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Song, X., Liu, Y., Pettersen, J. B., Brandao, M., Ma, X., Roberg, S. & Frostell, B. (2019). Life cycle assessment of recirculating aquaculture systems: A case of Atlantic salmon farming in China. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 23(5), 1077-1086
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life cycle assessment of recirculating aquaculture systems: A case of Atlantic salmon farming in China
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 1077-1086Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are an alternative technology to tackle the major environmental challenges associated with conventional cage culture systems. In order to systematically assess the environmental performance of RAS farming, it is important to take the whole life cycle into account so as to avoid ad hoc and suboptimal environmental measures. So far, the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) in aquaculture, especially to indoor RAS, is still in progress. This study reports on an LCA of Atlantic salmon harvested at an indoor RAS farm in northern China. Results showed that 1 tonne live-weight salmon production required 7,509 kWh farm-level electricity and generated 16.7 tonnes of CO2 equivalent (eq), 106 kg of SO2 eq, 2.4 kg of P eq, and 108 kg of N eq (cradle-to-farm gate). In particular, farm-level electricity use and feed product were identified as primary contributors to eight of nine impact categories assessed (54-95% in total), except the potential marine eutrophication (MEU) impact (dominated by the grow-out effluents). Among feed ingredients (on a dry-weight basis), chicken meal (5%) and krill meal (8%) dominated six and three, respectively, of the nine impact categories. Suggested environmental improvement measures for this indoor RAS farm included optimization of stocking density, feeding management, grow-out effluent treatment, substitution of feed ingredients, and selection of electricity generation sources. In a generic context, this study can contribute to a better understanding of the life cycle environmental impacts of land-based salmon RAS operations, as well as science-based communication among stakeholders on more eco-friendly farmed salmon.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2019
Keywords
atlantic salmon, feed production, indoor aquaculture, industrial ecology, life cycle assessment (LCA), recirculating aquaculture systems
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-262965 (URN)10.1111/jiec.12845 (DOI)000488924100007 ()2-s2.0-85063689127 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20191205

Available from: 2019-12-05 Created: 2019-12-05 Last updated: 2022-06-26Bibliographically approved
Laurenti, R., Redwood, M., Puig, R. & Frostell, B. (2017). Measuring the Environmental Footprint of Leather Processing Technologies. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 21(5), 1180-1187
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measuring the Environmental Footprint of Leather Processing Technologies
2017 (English)In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 1180-1187Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The selection of materials and manufacturing processes often determines most of the environmental impact that a product will have during its life cycle. In directing consumption toward products with the least impact on the environment, measuring and comparing material alternatives with site-specific data is a fundamental prerequisite. Within the apparel and footwear industry, some famous brands have recently been basing their advertising on the claim that vegetable-tanned leather is more environmentally friendly than chromiumtanned leather. However, there is a lack of scientific research assessing and comparing vegetable-and chromium-tanned leather in a wider context than the toxicity of chromium. To fill this gap, this study measured and compared the carbon, water, and energy footprint of vegetable and chromium leather processing technology and intermediate processing stages in 12 selected tanneries in seven different countries worldwide. Each tannery proved to be very individual, and therefore attempting to perform this type of analysis without simply producing meaningless generalities is a challenge for companies, researchers, and regulators. The variability in results demonstrates that secondary data for the tanning phase should be utilized with caution in a decision-making context. The use of primary data would be advisable for life cycle assessment studies of leather goods. No significant differences were found in the footprint of vegetable and chromium leather processes, but these are only indicative findings and need confirmation in further studies. An important area needing investigation is then how a fair comparison can be made between renewable natural materials and nonrenewable materials used in both leather-processing technologies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Blackwell Publishing, 2017
National Category
Environmental Management Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-218237 (URN)10.1111/jiec.12504 (DOI)000413579000011 ()2-s2.0-84991396147 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20171128

Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2022-06-26Bibliographically approved
Sinha, R., Lennartsson, M. & Frostell, B. (2016). Environmental footprint assessment of building structures: A comparative study. Building and Environment, 104, 162-171
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental footprint assessment of building structures: A comparative study
2016 (English)In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 104, p. 162-171Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Following the failure to implement a rather sophisticated Excel-based environmental assessment tool, environmental load profile (ELP) in the Swedish construction industry, the City of Stockholm further developed a simplified version focusing on materials to make the tool user friendly and simple, aiming at educating stakeholders in the design phase of building construction. This study evaluated whether this simplified ELP of building structures (ELP-s) can be used directly or modified for use as a simple standard model for calculating the environmental footprint of building structures. ELP-s was compared with the two leading commercial LCA softwares, GaBi and SimaPro, based on two reference buildings: (i) a concrete and (ii) a wooden building, in order to examine the importance of material selection and the simplification of the tool. The results showed that the estimated energy footprint obtained using ELP-s was close in value to that produced by GaBi and SimaPro, but that carbon footprint was much lower with ELP-s. This great deviation in carbon footprint can be explained by the lower GHG emissions intensity per unit energy in Sweden compared with the world average or European average, the major data sources on which estimations in GaBi and SimaPro are based. These results indicate the importance of exercising care when applying commercial software tools to a specific situation in a specific country. They also indicate that the model should fit the purpose.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Environmental assessment tools, Environmental footprints, Life cycle assessment, Buildings, Environmental load profile
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-190656 (URN)10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.05.012 (DOI)000378955500017 ()2-s2.0-84966746591 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160817

Available from: 2016-08-17 Created: 2016-08-12 Last updated: 2024-03-15Bibliographically approved
Sinha, R., Laurenti, R., Singh, J., Malmström, M. E. & Frostell, B. (2016). Identifying ways of closing the metal flow loop in the global mobile phone product system: A system dynamics modeling approach. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 65-76
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identifying ways of closing the metal flow loop in the global mobile phone product system: A system dynamics modeling approach
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2016 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, p. 65-76Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the past few decades, e-waste has emerged as one of the fastest growing and increasingly complex waste flows world-wide. Within e-waste, the life cycle of the mobile phone product system is particularly important because of: (1) the increasing quantities of mobile phones in this waste flow; and (2) the sustainability challenges associated with the emerging economies of reuse, refurbishment, and export of used mobile phones. This study examined the possibilities of closing the material flow loop in the global mobile phone product system (GMPPS) while addressing the broad sustainability challenges linked to recovery of materials. This was done using an adapted system dynamics modeling approach to investigate the dominant paths and drivers for closing the metal flow loop through the concept of eco-cycle. Two indicators were chosen to define the closed loop system: loop leakage and loop efficiency. Sensitivity analysis of selected parameters was used to identify potential drivers for closing the metal flow loop. The modeling work indicated leverage for management strategies aimed at closing the loop in: (i) collection systems for used phones, (ii) mobile phone use time, and (ii) informal recycling in developing countries. By analyzing the dominant parameters, an eco-cycle scenario that could promote a closed loop system by decreasing pressures on virgin materials was formulated. Improved policy support and product service systems could synchronize growth between upstream producers and end-of-life organizations and help achieve circular production and consumption in the GMPPS. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Closed loop, Eco-cycle, Mobile phones, System dynamics, Substance flow analysis, E-waste, End-of-life
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-191436 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2016.05.010 (DOI)000381323600006 ()2-s2.0-84975474704 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160901

Available from: 2016-08-30 Created: 2016-08-30 Last updated: 2024-03-15Bibliographically approved
Zhou, G., Singh, J., Wu, J., Sinha, R., Laurenti, R. & Frostell, B. (2015). Evaluating low-carbon city initiatives from the DPSIR framework perspective. Habitat International, 50, 289-299
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating low-carbon city initiatives from the DPSIR framework perspective
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2015 (English)In: Habitat International, ISSN 0197-3975, E-ISSN 1873-5428, Vol. 50, p. 289-299Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Current low-carbon city initiatives were evaluated using the DPSIR (Drivingforces-Pressures-State-Impacts-Responses) causal-effect framework for investigating interactions between environmental issues and human activities. For effective management towards achieving a low-carbon city, integrating the pressure-based, driver-oriented DPSIR approach could help decision makers examine whether greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction approaches deal with the root causes of GHG emissions and work to-wards low-carbon city development goals. The DPSIR framework was used on 36 global cities to analyse the socio-economic dynamics of GHG emissions and their pressures on the environment, the state of the environment, related climate change impacts and responses from society. The results indicated that numerous cities have awareness of low-car bon plans and that most of these plans are pressure-based and driver-oriented. Most city plans recognise energy, transportation and building as the main driving forces for GHG emissions, which cause environmental pressures, and highlight technical responses to reduce GHG emissions pressures from these root causes. Inaddition, most plans recognise institutional and cognitional responses to low-carbon city development, such as: policies and legislation; departmental planning and cooperation; measuring, monitoring and reporting performance; capital invest-ment; community education and outreach; and stakeholder involvement.

Keywords
Low-carboncity, DPSIR framework, Content analysis
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Planning and Decision Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-174072 (URN)10.1016/j.habitatint.2015.09.001 (DOI)000364251400030 ()2-s2.0-84941634546 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150929

Available from: 2015-09-29 Created: 2015-09-29 Last updated: 2024-03-15Bibliographically approved
Rader Olsson, A., Stoltz, D., Håkansson, M., Hult, A., Lundqvist, P., Ekener, E., . . . Frostell, B. (2015). Förstudie av det bilaterala svensk-kinesiska samarbetet kring ekostäder. Stockholm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Förstudie av det bilaterala svensk-kinesiska samarbetet kring ekostäder
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2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Sverige har under flera år haft ett samarbete med Kina angående utveckling av ekostäder. Ett flertal myndigheter, företag och forskare har medverkat i planeringen av två stadsutvecklingsprojekt i Kina – Tangshan Bay Eco-City och Wuxi Sino-Swedish Eco-City. Denna förstudie syftar till att skapa en ram för en eventuell utvärdering av samarbetet mellan svenska och kinesiska aktörer. Förstudien omfattar en inventering av tidigare forskning och andra relevanta rapporter, identifiering av nyckelaktörer och aktiviteter inom det svensk-kinesiska samarbetet samt intervjuer med representanter från medverkande företag och kontor. Resultatet av inventeringen och intervjuerna analyseras med hänsyn till befintlig forskning angående effektiva institutioner för planering och finansiering, tillämpning av innovativ energi-och miljöteknik, och planering som beaktar stadens metaboliska funktioner samt faktorer som påverkar socialt hållbarhet. Förstudien har genomförts av forskare vid KTH från institutionerna för Energiteknik, Samhällsplanering och miljö samt hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik under perioden oktober 2014-februari 2015.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: , 2015. p. 47
Keywords
ekostäder, hållbar stadsutveckling, samhällsbyggande, kina, sverige
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Planning and Decision Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-164881 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

NQC 2015

Available from: 2015-04-20 Created: 2015-04-20 Last updated: 2024-03-15Bibliographically approved
Frostell, B. M., Sinha, R., Assefa, G. & Olsson, L. E. (2015). Modeling both direct and indirect environmental load of purchase decisions: a web-based tool addressing household metabolism. Environmental Modelling & Software, 71, 138-147
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling both direct and indirect environmental load of purchase decisions: a web-based tool addressing household metabolism
2015 (English)In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 71, p. 138-147Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Consumer awareness is continuously increasing towards pro-environmental behavior. Thus, we developed a web-based environmental feedback tool EcoRunner, which is designed for Swedish households aiming at increasing the awareness in a more pro-environmental direction. The conceptual model of EcoRunner has been developed based on top-down and bottom-up approaches connecting economic activities within a household to environmental pressures (both direct and indirect). In addition, the development of the tool includes a multi-level model aiming at better tailor-made advice to consumers. In this paper, we examine the EcoRunner tool with average single Swedish household expenditures as well as explore options for reductions and systems effects. Analysis shows that food and non-alcoholic beverages, fuel for personal transport (e.g. car) and air transports have significant environmental pressures. In addition, this study suggests that EcoRunner could be used in education systems as an environmental feedback tool to enlighten consumers motivation and change consumption patterns.

Keywords
Household metabolism, Sustainable consumption, LCA, Environmental feedback, Web-based tool, Carbon footprint, Energy footprint, Sweden
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-172668 (URN)10.1016/j.envsoft.2015.05.014 (DOI)000358627500011 ()2-s2.0-84933037756 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2006-1424
Note

QC 20150901

Available from: 2015-09-01 Created: 2015-08-27 Last updated: 2024-03-15Bibliographically approved
Song, X., Wennersten, R. & Frostell, B. (2015). Moving Toward an Anthropogenic Metabolism-Based and Pressure-Oriented Approach to Water Management. In: Walter Leal Filho; Vakur Sümer (Ed.), Sustainable Water Use and Management: Examples of New Approaches and Perspectives (pp. 229-244). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Moving Toward an Anthropogenic Metabolism-Based and Pressure-Oriented Approach to Water Management
2015 (English)In: Sustainable Water Use and Management: Examples of New Approaches and Perspectives / [ed] Walter Leal Filho; Vakur Sümer, Springer, 2015, p. 229-244Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Effective and efficient water management systems require a comprehensive understanding of anthropogenic pressures on the water environment. Developing a broader systems perspective and extended information systems is therefore essential to systematically explore interlinks between anthropogenic activities and impaired waters at an appropriate scale. For this purpose, this paper identifies information dilemmas in contemporary water monitoring and management from an anthropogenic metabolic point of view. The European Drivers-Pressures-State of the Environment-Impacts-Responses (DPSIR) framework was used as a basis for classifying and discussing two approaches to water management, namely state/impacts-oriented and pressure-oriented. The results indicate that current water monitoring and management are mainly state/impacts-oriented, based on observed pollutants in environmental monitoring and/or on biodiversity changes in ecological monitoring. This approach often results in end-of-pipe solutions and reactive responses to combat water problems. To complement this traditional state/impacts-oriented approach, we suggest moving toward an anthropogenic metabolism-based and pressure-oriented (AM/PO) approach to aid in alleviating human-induced pressures on the water environment in a more proactive way. The AM/PO ideas can equally be applied to water-centric sustainable urbanization planning and evaluation in a broader context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015
Series
Green Energy and Technology, ISSN 1865-3529
Keywords
Anthropogenic metabolism, DPSIR framework, Pressure-oriented, Water monitoring, Water management
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-166262 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-12394-3_12 (DOI)2-s2.0-85042928955 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-12393-6 (ISBN)978-3-319-12394-3 (ISBN)
Note

QC 20150507

Available from: 2015-05-06 Created: 2015-05-06 Last updated: 2024-03-15Bibliographically approved
Laurenti, R., Sinha, R., Singh, J. & Frostell, B. (2015). Some pervasive challenges to sustainability by design of electronic products: a conceptual discussion. Journal of Cleaner Production, 108, Part A, 281-288
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Some pervasive challenges to sustainability by design of electronic products: a conceptual discussion
2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 108, Part A, p. 281-288Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sustainability should encompass responsibility for unintended environmental consequences of modern developments. This study examined some pervasive challenges to sustainability by design of electronic products, namely: (i) product and consumption redundancies; (i) embodied environmental and social impacts occurring distant in time and space from the point of consumption; and (iii) production and consumption dynamics. This analysis identified essential developments in certain areas that can assist design practice in preventing unintended environmental consequences. These were: (1) complementing life cycle assessment studies with analyses of unintended environmental consequences; and (2) exploiting the vital role of product design in fostering a circular economy. Indicators that provide information about (a) the increasing spatial and decreasing temporal separation of production, consumption and waste management, (b) constraints in raw materials supply and (c) marginal changes in money and time spent should be available to product designers and consumers. Furthermore, information technology, namely computer-aided design (CAD) tools, should be refined to assist product designers in designing for effective circularity and end-of-waste and limiting hibernation of resources in the use phase.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Sustainability, Design, Challenges, Unintended consequences, Electronic products, Rebound effects
National Category
Environmental Management
Research subject
Industrial Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-178178 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.08.041 (DOI)000367762500026 ()2-s2.0-84945445213 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20151214

Available from: 2015-12-07 Created: 2015-12-07 Last updated: 2024-03-15Bibliographically approved
Laurenti, R., Sinha, R., Singh, J. & Frostell, B. (2015). Towards Addressing Unintended Environmental Consequences: A Planning Framework. Sustainable Development, 24(1), 1-17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Addressing Unintended Environmental Consequences: A Planning Framework
2015 (English)In: Sustainable Development, ISSN 0968-0802, E-ISSN 1099-1719, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Efforts to decouple environmental impacts and resource consumption have been confounded by interactions and feedback between technical-economic, environmental and social aspects not considered prior to implementing improvement actions. This paper presents a planning framework that connects material flows and the socio-economic drivers that result in changes in these flows, in order to reduce conflicts between localized gains and global losses. The framework emphasizes the need for (i) having different settings of system boundaries (broader and narrower), (ii) explicitly accounting for causal relationships and feedback loops and (iii) identifying responsibilities between stakeholders (e.g. producers, consumers, collectors, recyclers, policy makers). Application of the framework is exemplified using the case of the global mobile phone product system. 'Product design and development' and 'Retailers and users as part of a collection system' were identified as central intervention points for implementing improvement strategies that included designing for longer life, designing for recycling and improving collection, designing for limiting phone hibernation time and internalizing external costs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2015
Keywords
Global sustainability, Physical resource management, Planning, Sustainable development, Systems thinking, Unintended environmental consequences
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176245 (URN)10.1002/sd.1601 (DOI)000370661900001 ()2-s2.0-84958121991 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20151116. QC 20160319

Available from: 2015-11-16 Created: 2015-11-02 Last updated: 2024-03-15Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0297-598x

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