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Kharazmi, P. (2019). Durability Evaluation of Reinforced Glass-Flake Polyester Material Used in Rehabilitation of Sewer Lines in Buildings-Dataset.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Durability Evaluation of Reinforced Glass-Flake Polyester Material Used in Rehabilitation of Sewer Lines in Buildings-Dataset
2019 (English)Data set, Primary data
Abstract [en]

This dataset includes original data to support parts of research findings stated in the article: ”Durability evaluation of reinforced glass-flake polyester material used in rehabilitation of sewer lines in buildings”. Currently, different materials and methods are in use in alternative rehabilitations technologies for sewer renewal. This work was conducted to study one of these materials, which is a glass -flake reinforced polyester polymeric system, during artificial aging to provide a better understanding of the material’s performance under operating conditions when it is regularly exposed to degrading factors such as high temperature and water. Changes in the material during aging were monitored by conducting different tests, including thermal and mechanical analysis, water absorption and microscopy.

Keywords
Rehabilitation, Relining Materials, Aging, Waste-Water Sewer, Polyester
National Category
Water Engineering Corrosion Engineering Other Environmental Engineering Composite Science and Engineering Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-249998 (URN)
Note

QC 20190425

Available from: 2019-04-25 Created: 2019-04-25 Last updated: 2019-10-30Bibliographically approved
Kharazmi, P. (2019). Evaluation of Innovative Rehabilitation Technologies Utilising Polymer Composites for Aging Sewer Systems. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Innovative Rehabilitation Technologies Utilising Polymer Composites for Aging Sewer Systems
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Water and wastewater sewer system maintenance is among the costliest aspects of infrastructure investment. The replacement of deteriorated lines is a difficult and expensive process that causes community disturbance and is generally not conducted fast enough to meet demand. To keep up with the rate of deterioration, the use of alternative rehabilitation technologies using polymer linings has increased significantly in recent years, both within Sweden and worldwide. Compared to the traditional pipe replacement method, these technologies are cost-effective, create less community disturbance, and offer a quick return to the service for the line. The main function of polymeric lining is to stabilise the condition of the pipeline, eliminate deterioration, and thereby extend the pipeline’s service life. Although rehabilitation technologies employing polymeric systems have been in use for over 30 years, there have been few technical assessments of either these technologies or the materials involved. Data gathered through the evaluation of these innovative technologies can make their benefits and limitations more widely understood, and can also be used to increase the effectiveness of the rehabilitation process in future.

The main objective of this work was to contribute to an improved understanding of the most commonly used materials and methods employed in rehabilitation of wastewater and other applicable sewer lines in residential buildings in Sweden. The primary objective was not to prove that the emerging rehabilitation technologies work, but rather to increase knowledge of their weaknesses and strengths, identify any issues, and provide a technical assessment to support realistic expectations of pipeline rehabilitation. Gathering technical information in this way will help with the planning of future investigations; moreover, collecting extensive data will help to increase the effectiveness of the renewal works, aid progress in the field, and improve predictions regarding longevity and service life.

As pipeline rehabilitation is still considered novel, and owing to the general lack of available data on the subject, a multi-approach study was carried out: this included evaluation of the polymeric materials’ performance in the presence of deteriorative factors, assessing the in-service state of the materials and lined sewers previously installed, monitoring the level of quality control implemented during previous rehabilitation works, and evaluating the environmental impacts of using pipe-lining technologies compared to pipe replacement. The techniques discussed included rehabilitation with epoxy and polyester resin-based lining materials, applied with brush-on and spray-on techniques, and cured-in-place pipe lining (installed by sending a resin-impregnated flexible tube inside the host pipe).

Degradation of the resin-based lining materials was investigated via artificial aging involving immersion in water at elevated temperatures. The changes in materials that occurred during accelerated laboratory aging were tracked by means of various tests, including thermal and mechanical analyses, water absorption measurements and microscopy. The analysis focused on reinforced polyester-based and toughened epoxy-based lining materials in order to gain a better understanding of their performance as pipe lining. Moreover, the previously installed lined pipes and lining materials were also studied during laboratory examinations to evaluate the in-service performance of the materials and techniques under operating conditions over time, as well as to identify common defects. The state of the materials and the lined pipe were studied by means of different investigative methods, including visual inspection, microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thickness measurement, thermal and mechanical analyses. This PhD work also includes an investigation to determine the level of quality control carried during some previous rehabilitation works. Data on the quality evaluation of previous rehabilitation works were gathered during visits to the work sites, as well as by analysing lined pipes that had already been installed. Finally, a comparative life-cycle assessment was undertaken to compare the environmental impacts of pipe replacement with those of alternative innovative rehabilitations, such as CIPP and coatings with polyester and epoxy polymeric systems. Data obtained from an LCA tool were used to facilitate comparison from an environmental perspective.

Results from artificial aging in the lab indicated that the properties of polymeric lining materials changed significantly when high temperatures were combined with water exposure. However, the aging testing conducted for this study also found that the materials performed relatively well at temperatures close to the average temperatures inside sewerage systems. The results revealed that the polyester-based lining material was less sensitive when compared with epoxy-based lining materials during stimulated aging. Moreover, results from the in-service field demonstration (involving examination of 12 samples with up to 10 years of service, including reinforced polyester and modified epoxy linings or cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) lining) showed minimal evidence that the materials underwent significant deterioration after installation; instead, a majority of the common defects were found to be related to poor-quality installation practices. Because very few field samples were available to study, conclusions regarding overall performance could not be drawn. However, there is no evidence that these materials will not perform as expected during their service life when properly installed.

Evaluating quality control of previous rehabilitation work revealed a gap between theory and practice where the level of quality control and documentation was concerned; furthermore, it also emerged that quality control and documentation is crucial to both the prevention of common issues and the overall effectiveness of the rehabilitation. Accordingly, a series of recommendations regarding the development of comprehensive quality control and quality assurance procedures (QC/QA) are provided in this work. These recommendations highlight the aspects that are most important to consider at each of several key stages (before installation, during installation, and after rehabilitation work is completed).

Results from comparative life-cycle assessment (LCA) showed that alternative technologies, including cured-in-place (flexible sleeve) and coating techniques, have some advantages over pipe replacement from an environmental perspective. However, the choice to use one rehabilitation technology over another is a multi-stage decision-making process that should not be based solely on a single factor.

This PhD work promotes an improved understanding of the limitations and benefits of polymeric lining through the testing performed and analyses conducted. This work highlights the need for improved quality control, and further suggests that developing a detailed and comprehensive quality control plan for each technology would provide higher and more consistent quality overall. The study also demonstrates that the long-term strength of any rehabilitation work depends on various factors, and that selecting one method over another must be a process based on extensive knowledge and understanding of each rehabilitation technology. No evidence was found to indicate that the materials could not perform well under working conditions if selected and installed appropriately. However, a larger number of field samples with longer in-service time and a more detailed technical history, along with a more extended experimental plan for laboratory investigations based on the results of this PhD work, will allow for the gathering of the data required to answer questions regarding life expectancy with a higher degree of certainty.

Abstract [sv]

System för vatten och avlopp tillhör de delar av infrastrukturen som kräver de största investeringarna. Dessutom håller utbytet av dem inte jämna steg med förfallet. Därför har användningen av alternativa teknologier för underhåll som använder beläggningar på insidan av någon typ av plast ökat avsevärt de senaste åren, både i Sverige och över hela världen. Jämfört med den traditionella metoden för rörbyte är dessa tekniker kostnadseffektiva, skapar mindre störningar i samhället och erbjuder en snabb återgång till normal användning av rörsystemet. Plastbeläggningen förlänger rörledningens livslängd genom att bevara röret och hejda dess nedbrytning. Även om rehabiliteringsteknologier som använder polymerbeläggningar har använts i över 30 år har det inte gjorts särskilt många tekniska bedömningar varken av dessa tekniker eller av de material som används. Data som samlas in vid utvärdering av dessa innovativa tekniker kan sprida förståelse kring deras fördelar och begränsningar och kan också användas för att göra renoveringsarbeten mer effektiva i framtiden.Huvudsyftet med detta arbete var att bidra till en förbättrad förståelse kring de metoder och material som används mest vid renovering av avloppsrör i bostadshus i Sverige. Det primära målet var inte att undersöka om teknologierna fungerar, utan att öka kunskapen om deras svagheter och styrkor, identifiera eventuella problem och ge en teknisk utvärdering för att stödja realistiska förväntningar på renovering av rörledningar. Insamling av teknisk information på detta sätt kommer att hjälpa till med planeringen av framtida studier; En omfattande insamling av data kommer att bidra till att öka effektiviteten i renoveringsarbeten, skapa utveckling inom området och förbättra möjligheterna att förutsägelsäga livslängden.Eftersom renovering av rörledningar fortfarande betraktas som något nytt, och eftersom det råder en allmän brist på tillgängliga data om ämnet, genomfördes en studie med flera synvinklar: denna inkluderade utvärdering av polymermaterialets prestanda i närvaro av nedbrytande faktorer, bedömning av funktionen för tidigare installerad relining i avloppsrör, bedömning av kvalitetskontrollen från tidigare reliningarbeten och utvärdering av miljökonsekvenserna av att använda reliningteknologier jämfört med rörbyte. Diskussionen gäller rörrenovering där epoxi- och polyesterbaserade fodermaterial, appliceras med borste eller spruttekniker och för ett härdat rörfoder (installerat genom att dra in ett polymerimpregnerat flexibelt rör inuti värdröret).Nedbrytning av de polymerbaserade beläggningarna hos rören undersöktes via konstgjort åldrande genom nedsänkning i vatten vid förhöjda temperaturer. Förändringarna i material som då inträffade spårades genom olika tester, inklusive termiska och mekaniska analyser, vattenabsorptionsmätningar och mikroskopi. Studien fokuserade på armerade polyesterbaserade och modifierade (seggjorda) epoxibaserade material för att få en bättre förståelse för deras prestanda. Dessutom gjordes laboratorieundersökningar på rör som tidigare blivit relinade för att utvärdera materialets och teknikens prestanda under drift och prestanda över tid, samt för att identifiera vanliga defekter. Flera undersökningsmetoder användes, inklusive visuell inspektion, mikroskopi, Fourier transform infraröd spektroskopi, tjockleksmätning, termiska och mekaniska analyser. Detta doktorsarbete innehåller också en undersökning om vilken kvalitetskontroll som genomförts under vid tidigare arbeten för rörrenovering. Data samlades in under besök på arbetsplatserna, samt genom att analysera rör som hade varit installerade. Slutligen genomfördes en jämförande LCA-bedömning för att jämföra miljökonsekvenserna av rörbyte med de för alternativa innovativa metoder för rörrenovering, såsom CIPP och beläggningar med polyester- och epoxypolymersystem. Data erhållna från en LCA-databas användes för göra jämförelsen.Resultat från konstgjort åldrande i laboratoriet indikerade att egenskaperna hos polymera reliningmaterial ändrades avsevärt när höga temperaturer kombinerades med exponering för vatten. Åldringsprovningen som utfördes för denna studie visade emellertid också att materialen presterade relativt bra vid temperaturer som är typiska i ett avloppssystem. Resultaten visade att det polyesterbaserade materialet var mindre känsligt jämfört med epoxibaserade under stimulerat åldrande. Dessutom visade resultat från undersökningen av prover som varit i praktisk drift i byggnader (omfattande undersökning av 12 prover med upp till 10 års tjänst, av armerad polyester och modifierad epoxi eller strumpa) mycket små tecken på att materialen genomgick betydande försämring efter installationen; istället befanns en majoritet av de vanliga defekterna vara relaterade till installation av dålig kvalitet. Eftersom väldigt få fältprover fanns tillgängliga så kunde inga slutsatser dras avseende total prestanda.Det finns dock inga bevis för att dessa material inte kommer att fungera som förväntat under deras livslängd när de installeras på ett korrekt sätt.När tidigare rörrenovering utvärderades avslöjades en skillnad mellan teori och praktik när det gäller kvalitetskontroll och dokumentation. Det framkom också att kvalitetskontroll och dokumentation är avgörande för både att förbygga fel som ofta uppkommer och att göra arbetet effektivt. Därför ges en serie rekommendationer kring utveckling av en god kvalitetskontroll och för procedurer för kvalitetssäkring (QC/QA) e. Dessa rekommendationer belyser de viktigaste aspekterna att ta hänsyn till vid flera viktiga faser av reliningarbetet (innan installationen, under installationen och efter att rörrenoveringen är slutförd).Den jämförande LCA-bedömningen visade att rörrenovering med strumpmetoden och beläggningsmetoderna har vissa fördelar jämfört med rörbyte ur ett miljöperspektiv. Att välja en renoveringsteknologi framför en annan är emellertid en beslutsprocess i flera steg som inte bör baseras enbart på en enda faktor.Detta doktorsarbete främjar en förbättrad förståelse av begränsningarna och fördelarna med relining av avloppsrör genom tester och analyser. Arbetet visar att det finns behov av förbättrad kvalitetskontroll och föreslår vidare utveckling av en plan för kvalitetskontroll för varje teknik eftersom det kommer att ge högre och jämnare kvalitet totalt sett.Studien visar också att den långsiktiga styrkan i varje metod för rörrenovering beror på flera olika faktorer, och att val av en metod framför en annan måste baseras på omfattande kunskap och förståelse för varje metod. Studierna gav inga belägg för att materialen inte kunde fungera bra under normala förhållanden om de blivit valda och installerade på ett korrekt sätt.Emellertid skulle studier av ett större antal fältprover med längre driftstid och en mer detaljerad teknisk historik, tillsammans med en mer utökad experimentell plan för laboratorieundersökningar baserat på resultaten av detta doktorandarbete, möjliggöra insamling av de uppgifter som krävs för att svara på frågor om livslängden med en högre grad av säkerhet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019. p. 69
Series
TRITA-ABE-DLT ; 1929
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering Polymer Technologies Corrosion Engineering Other Environmental Biotechnology Water Treatment Building Technologies
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-256485 (URN)978-91-7873-271-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-09-25, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20190826

Available from: 2019-08-26 Created: 2019-08-26 Last updated: 2019-10-23Bibliographically approved
Kharazmi, P. (2019). Experimental evaluation of a rubber-epoxy polymeric system used in the rehabilitation of sewer infrastructure- Dataset.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental evaluation of a rubber-epoxy polymeric system used in the rehabilitation of sewer infrastructure- Dataset
2019 (English)Data set
Abstract [en]

This dataset includes data related to water sorption analyses to support research findings stated in the article:"Experimental evaluation of a rubber-epoxy polymeric system used in the rehabilitation of sewer infrastructure: a case study in Sweden" with the following abstract: 

one rehabilitation method used to prolong the service life of waste-water sewer pipes in residential buildings in Sweden is to apply a coating, based on an epoxy resin system that is modified with rubber, to the inner surface of the deteriorated pipe. To understand the material’s performance and stability in operation, the properties of the material were studied in the laboratory under water and air aging conditions. Changes in the material were monitored by conducting thermal, mechanical and water absorption analyses. Results showed that the mechanical properties of the material after water aging decreased significantly compared to material that was subject to dry aging. The material absorbed water over a long period of time, and the water uptake rate was found to be highest at higher temperatures. The material can thus be said to be more sensitive when high temperature is combined with water exposure; therefore, the performance of this liner material is expected to be better in places where constant exposure to water is not required.

Keywords
rehabilitation; waste-water sewer pipes; rubber-epoxy; aging; relining; sewerage systems
National Category
Civil Engineering Composite Science and Engineering Building Technologies Water Engineering Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-250278 (URN)
Note

QC 20191022

Available from: 2019-04-28 Created: 2019-04-28 Last updated: 2019-10-22Bibliographically approved
Kharazmi, P. (2019). Field investigation to assess performance of polymeric lining used in renewal of sewers in buildings - Dataset.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Field investigation to assess performance of polymeric lining used in renewal of sewers in buildings - Dataset
2019 (English)Data set
Abstract [en]

This dataset includes original data provided to support parts of the research findings stated in article: "Experimental assessment of the state of the lining materials used in the rehabilitation of sewers in residential buildings”.

National Category
Building Technologies Other Materials Engineering Other Civil Engineering Reliability and Maintenance Composite Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-250679 (URN)
Note

QC 20190503

Available from: 2019-05-02 Created: 2019-05-02 Last updated: 2019-10-23Bibliographically approved
Kharazmi, P. (2019). Monitoring the gelation time and curing process of a reinforced polyester lining-original data.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monitoring the gelation time and curing process of a reinforced polyester lining-original data
2019 (English)Data set, Primary data
Abstract [en]

Polymer linings used in sewer rehabilitation technologies are expected to cure fast in order for the renewed line to return to the service quickly and with minimum disruption.  This dataset includes the original data obtained from the thermal analyses of a reinforced polyester composite used as pipe lining, including studying gelation, enthalpy and curing process for a better understanding of the material's curing behaviour after application in the field. 

National Category
Polymer Technologies Corrosion Engineering Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials Composite Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-255680 (URN)
Note

QC 20190813. QC 20191022

Available from: 2019-08-07 Created: 2019-08-07 Last updated: 2019-10-22Bibliographically approved
Kharazmi, P. (2017). Microscopy study of relined small-diameter pipes with polymeric coatings. In: : . Paper presented at Pipeline Technology Conference PTC 2017. Estrel, Berlin, Germany: Academic Conferences Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microscopy study of relined small-diameter pipes with polymeric coatings
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Pipe failure and leakage is a problematic issue and the traditional solution of replacing the pipes is costly and time consuming. Rehabilitation by relining materials based on polymer composites is an alternative solution towards the degradation problem of the old piping. This study provides an investigation of relined pipes which have been in the field between one to ten years to evaluate the quality and performance of the rehabilitation methods as well as typical problems which can occur. The investigated samples were sent to the laboratory for investigation and since they were not randomly taken out, the notations in this study should not be an indication of relining performance in general. However it can be said with certainty that improvement in technology is needed which is the reason of our study.Moreover this study includes some of degradation analyses on the two composite materials used for rehabilitation by polymer materials including Epoxy and Polyester composites.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Estrel, Berlin, Germany: Academic Conferences Publishing, 2017
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-263019 (URN)
Conference
Pipeline Technology Conference PTC 2017
Note

QC 20191104

Available from: 2019-10-27 Created: 2019-10-27 Last updated: 2019-11-04Bibliographically approved
Kharazmi, P. (2012). Novel Biopolymer Reinforced Composites. (Student paper). KTH
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Novel Biopolymer Reinforced Composites
2012 (English)Student thesis
Abstract [en]

In the wake of climate change and increasing oil prices, the demand for sustainable materials capable of replacing oil-based products has increased. At the same time, bioplastic production capacities are growing. Combining bioplastics and nanotechnology is an approach that meets the technical demands involved in replacing oil-based materials with sustainable, renewable ones. This Master Project was a part of The European SustainComp Project a collaboration between 16 European universities and research institutes aiming at introducing new families of advanced biocomposites intended for a number of commercial sectors.The aim of this study, which was conducted in INNVENTIA AB in Stockholm, Sweden and 'Ecole polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) in Lausanne, Switzerland, was to develop a process to produce novel sandwich material from cellulose materials and Polylactic acid/PLA or Polypropylen/PP. With a focus on improvement of PLA composites’ properties, a PLA- based composite with cellulose has been studied in this work. For preparing the composite of PLA/Cellulose, a homogenous dispersion of PLA was mixed with the cellulose solution and then the mixture was regenerated. A variety of methods such as Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and Fourier- transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to further study the composites. To blend PLA and cellulose in a nano/micro scale, dissolution process has been used. The prepared composites have been characterized by thermal analysis (DSC and TGA) to investigate the effect of cellulose on the thermal stability of PLA and further characterizations (by FTIR and NMR) to investigate structural and chemical characterization of the composites.

Keywords
Cellulose, Polylactic Acid, Composite, Dissolution, LiCl/DMAc
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-157163 (URN)
Thesis level
Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE credits
Available from: 2014-12-08 Created: 2014-12-08 Last updated: 2019-10-23Bibliographically approved
Kharazmi, P. Durability study of reinforced polyester composite used as pipe lining under artificial aging conditions.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Durability study of reinforced polyester composite used as pipe lining under artificial aging conditions
(English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

The aging of sewer infrastructure is an ongoing problem. As a result, different materials and methods are being used in alternative sewer rehabilitation approaches. This work was conducted to study one pipe lining, namely the reinforced polyester composite, under artificial aging; this was done to provide a better understanding of the material’s performance under operating conditions, where it is regularly exposed to degrading factors such as heat and water. Aging of the material was monitored by means of several tests, including thermal and mechanical analyses, water absorption and microscopy. The results showed that the combination of aging in water and at high temperatures resulted in greater effects on the material compared to aging at high temperatures in dry conditions. Although the measured properties were affected significantly when immersed in water at high temperatures, the material showed acceptable properties at lower exposure temperatures close to the expected temperature inside sewer systems.

National Category
Composite Science and Engineering Building Technologies Water Engineering Corrosion Engineering Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-256472 (URN)
Note

QC 20190827

Available from: 2019-08-25 Created: 2019-08-25 Last updated: 2019-10-23Bibliographically approved
Kharazmi, P. Effect of heat and water aging on the durability of rubber-epoxy lining used for rehabilitation of sewer infrastructure.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of heat and water aging on the durability of rubber-epoxy lining used for rehabilitation of sewer infrastructure
(English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

One rehabilitation method used mainly for wastewater sewers in residential buildings involves applying a rubber-epoxy composite to the inner surface of the deteriorated line. In order to understand the material’s performance and stability in operation, during which it is constantly exposed to deteriorative factors, the properties of the material were studied in the laboratory under artificial water and air aging conditions. Changes in the material were monitored by means of tests such as thermal analyses, mechanical testing and water absorption assessment. Results from different tests showed that the material is more sensitive when high temperature is combined with water exposure; therefore, the performance of this liner material is expected to be better in places where constant exposure to water is not required.

National Category
Polymer Technologies Building Technologies Composite Science and Engineering Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-256465 (URN)
Note

QC 20190827

Available from: 2019-08-24 Created: 2019-08-24 Last updated: 2019-10-29Bibliographically approved
Kharazmi, P. Experimental assessment of the state of the lining materials used in the rehabilitation of sewers in residential buildings.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental assessment of the state of the lining materials used in the rehabilitation of sewers in residential buildings
(English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Corrosion Engineering Polymer Technologies Building Technologies Water Engineering Composite Science and Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-256464 (URN)10.1016/j.cscm.2019.e0029 (DOI)
Note

QC 20190827

Available from: 2019-08-24 Created: 2019-08-24 Last updated: 2019-10-29Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6090-0612

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