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Åkerman, Jonas
Publications (4 of 4) Show all publications
Liljenström, C., Toller, S., Åkerman, J. & Björklund, A. (2019). Annual climate impact and primary energy use of Swedish transport infrastructure. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, 19(2), 77-+
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Annual climate impact and primary energy use of Swedish transport infrastructure
2019 (English)In: European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, ISSN 1567-7133, E-ISSN 1567-7141, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 77-+Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

By 2045, Sweden is to have zero net emissions of greenhouse gases. To reach this goal, stakeholders involved in planning and construction of Swedish transport infrastructure aim to half their climate impact by 2030. Planning for emission reduction measures require network level studies showing environmental impacts of the infrastructure network. Previous studies do not allow assessment of current hotspots in the infrastructure network, which limits their relevance for decision-support in this question. The aim of this paper is to assess the current annual climate impact and primary energy use of Swedish transport infrastructure by using a methodological approach based on life cycle assessment. The scope includes new construction and management (operation, maintenance, and reinvestment) of existing roads, railways, airports, ports, and fairway channels. The annual climate impact was estimated to 2.8 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalents and the annual primary energy use was estimated to 27 terawatt hours. Mainly road and rail infrastructure contributed to these impacts. Environmental hotspots of the infrastructure network were management of the infrastructure stock (particularly reinvestment of road and rail infrastructure) and material production (particularly production of asphalt, steel, and concrete). If climate targets are to be met, these areas are particularly important to address. Additional research on impacts of small construction measures, the size of biogenic carbon emissions (in standing biomass as well as soil carbon), and the use and impacts of asphalt for road construction and management would further increase the understanding of impacts related to Swedish transport infrastructure at the network level.

Keywords
climate impact, energy use, life cycle assessment, network level, Sweden, transport infrastructure
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-255372 (URN)000474896700001 ()2-s2.0-85071697384 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190730

Available from: 2019-07-30 Created: 2019-07-30 Last updated: 2019-10-04Bibliographically approved
Larsson, J., Elofsson, A., Sterner, T. & Åkerman, J. (2019). International and national climate policies for aviation: a review. Climate Policy, 19(6), 787-799
Open this publication in new window or tab >>International and national climate policies for aviation: a review
2019 (English)In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 787-799Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aviation constitutes about 2.5% of all energy-related CO2 emissions and in addition there are non-CO2 effects. In 2016, the ICAO decided to implement a Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA) and in 2017 the EU decided on faster emission reductions in its Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), which since 2012 includes the aviation sector. The effects of these policies on the expected development of air travel emissions from 2017 to 2030 have been analyzed. For the sample country Sweden, the analysis shows that when emissions reductions in other sectors are attributed to the aviation sector as a result of the EU ETS and CORSIA, carbon emissions are expected to reduce by -0.8% per year (however if non-CO2 emissions are included in the analysis, then emissions will increase). This is much less than what is needed to achieve the 2 degrees C target. Our analysis of potential national aviation policy instruments shows that there are legally feasible options that could mitigate emissions in addition to the EU ETS and CORSIA. Distance-based air passenger taxes are common among EU Member States and through increased ticket prices these taxes can reduce demand for air travel and thus reduce emissions. Tax on jet fuel is an option for domestic aviation and for international aviation if bilateral agreements are concluded. A quota obligation for biofuels is a third option.

National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-252957 (URN)10.1080/14693062.2018.1562871 (DOI)000468501800008 ()2-s2.0-85059911853 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190802

Available from: 2019-08-02 Created: 2019-08-02 Last updated: 2019-08-02Bibliographically approved
Liljenström, C., Toller, S., Åkerman, J. & Björklund, A.Annual climate impact and primary energy use of Swedish transport infrastructure.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Annual climate impact and primary energy use of Swedish transport infrastructure
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

By 2045, Sweden is to have zero net emissions of greenhouse gases, implying that also the transport sector must reduce its emissions to nearly zero by that year. Planning for emission reduction measures require network level studies showing environmental impacts of the transport network. Previous studies do not allow assessment of current hotspots in the infrastructure network, which limits their relevance for decision-support in this question. The aim of this paper is to assess the current annual climate impact and primary energy use of Swedish transport infrastructure by using a methodological approach based on life cycle assessment. The scope includes new construction and management of roads, railways, airports, ports, and fairway channels. The climate impact was estimated to 3 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalents and the primary energy use was estimated to 27 terawatt hours. Mainly road and rail infrastructure contributed to these impacts. The environmental hotspots in the infrastructure network were identified as management of the infrastructure stock (particularly reinvestment of road and rail infrastructure) and material production (particularly production of asphalt, steel, and concrete). Planners should work systematically with emission and energy efficiency in these areas to reduce impacts of Swedish transport infrastructure. Additional research on impacts of small construction measures, the size of biogenic carbon emissions (in standing biomass as well as soil carbon), and the use and impacts of asphalt used in road construction and management would further increase the understanding of Swedish transport infrastructure at the network level.

National Category
Other Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-239597 (URN)
Note

QC 20181213

Available from: 2018-11-27 Created: 2018-11-27 Last updated: 2018-12-13Bibliographically approved
Liljenström, C., Åkerman, J., Björklund, A. & Toller, S.Direct and indirect climate impact and primary energy use of the Swedish transport system.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Direct and indirect climate impact and primary energy use of the Swedish transport system
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Other Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-239598 (URN)
Note

QC 20181213

Available from: 2018-11-27 Created: 2018-11-27 Last updated: 2018-12-13Bibliographically approved
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