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Eneberg, M. (2015). Beyond the Product: Enabling design services in small and medium sized enterprises. Lund: Lund University Open Access
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beyond the Product: Enabling design services in small and medium sized enterprises
2015 (English)Book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

While the design industry is moving into new domains, it seems that potential customers do not always understand how the designer can contribute beyond the aesthetically appealing product. The overall purpose of this thesis is to expand our understanding of design as an enabling service in the context of small and medium sized enterprises. An enabling design service has the potential to result in organizational learning and change. The co-creation of new knowledge and competencies can in turn enable the customer organization to become more innovative and able to deal with an ambiguous environment. The first part of the research consisted of interviews and workshops with the major industrial design consultancies in Sweden and Finland and some smaller American consultancies. A conceptual business model canvas based on service dominant logic is presented in the thesis to increase our understanding of the business of the industrial design consultancy. During the study, we observed several changes in the organization of the industrial design consultancy. We also noticed self-confidence among the industrial design consultancies in respect to their skills in methods to orchestrate collaboration and contribute to strategic development in customer organizations. An analysis of the initial interviews and workshops together with a literature study helped me to summarize the characteristics of the methods and processes designers are educated in as being integrative, collaborative and explorative. They are integrative in that they incorporate hands with thought, and theory with practice. They are collaborative in that interaction between individuals is a necessity to solve the wicked, ambiguous and open-ended problems the designer usually faces. This has resulted in designers being educated in methods involving a broad range of stakeholders such as users in development processes. Finally, the methods and processes are explorative in that they aim at ingenuity and focus on how things ought to be rather than on the present state. The second part of the research consisted of interviews and observations and had a focus on shared activities between design students and participants from small and medium sized companies. Design methods and processes were put into the context of organizational learning and change theories that centered on knowing as embodied and encultured. An activity theoretical model was applied to enrich the analysis of the diversity of perspectives that may lead to conflicting interpretation and negotiation in shared activities. The concepts of place and space were used to highlight the dynamics between how structures and human desires and needs motivated participants in the shared activities. Place is characterized by stability and is the strategy of the prevailing and often connected to identity. Space is practiced place and connected to change and human agency. The thesis presents how design services enabled individuals and organizations to be introduced to and to strengthen a given place, such as a discipline or organization. It also provides examples of the opposite, with individuals distancing themselves from a place, such as a discipline. Mediating artifacts and the integration of doing and reflection created experiences that evoked emotional involvement and enactment among the participants. Most activities resulted in creating space for change and learning and the outcome can be characterized as business and organiza­tional development.

Abstract [sv]

Många industridesignkonsultföretag har som ambition att anta en strategisk roll i sina kundföretag. Design ses i detta sammanhang som ett viktigt konkurrensmedel med en kreativ process som stödjer en innovationsdriven verksamhet. Samtidigt saknas ofta kunskap, framförallt i små och medelstora företag - SMF, om hur designmetoder och processer kan bidra utöver skapandet av estetiskt tilltalande produkter. Denna avhandling inriktar sig på en förståelse av design som en social aktivitet och ett specifikt sätt att skapa kunskap.

Det övergripande syftet med avhandlingen är att öka förståelsen för hur designtjänster kan bidra till att möjliggöra och underlätta organisatoriskt lärande och förändringsprocesser för att på så sätt stärka innovationsförmågan i SMF. Studier visar att de företag som har en historia av att arbeta strategiskt med design är mer innovativa, exporterar mer och tvingas inte konkurrera lika mycket med pris. Baserat på detta bör SMF kunna dra fördel av att samarbeta med designers vilket även gagnar samhället i stort då företagandet inom Europeiska Unionen idag till 99 procent består av SMF.

Forskningsprocessen har bestått av litteraturstudier inom design, organisatoriskt lärande och förändringsarbete och empiriska undersökningar i form av observationer, intervjuer och deltagande i workshops. Initialt låg fokus på designkonsulten, dess förståelse för den egna affärssituationen och bidrag i kundföretagen. Studien visade att industridesignkonsultföretag genomgår en förändring vad gäller organisation, ledning och de kompetenser de anställer. Detta är bland annat en konsekvens av ett breddat designerbjudande. Vi observerade en självtillit bland designer avseende deras förmåga att genom sitt explorativa förhållningssätt bidra till strategiskt utveckling, innovation och annat förändringsarbete i kundorganisationen

Genom att studera konkreta aktiviteter mellan SMF och designers flyttades fokus till relationsskapande och dynamiken i samarbetet mellan de båda parterna. Bland annat visade studierna på behovet av att introducera designmetoder och processer tidigt i den gemensamma processen. Detta skapar en förståelse för designprocessen och dess metoder och hur dessa skiljer sig från hur kundorganisationen vanligtvis arbetar med förändringsprocesser. En tidig samverkan var även viktig för att designer skulle kunna förhandla till sig mer utrymme för kreativt utforskande. I de fall beslutsfattare var aktivt involverade i designprocessen upplevdes slutresultatet i ökad utsträckning som positivt. Genom att involvera beslutsfattare kunde uppdragsbeskrivningen bli ett levande dokument och målsättningen förändras under aktivitetens gång allteftersom nya problem och möjligheter dök upp.

Deltagare i en aktivitet bär med sig en unik historia, kultur och identitet som bland annat utgår från den disciplin eller organisationer de tillhör. Detta leder till att olika perspektiv och kommunikationsredskap, som exempelvis begrepp och prototyper, introduceras i den gemensamma aktiviteten. Att synliggöra dessa men även vilka önskningar och behov som motiverar aktiveten, hur man tolkar regler och fördelar arbete och ansvar, är av vikt för hur samarbetet i aktiviteten fortlöper. I avhandlingen beskrivs och rekommenderas såväl forskare som designpraktiker att använda en aktivitetsteoretisk modell för att öka förståelse för och understödja samarbetet mellan designers och deltagare från SMF.

Visualiseringsmetoder underlättade integrationen av handlande och reflektion, samarbete och ett utforskande förhållningssätt. I flera fall ledde designaktiviteten till ett känslomässigt engagemang vilket i sin tur ledde till nya erfarenheter och lärande. Resultaten kan karakteriseras som affärsutveckling och organisatorisk utveckling. Avhandlingen lyfter fram behovet av långsiktiga relationer och att designern deltar i implementering av resultat för att den nya kunskapen skall få fäste i kundorganisationen.

Avsikten med denna avhandling är att den skall bidra till en pågående diskussion inom designforskningen kring hur designaktiviteter kan bidra till att utveckla organisatoriskt lärande och förändringsprocesser. Min förhoppning är även att den skall bidra till designerns praktiska arbete.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Lund University Open Access, 2015
Keywords
Design management; Organizational learning; Organizational change; Activity theory; Small and medium sized enterprises; Service dominant logic
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244762 (URN)978-91-7623-407-5 (ISBN)978-91-7623-408-2 (ISBN)
Funder
VINNOVA
Note

QC 20190227

Available from: 2019-02-25 Created: 2019-02-25 Last updated: 2019-02-27Bibliographically approved
Eneberg, M. & Holm, L. S. (2015). From Goods to Service Logic: Service Business Model Requirements in Industrial Design Firms. The Design Journal, 18(1), 9-30
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From Goods to Service Logic: Service Business Model Requirements in Industrial Design Firms
2015 (English)In: The Design Journal, ISSN 1460-6925, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 9-30Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Both academic journals and business magazines show an increased interest in the concept of

design thinking (e.g. Boland et al, 2008; Brown, 2008; Leavy, 2010; Martin 2010). The

design thinking concept emphasises the actual activity of solving problems with a design

approach, associating it to the designer’s knowledge and competence instead of the intimate

link between design and the physical objects (Eneberg, 2011). Yet design consultancies still

have problems charging for intangible components in their offerings and for the role of

strategic consultants. We argue that the design thinking concept is in line with a service

dominant logic rather than a goods dominant logic, and that this approach can be the basis for

communicating the value of design to clients. The problem faced by industrial design

consultancies is not unique and hence the findings can contribute.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Berg Publishers, 2015
Keywords
Design thinking; Industrial design; Business modeling; Service-dominant logic; Strategic consultancy
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244763 (URN)10.2752/175630615X14135446523189 (DOI)000350835000002 ()2-s2.0-84983735515 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova
Note

QC 20190304

Available from: 2019-02-25 Created: 2019-02-25 Last updated: 2019-12-05Bibliographically approved
Eneberg, M. (2012). Enabling design service facilitating inter- and intra-organizational sensemaking. In: Uncertainty, Contradiction and Value.: . Paper presented at Design Research Society – DRS, Bangkok, Thailand.. Bangkok, Thailand
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enabling design service facilitating inter- and intra-organizational sensemaking
2012 (English)In: Uncertainty, Contradiction and Value., Bangkok, Thailand, 2012Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The contribution of design is often regarded as providing a relieving service that delivers aesthetic competence at the end of a product development process. Previous studies have shown that industrial design consultancies aspire to be a strategic resource in their client firms, and that the focus of design is becoming increasingly intangible. The claim is that the competencies of the designer can be used to enhance innovation and the strategic process in client firms. At the same time, studies indicate that industrial design consultancies have a problem getting commissioned and paid for the intangible parts of their service. This indicates a problem in communicating the contribution of enabling design services to client firms. A literature study was conducted regarding the characteristics of design (thinking), its methods and processes. The purpose was to put these characteristics into the context of symbolic-interpretive influenced organizational development by comparing them with the properties that is argued to form the basis for sensemaking theory as described by Weick in 1995. The aim of the paper is to contribute to the understanding of enabling design service.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bangkok, Thailand: , 2012
Keywords
Organisational development, Design, Sensemaking
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244765 (URN)
Conference
Design Research Society – DRS, Bangkok, Thailand.
Funder
VINNOVA
Note

QC 20190225

Available from: 2019-02-25 Created: 2019-02-25 Last updated: 2019-02-27Bibliographically approved
Eneberg, M. (2012). Organizational sensemaking through enabling design services. The design research journal, 2(12), 53-59
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organizational sensemaking through enabling design services
2012 (English)In: The design research journal, ISSN 2000-964X, Vol. 2, no 12, p. 53-59Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is argued that the focus of design is becoming increasingly intangible. At the same time as design consultants are expanding their offerings with new services aimed at enhancing innovation and the strategic process in client firms, studies indicate that industrial design consultancies have a problem getting commissioned and paid for the intangible parts of their service. One possible explanation is that design is regarded as providing a relieving service that delivers aesthetic competence at the end of a product development process. This indicates a problem in communicating the contribution of enabling design services to client firms.

The aim of this paper is to increase the understanding of enabling design services. This is done by comparing the characteristics of design thinking, its methods and processes with sensemaking theory as described by Weick (1995).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: , 2012
Keywords
Design management; Organisational learning, Organisational development, Sense-making
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244766 (URN)10.3384/svid.2000-964X.12253 (DOI)
Funder
VINNOVA
Note

QC 20190227

Available from: 2019-02-25 Created: 2019-02-25 Last updated: 2019-02-27Bibliographically approved
Eneberg, M. (2011). The Enabling Service of the Industrial Design Consultancy: A Change of Focus from Goods- to Service Dominant Logic. Lund: Lund University Open Access
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Enabling Service of the Industrial Design Consultancy: A Change of Focus from Goods- to Service Dominant Logic
2011 (English)Book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Design has received increased attention not least of all in the business press and journals. The concept of design thinking – how to approach problems in a designerly way – is sometimes attributed as being the savior of business, making companies creative and innovative. This kind of exaggeration does more harm than good to industrial design consultancies (IDCs) and their client firms (CFs). And yet, the renewed interest in design that the concept of design thinking generates has shifted attention away from the artifact to the activity and with it, the competencies and knowledge of the designer. IDCs still have problems charging for intangible components in their offerings, and the value of their work is mainly restricted to those customers who have experience from working with industrial designers.

This thesis aims to deepen our knowledge of the logics behind the business of industrial design in terms of how it is organized, the competencies of the industrial designer and the perceived role of the IDCs in client firms. The thesis is built on two research papers and a study based on interviews, workshops and a web survey. The empirical results were categorized according to the structure of a conceptual business model and analyzed vis-à-vis service dominant logic.

There is a great interest in the IDCs in growth issues and in raising the profitability of the consultancy. There is a high awareness that this would make the company less vulnerable and provide better margins for development. Large sized IDCs are undergoing a professionalization and have made changes in how they are organized and managed. The literature study described an increased intangible focus of design and an aim to adopt a more strategic role in CFs. Still, the IDC is not giving up any of its previous roles, such as those involved in working with tangible products. The aim of IDCs to adopt a more strategic role in their CFs was confirmed in the empirical study. At the same time, most potential clients, who have little or no experience of working with design, regard the contribution of the industrial design consultancy to be tangible outcomes such as sketches, CAD drawings and prototypes that are delivered at the end of a value chain. This perspective on design is in line with a goods dominant logic and is a constraint for the growth and development of the IDCs.

This thesis claims that the IDC offers both relieving and enabling service and hence should be viewed from the perspective of service dominant logic. The value resides not in the tangible end product but in the competencies that the IDC contributes with in a value network. Relieving means that a service provider performs a task or series of tasks for another party, which is the logic behind outsourcing. Contributing with the aesthetic competence of the designer exemplifies a relieving service. An enabling service means that the supplying organization helps the other party to do a task in a new and improved way. An enabling service is to a higher degree relationship-dependent, involving a learning situation where the IDC together with the CF cooperate to co-create new knowledge. The enabling service of the industrial design consultancy would thus create higher and longer lasting value in the CF since new knowledge is created by helping the CF enhance its internal and external processes. Service dominant logic enhances the shift from an operative role to that of the greater strategic significance that IDCs aim for. The focus changes to the activity and competence of the designer and can unlock the mental image of the IDC as a problem solver focused only on physical products.

Abstract [sv]

Industridesign har upp­märk­sammats, inte minst i affärspress och management tidskrifter, som ett viktigt konkurrensmedel med en kreativ pro­cess som stödjer en innovationsdriven verksamhet. Inte sällan nämns begreppet ”designtänkande” som ett sätt att göra företag kreativa och innovativa och därmed rädda dem från att bli utkonkurrerade av lågprisföretag. Orealistiska förväntningar på ”designtänkande” riskerar skada såväl industri design konsultföretag (DKF) som deras klintföretag (KF). Samtidigt har det förnyade intresset för industridesign som begreppet designtänkande fört med sig förflyttat fokus från artefakt till aktivitet och därmed den kompetens och kunskap industridesignern besitter. DKF har dock fortfarande problem att ta betalt för immateriella komponenter i sitt erbjudande och kunskapen om de tjänster som DKF erbjuder är i huvudsak begränsat till de KF som har erfarenhet av att arbeta med industridesigners.

Denna licentiatuppsats syftar till att skapa en fördjupad kunskap om DKF vad gäller hur de är organiserade, kompetensen i företagen och den upplevda roll de har i klient företagen. Licentiatuppsatsen består av en ”kappa”, vilken vidareutvecklar det teoretiska ramverket, samt två artiklar vilka baseras på en studie i form av intervjuer, workshops och en webbenkät. Resultaten av det empiriska materialet har sedan kategoriserats enligt strukturen i en konceptuell affärsmodell och analyserats gentemot en tjänstelogik.

Studien bakom denna licentiatuppsats visar på att DKF inte bara har växt i antalet anställda utan även på ett stort intresse för tillväxtrelaterade frågor. Det fanns en medvetenhet om nödvändigheten i ökade marginaler och därigenom ökad lönsamhet för att göra företagen mindre sårbara i konjunkturnedgång och skapa förutsättningar för utveckling. Större DKF genomgår en förändring vad gäller organisation, ledning och vilka kompetenser som anställs. Litteraturstudien visade på hur design utvecklats mot ett ökat fokus på immateriella värden i erbjudandet. Samtidigt ger inte DKF upp tidigare roller som arbetet med produktdesign. Många DKF har som ambitionen att anta en mer strategisk roll KF vilket bekräftades i såväl litteratur- som den empiriska studien. Potentiella KF med liten eller obefintlig erfarenhet av design ser dock fortfarande materiella resultat som skisser, CAD-ritningar och prototyper som det huvudsakliga bidraget och DKF anlitas ofta i slutet av en produktutvecklingsprocess. Detta perspektiv på design är i linje med en produktlogik och är ett hinder för tillväxt och utveckling av DKF.

I denna licentiatuppsats hävdas att erbjudandet från DKF består av ”enabling” och ”relieving” tjänster och bör betraktas utifrån en tjänstelogik. Värdet av en tjänst ligger inte i den fysiska slutprodukten, utan i de kompetenser och kunskap som DKF bidrar med. En ”revlieving” tjänst, vilket är logiken bakom outsourcing, innebär att en tjänsteleverantör utför en eller en serie uppgifter för en annan part. Detta kan exemplifieras med att DKF använder sin estetiska kompetens i utförandet av ett arbete åt KF. En ”enabling” tjänst innebär att tjänsteleverantören deltar med sina kompetenser i det köpande företaget med målet att utföra en uppgift på ett nytt och bättre sätt. Denna typ av tjänst är i högre grad relationsberoende och innebär ett lärande då DKF tillsammans med KF gemensamt skapar ny kunskap. Värdet av en ”enabling” tjänst bör följaktligen generera ett högre värde i KF. Tjänstelogik kan underlätta för DKF att ta den roll av ökad strategisk betydelse i KF som många DKF strävar efter. Detta sker genom förflyttning av fokus från den fysiska slutprodukten till den utförda aktiviteten och därigenom den kompetens som finns I DKF.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Lund University Open Access, 2011
Keywords
industrial design, design thinking, business model, goods dominant logic, service dominant logic
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244767 (URN)978-91-7473-214-6 (ISBN)
Funder
VINNOVA
Note

QC 20190227

Available from: 2019-02-25 Created: 2019-02-25 Last updated: 2019-02-27Bibliographically approved
Eneberg, M. & Svengren Holm, L. (2009). Strategic growth of industrial design consultancy: A study of changes in ID consultancy in a post-industrial society. In: Design Connexity: . Paper presented at EAD - European Academy of Design. Aberdeen, Scotland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strategic growth of industrial design consultancy: A study of changes in ID consultancy in a post-industrial society
2009 (English)In: Design Connexity, Aberdeen, Scotland, 2009Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Based on a study of Swedish and Finnish industrial design consultancies (IDCs) we discuss how changes in industry have affected id-consultancies cope with growth, organizational and management issues. The traditional industrial designer worked in a small consultancy mainly with clients focusing on mass-produced products. The clients were basically domestic even if they operated worldwide. Investment in technology, for instance CAD and rapid prototyping, required larger investments and many id-consultancies saw a need to expand in order to afford these investments. The growth trend will probably continue, with further demands on management skills and this will also, most likely, affect also the small design firms. The design maturity of the client firms is increasing which will put a higher demand on the professionalization of the design firms. Although design has received more attention and is recognized as a valuable tool for competitiveness, the knowledge about what IDCs do and the value of their work is still mainly restricted to those who have experience working with designers. Many designers still argue that their clients do not see how design and strategies are interconnected. The question is whether the IDCs know how to communicate their competence and contribution to business development and strategy creation. The strategic role of design is not always clear to the client firm, but the question is also if the IDCs are clear about what strategy means in a corporate perspective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aberdeen, Scotland: , 2009
Keywords
Industrial design consultancy, Organization, Change, Management, Strategy
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244768 (URN)
Conference
EAD - European Academy of Design
Note

QCR 20190304

Available from: 2019-02-25 Created: 2019-02-25 Last updated: 2019-03-04Bibliographically approved
Eneberg, M. & Anderson, H. (2008). Skapa kundnärvaro i innovationsprocessen. In: Annika Olsson (Ed.), Innovationsförmåga: (pp. 40-59). Stockholm: Product Innovation Engineering Program (PIEp)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Skapa kundnärvaro i innovationsprocessen
2008 (Swedish)In: Innovationsförmåga / [ed] Annika Olsson, Stockholm: Product Innovation Engineering Program (PIEp) , 2008, p. 40-59Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Product Innovation Engineering Program (PIEp), 2008
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244786 (URN)978-91-977852-0-4 (ISBN)
Note

QC 20190227

Available from: 2019-02-25 Created: 2019-02-25 Last updated: 2019-02-27Bibliographically approved
Eneberg, M. (2006). Design och innovation i småföretag. In: Ulla Johansson (Ed.), Design som uvecklingskraft II: (pp. 149-169). Växjö: Växjö University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design och innovation i småföretag
2006 (Swedish)In: Design som uvecklingskraft II / [ed] Ulla Johansson, Växjö: Växjö University Press , 2006, p. 149-169Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Växjö University Press, 2006
Keywords
SME, Design, Innovation
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244785 (URN)91-7636-530-1 (ISBN)
Note

QC 20190227

Available from: 2019-02-25 Created: 2019-02-25 Last updated: 2019-02-27Bibliographically approved
Eneberg, M. & Wängelin, E. (2006). The transformation from impression to expression: A model for visualising different viewpoints and goals in craft, art, design and company work.. In: University of Art and Design Helsinki and Estonian Academy of Arts (Ed.), Connecting: . Paper presented at ICDHS - International Committee of Design History and Studies. Helsinki, Finland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The transformation from impression to expression: A model for visualising different viewpoints and goals in craft, art, design and company work.
2006 (English)In: Connecting / [ed] University of Art and Design Helsinki and Estonian Academy of Arts, Helsinki, Finland, 2006Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Design is often described as a profession where the result of the work is future

oriented. Herbert Simon defined it as work that aims at “changing existing

situations into preferred ones” . This may refer to a design process where the result

can be very unpredictable even if the goal is thoroughly outlined. David Pye has

portrayed this performance as “workmanship of risk” which differs from

“workmanship of certainty” which is production performed by industry. There is

limited knowledge regarding the design profession in manufacturing companies.

Descriptions of why and for what industry shall use designers cover a broad

spectrum of design competence, from an omnipotent saviour at the centre of

strategic product planning to someone who applies nice colours to objects at the

end of a production process.

Artists were the first group with specific creative competence that were employed

by industries to work with product design. For artists in industry, the social aspects

of their work — related to democracy, social equality and cultural education — were

important. Working in manufacturing industry gave them both economic security

and an arena in which to achieve idealistic objectives.

The shift to a professionalisation of design meant that the purpose of the work

changed. It also meant a shift in both the influences used to perform work and the

expressions illustrating the result. To understand the transference from an

impression to a visual component in a product, a time aspect can be added. In this

way it is possible to illustrate the variations as an effect of different working

processes, but above all as a result based on different aims. In this paper a model

is presented. Four professions — and four aspects of their working processes — are

compared: artisans, artists in industry, marketers and designers. In reality, the

professions consist of heterogeneous groups that themselves have disparate

strategies, goals and ways of working, but by simplifying and focusing the attention

on differences, it is possible to understand the respective outcomes of the working

processes. The aspects compared are: impression ¬— influences and the effects

due to references outside the individual; mark — external memory: common values

and interpretations from the surrounding culture; imprint — internal memory: the

effect of impression revised by the individual; expression — the way in which an

individual manifests his or her interpretation or point of view.

Is it the way we posit ourselves on a timescale in reference to input and goal that

causes variations in the design result? The model illustrates significant differences

between the professions, from the craftsman, who attends to traditions and the

surrounding culture, and aims at a contemporary product, to the designers’ way of

using both impressions from history, contemporary influences and internal

memories (bricolage), and aims at products for future use.

85

The model also illustrates the discrepancies between working processes in

marketing and design. Today many companies acknowledge the need to invest in

design proficiency, and accept a design process with a goal that is less

predetermined, even though profound knowledge of the possibilities and limitations

of the design profession is scarce. An increased comprehension of different work

processes and viewpoints can contribute to better understanding and a more fruitful

collaboration between stakeholders in the design process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Helsinki, Finland: , 2006
National Category
Humanities and the Arts
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244772 (URN)951-558-210-5 (ISBN)
Conference
ICDHS - International Committee of Design History and Studies
Note

QCR 20190304

Available from: 2019-02-25 Created: 2019-02-25 Last updated: 2019-03-04Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8224-3887

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