (2019). Towards Silicon Carbide VLSI Circuits for Extreme Environment Applications. Electronics, 8(5)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Silicon Carbide VLSI Circuits for Extreme Environment Applications
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2019 (English)In: Electronics, ISSN 2079-9292, Vol. 8, no 5Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A Process Design Kit (PDK) has been developed to realize complex integrated circuits in Silicon Carbide (SiC) bipolar low-power technology. The PDK development process included basic device modeling, and design of gate library and parameterized cells. A transistor–transistor logic (TTL)-based PDK gate library design will also be discussed with delay, power, noise margin, and fan-out as main design criterion to tolerate the threshold voltage shift, beta (β) and collector current (IC) variation of SiC devices as temperature increases. The PDK-based complex digital ICsdesign flow based on layout, physical verification, and in-house fabrication process will also be demonstrated. Both combinational and sequential circuits have been designed, such as a 720-device ALU and a 520-device 4 bit counter. All the integrated circuits and devices are fully characterized up to 500 °C. The inverter and a D-type flip-flop (DFF) are characterized as benchmark standard cells. The proposed work is a key step towards SiC-based very large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits implementation for high-temperature applications.

Keywords
Process Design Kit (PDK); bipolar logic gates; high temperature digital integrated circuits (ICs); transistor–transistor logic (TTL); SiC bipolar transistor; SiC VLSI Circuits
National Category
Engineering and Technology Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-248424 (URN)10.3390/electronics8050496 (DOI)000470999900027 ()2-s2.0-85067024612 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Working on Venus
Note

QC 20190410

Available from: 2019-04-08 Created: 2019-04-08 Last updated: 2020-03-02Bibliographically approved
Shakir, M., Hou, S., Malm, B. G., Östling, M. & Zetterling, C.-M. (2018). A 600 degrees C TTL-Based 11-Stage Ring Oscillator in Bipolar Silicon Carbide Technology. IEEE Electron Device Letters, 39(10), 1540-1543
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A 600 degrees C TTL-Based 11-Stage Ring Oscillator in Bipolar Silicon Carbide Technology
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2018 (English)In: IEEE Electron Device Letters, ISSN 0741-3106, E-ISSN 1558-0563, Vol. 39, no 10, p. 1540-1543Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ring oscillators (ROs) are used to study the high-temperature characteristics of an in-house silicon carbide (SiC) technology. Design and successful operation of the in-house-fabricated 4H-SiC n-p-n bipolar transistors and TTL inverter-based 11-stage RO are reported from 25 degrees C to 600 degrees C. Non-monotonous temperature dependence was observed for the oscillator frequency; in the range of 25 degrees C to 300 degrees C, it increased with the temperature (1.33 MHz at 300 degrees C and V-CC = 15 V), while it decreased in the range of 300 degrees C-600 degrees C. The oscillator output frequency and delay were also characterized over a wide range of supply voltage (10 to 20 V). The noise margins of the TTL inverter were also measured; noise margin low (NML) decreases with the temperature, whereas noise margin high (NMH) increases with the temperature. The measured power-delay product (P-D . T-P) of the TTL inverter and 11-stage RO was approximate to 4.5 and approximate to 285 nJ, respectively, at V-CC= 15 V. Reliability testing indicated that the RO frequency of oscillation decreased 16% after HT characterization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018
Keywords
Ring oscillator, TTL gates, Bipolar SiC gates, high temperature digital integrated circuits (ICs), transistor-transistor logic, silicon carbide electronics
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-237111 (URN)10.1109/LED.2018.2864338 (DOI)000446449300014 ()2-s2.0-85051396654 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20181120

Available from: 2018-11-20 Created: 2018-11-20 Last updated: 2020-03-09Bibliographically approved
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