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Mattsson, M., Olofsson, T., Lundberg, L., Kordas, O. & Nair, G. (2023). An Exploratory Study on Swedish Stakeholders' Experiences with Positive Energy Districts. Energies, 16(12), Article ID 4790.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Exploratory Study on Swedish Stakeholders' Experiences with Positive Energy Districts
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2023 (English)In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, no 12, article id 4790Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Positive energy district (PED) is a novel idea aimed to have an annual surplus of renewable energy and net zero greenhouse gas emissions within an area. However, it is still an ambiguous concept, which might be due to the complexity of city district projects with interconnected infrastructures and numerous stakeholders involved. This study discusses various aspects of PED implementation and presents practitioners' experiences with the PED concept, challenges, and facilitators they have faced with real projects. The study is based on interviews with ten Swedish professionals. The major challenges reported for PED implementation were local energy production and energy flexibility, sub-optimization, legislation, suitable system boundaries, and involvement of stakeholders. Most of the interviewees mentioned improved collaboration, integrated innovative technology, political support, and climate change mitigation goals as important facilitators. The interviewees highlighted the importance of a local perspective and considered each city's preconditions when developing a PED project. The study emphasizes that to facilitate PED implementation and replication in cities, more knowledge and clarity is required about PED such as on the definition and system boundaries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2023
Keywords
positive energy district, energy transition, sustainable urban development, stakeholder perspective, replication
National Category
Energy Systems Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-331714 (URN)10.3390/en16124790 (DOI)001014316100001 ()
Note

QC 20230714

Available from: 2023-07-14 Created: 2023-07-14 Last updated: 2023-12-07Bibliographically approved
Rohracher, H., Coenen, L. & Kordas, O. (2023). Mission incomplete: Layered practices of monitoring and evaluation in Swedish transformative innovation policy. Science and Public Policy, 50(2), 336-349
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mission incomplete: Layered practices of monitoring and evaluation in Swedish transformative innovation policy
2023 (English)In: Science and Public Policy, ISSN 0302-3427, E-ISSN 1471-5430, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 336-349Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research and innovation policies (IPs) across Europe, particularly in Sweden, are increasingly framed by an orientation towards societal challenges, missions, and transformative change. Innovation-funding agencies are adapting to these new approaches but struggle with a host of new questions and challenges on how to re-structure public policy interventions and develop new structures for monitoring, learning, and evaluation. In this article, we investigate how this IP paradigm shift is dealt with in the IP discourse and practice in Sweden and how an incomplete shift creates mismatches and tensions with existing structures for programme evaluation and monitoring. Despite the new paradigm, the implementation of evaluation strategies mostly follows a traditional 'summative' framing. The ongoing discussions in Swedish IP demonstrate that a paradigm shift towards transformative innovation cannot unfold its potential unless it is also followed by a shift in the practices of programme implementation and evaluation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press (OUP), 2023
Keywords
innovation policy, mission-oriented programmes, monitoring and evaluation, sustainability transitions, transformative innovation
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-331542 (URN)10.1093/scipol/scac071 (DOI)000897851800001 ()2-s2.0-85160275601 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230711

Available from: 2023-07-11 Created: 2023-07-11 Last updated: 2023-12-07Bibliographically approved
Mäkivierikko, A., Siepelmeyer, H., Shahrokni, H., Enarsson, D. & Kordas, O. (2023). Reducing electricity peak loads through 'pause hours'- a community-based behavioural demand response approach. Journal of Cleaner Production, 408, Article ID 137064.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reducing electricity peak loads through 'pause hours'- a community-based behavioural demand response approach
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 408, article id 137064Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Households can provide demand-side flexibility by changing their consumption behaviour and shifting energy-intensive activities - such as vacuuming, cooking or charging electric cars - to off-peak hours. Such behaviour-based demand response management could balance out consumption peaks without the need for costly smart home devices or automation technologies. However, existing research has struggled to motivate consumers to adapt their behaviour or maintain behaviour change over extended periods of time. This field study explored a scalable and cost-effective behavioural demand response tool and investigated its short-and long-term impacts on average and peak hour electricity consumption under realistic conditions: A smartphone app provided users with social comparison feedback on their electricity consumption and invited them to participate in "pause hours" by avoiding energy-intensive activities during peak hours. To appeal even to hard-to-reach energy users and elicit longer-term engagement, the app also contained a neighbourhood newsfeed and was framed as a local social network. In a 15-month trial with 550 student apartments in Sweden, more than half of the residents voluntarily installed the app, many app users stayed engaged over an extended period of time and pause hour participants achieved substantial peak-load consumption reductions of 46% on average. These results indicate that smartphone apps can achieve peak load consumption reduction and long-term engagement, although they may be particularly attractive to already energy efficient households. Avenues for future research are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2023
Keywords
Smart grid, Electricity consumption, Energy feedback, Behavioural demand response, Social norm, Peak load reduction, Social network
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-328304 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2023.137064 (DOI)000990858800001 ()2-s2.0-85153860583 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230607

Available from: 2023-06-07 Created: 2023-06-07 Last updated: 2023-12-07Bibliographically approved
Soberón, M., Ezquerra-Lázaro, I., Sánchez-Chaparro, T., Moreno-Serna, J., Dóci, G. & Kordas, O. (2023). Supporting municipalities to develop collaboration capability to facilitate urban transitions and sustainability: Role of transition intermediaries in Madrid. Journal of Cleaner Production, 426, 138964, Article ID 138964.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supporting municipalities to develop collaboration capability to facilitate urban transitions and sustainability: Role of transition intermediaries in Madrid
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 426, p. 138964-, article id 138964Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Transition management literature acknowledges that urban transitions are influenced by the interplay between a wide variety of actors operating under network governance. This means that municipalities must move from the traditional roles of commanders or implementers to those of initiators and facilitators of transition initiatives involving multiple actors and sectors. However, the structural and cultural challenges in municipalities hinder their ability to collaborate in network environments. Through a case study, this study analyses the role of transition intermediaries as expert organizations in building collaborations that support municipalities in developing their relational collaboration potential. The results show that besides building successful collaborations, intermediation work should focus on creating inter-organizational spaces where municipalities can learn how to collaborate relationally. However, transition intermediaries do not replace municipalities in their facilitation role in the transition but support them until they are ready to assume that role.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2023
National Category
Public Administration Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-338347 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2023.138964 (DOI)001085812200001 ()2-s2.0-85173173274 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20231020

Available from: 2023-10-20 Created: 2023-10-20 Last updated: 2023-12-07Bibliographically approved
Dóczi, G., Rohracher, H. & Kordas, O. (2022). Knowledge management in transition management: The ripples of learning. Sustainable cities and society, 78, Article ID 103621.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Knowledge management in transition management: The ripples of learning
2022 (English)In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 78, article id 103621Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite the extensive literature on learning in urban transitions, we still have a limited understanding on how higher-order learning takes place in transition management and is spread within the transition arena. In this paper we analyze the efforts of transferring such embedded knowledge and its interrelation with learning through the examples of three Swedish municipalities engaged in urban transition management. To do so, we developed a framework of learning ripples that conceptualizes learning across social boundaries as an active and two-way process that goes beyond transferring and receiving knowledge, but also requires higher order learning that includes knowledge integration in the form of defining and formulating one's role and contributions to transitions. We found that higher order learning is largely influenced by the quality and frequency of interactions between the transferer and receivers. The further a stakeholder was located from the center of the transition arena in terms of direct interactions, the less chance occurred for higher order learning that resulted in tensions and conflicts in the collaboration. Our results show the problem as a lack of knowledge integration or a lack of conditions which allow stakeholders to articulate their views or develop an idea about their own role in the whole process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2022
Keywords
Urban transitions, Transition management, Social learning, Second-loop learning, Knowledge management, Transition lab
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-311901 (URN)10.1016/j.scs.2021.103621 (DOI)000779487800004 ()2-s2.0-85121964715 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20220506

Available from: 2022-05-06 Created: 2022-05-06 Last updated: 2023-12-07Bibliographically approved
Mäkivierikko, A., Siepelmeyer, H., Shahrokni, H., Enarsson, D. & Kordas, O. (2022). ‘Pause hours’: a community-based behavioural demand response approach to peak load reduction.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>‘Pause hours’: a community-based behavioural demand response approach to peak load reduction
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2022 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Households can provide demand-side flexibility by changing their consumption behaviour and shifting energy-intensive activities – such as vacuuming, cooking or charging electric cars – to off-peak hours. Such behaviour-based demand response management could balance out consumption peaks without the need for costly smart home devices or automation technologies. However, existing research has struggled to motivate consumers to adapt their behaviour or maintain behaviour change over extended periods of time. This field study explored a scalable and cost-effective behavioural demand response tool and investigated its short- and long-term impacts on average and peak hour electricity consumption under realistic conditions: A smartphone app provided users with social comparison feedback on their electricity consumption and invited them to participate in “pause hours” by avoiding energy- intensive activities during peak hours. To appeal even to hard-to-reach energy users and elicit longer-term engagement, the app also contained a neighbourhood newsfeed and was framed as a local social network. In a 15-month trial with 550 student apartments in Sweden, more than half of the residents voluntarily installed the app, many app users stayed engaged over an extended period of time and pause hour participants achieved substantial peak-load consumption reductions of 46% on average. These results indicate that smartphone apps can achieve peak load consumption reduction and long-term engagement, although they may be particularly attractive to already energy efficient households. Avenues for future research are discussed.

Publisher
p. 65
Keywords
smart grid, energy feedback, behavioural demand response, social norms, peak load reduction, social networks
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-320200 (URN)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 731218Swedish Energy Agency, 48088-1
Note

Manuscript submitted to Journal of Cleaner Production, see DiVA record 1763440

QC 20230804

Available from: 2023-01-22 Created: 2023-01-22 Last updated: 2023-12-07Bibliographically approved
Voloshchuk, V., Kordas, O. & Nikiforovich, E. (2021). Comprehensive energy and exergy analysis of the Ground Source Heat Pump evaporator. In: ECOS 2021 - 34th International Conference on Efficency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems: . Paper presented at 34th International Conference on Efficency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2021, 28 June 2021 through 2 July 2021 (pp. 1436-1445). ECOS 2021 Program Organizer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comprehensive energy and exergy analysis of the Ground Source Heat Pump evaporator
2021 (English)In: ECOS 2021 - 34th International Conference on Efficency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2021 Program Organizer , 2021, p. 1436-1445Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The paper deals with the elaboration and application of the phenomenological mathematical model of the vertical ground heat source and comprehensive energy and exergy analysis of ground heat source-evaporator system of the ground source heat pump. The novelty of the proposed model, with comparison to the conventional engineering approaches, is derived from the description of a ground source and evaporator as a nonequilibrium thermodynamic system consisting of ground (a source of low temperature energy) and a finite cylindrical borehole filled with fluid (the energy carrier) flowing through it and with continuity of temperature and energy fluxes boundary conditions between ground and fluid. It is shown that the studied problem is characterized by only dimensionless parameter - the ratio of the thermal conductivities of the ground and flowing fluid. The designed mathematical model has been used for study of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of extractable energy. Further, a thermodynamic scheme of the heat pump evaporator as a converter of low potential geothermal energy of secondary fluid into freon energy due to phase transition is proposed. A definition of an exergy efficiency of the evaporator of the ground source heat pump and the fundamental energy characteristic of the ground source of heat have been introduced in the paper and the physical interpretation of the received results has been provided. The designed mathematical model has been used for study of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of extractable energy using exergy analysis. The proposed ground heat source and evaporator models for heat pumps enables the creation of new engineering techniques for calculations of energy capacity of borehole heat exchangers for Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP). Besides, the suggested theory can be used for elaboration of the new scientific–technological approaches to creating optimum strategies for design, control and operation of Heat Pumps.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ECOS 2021 Program Organizer, 2021
Keywords
dimensionless similarity parameters, evaporator, Exergy efficiency, ground heat source, Boreholes, Environmental impact, Evaporators, Exergy, Geothermal energy, Pumps, Temperature, Thermal conductivity, Comprehensive energy, Energy, Energy and exergy analysis, Exergy efficiencies, Ground heats, Groundsource heat pump (GSHP), Heat pumps, Heat sources, Geothermal heat pumps
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-326094 (URN)2-s2.0-85134405820 (Scopus ID)
Conference
34th International Conference on Efficency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2021, 28 June 2021 through 2 July 2021
Note

QC 20230424

Available from: 2023-04-24 Created: 2023-04-24 Last updated: 2023-12-07Bibliographically approved
Bögel, P. M., Upham, P., Shahrokni, H. & Kordas, O. (2021). What is needed for citizen-centered urban energy transitions: Insights on attitudes towards decentralized energy storage. Energy Policy, 149, Article ID 112032.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What is needed for citizen-centered urban energy transitions: Insights on attitudes towards decentralized energy storage
2021 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 149, article id 112032Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper aims to fill a research gap in the area of consumer-citizen attitudes to business models for decentralized energy storage, at the level of households and buildings. The study focuses on the interaction of such attitudes and their underlying motivation factors with socio-cultural, contextual factors. Self-determination theory (SDT) is used as a theoretical framework, to connect interpersonal and contextual factors, addressing the question of how contexts influence the motivation to support energy storage. Drawing on SDT, this study examines the role of autarky (independence from the energy system), autonomy (control over energy management) and relatedness (degree of sharing required) in this regard, embedded and interpreted in the socio-cultural local context of two demonstration sites in Sweden and Portugal. A mixed method approach is used. Quantitative survey data provides information on local social and cultural dimensions, followed by stakeholder consultation workshops that elicit participants’ views on different models of decentralized energy storage. The findings raise questions of how to improve autarky and autonomy for prosumers, while keeping the need for time investment low and provide flexibility regarding the required degree of interaction between prosumers. Implications for business models and policy support for citizen-centered sustainable urban energy systems are derived.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Consumer engagement, Decentralized energy systems, Energy storage, Mixed methods, Prosumer, Self-determination, Digital storage, Motivation, Surveys, Cultural dimensions, Decentralized energy, Degree of interaction, Self-determination theories, Stakeholder consultation, Theoretical framework, Urban energy systems, Urban energy transitions, Investments
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-290380 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2020.112032 (DOI)000615306000040 ()2-s2.0-85097907785 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20210302

Available from: 2021-03-02 Created: 2021-03-02 Last updated: 2023-12-07Bibliographically approved
Maranghi, S., Parisi, M. L., Facchini, A., Rubino, A., Kordas, O. & Basosi, R. (2020). Integrating urban metabolism and life cycle assessment to analyse urban sustainability. Ecological Indicators, 112, Article ID 106074.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrating urban metabolism and life cycle assessment to analyse urban sustainability
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2020 (English)In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 112, article id 106074Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In recent decades, the close correlation between urban development and the concept of sustainability has become increasingly evident and important. This is demonstrated by European Union policies concerning EU cities and the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, including sustainable development goal (SDG) 11: Sustainable cities and communities. In the context of increasing urbanization, it is essential to find innovative methods to manage urban living systems and to establish a standard method for assessing the environmental performance of cities and their infrastructures. A unified and complete methodology for assessing policies for urban sustainability that takes into consideration urban complexity is currently lacking. In this paper, we integrate the Urban Metabolism and Lice Cycle Assessment approach to assess urban sustainability by developing a multi-dimensional measure framework applied to cities. Our aim is to provide a holistic view of the city and unveiling the interconnections among a set of urban dimensions identified by means of an approach based on complex systems science and complex networks. We also propose a specific survey to investigate the city in a multi-dimensional perspective and suggest key indicators based on network centrality measures for investigating and comparing the interconnections among a set of urban dimensions specifically identified (e.g. energy, material, transport). Finally, a case study based on Beijing is considered to show potential applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2020
Keywords
City, Complex system, Life cycle assessment, Urban development, Urban metabolism, Urban thermodynamics, Complex networks, Economic and social effects, Environmental management, Large scale systems, Life cycle, Metabolism, Planning, Sustainable development, Thermodynamics, Urban growth, Assessment approaches, Environmental performance, European Union policy, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Urban metabolisms, Urban sustainability, Urban transportation, European Union, life cycle analysis, performance assessment, sustainability, United Nations, urban area, Beijing [China], China, Phthiraptera
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-267929 (URN)10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106074 (DOI)000518385800055 ()2-s2.0-85077780375 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20200402

Available from: 2020-04-02 Created: 2020-04-02 Last updated: 2023-12-07Bibliographically approved
Kordas, O. & Nikiforovich, E. (2019). A phenomenological theory of steady-state vertical geothermal systems: A novel approach. Energy, 175, 23-35
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A phenomenological theory of steady-state vertical geothermal systems: A novel approach
2019 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, Vol. 175, p. 23-35Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes a novel approach for studying the stationary energy characteristics of vertical geothermal systems (VGS) using stationary two-dimensional phenomenological mathematical theory. The approach describes VGS as a single, strongly nonequilibrium thermodynamic system consisting of a soil, a borehole with secondary fluid and a ground source heat pump (GSHP). The model uses continuity conditions for temperature and local heat fluxes between VGS components. The theory includes a special class of nonequilibrium spatial scale of VGS that is independent of its geometrical parameters. It is determined by the energy characteristics of the heat pump and the thermodynamic properties of soil and secondary fluid. Spatial variables can be chosen so that the energy characteristics of the VGS depend on only one dimensionless parameter (a similarity parameter), the thermal conductivity ratio of soil to secondary fluid. This considerably simplifies interpretation of theoretical and experimental results obtained using similarity methods. We show that, under real conditions of VGS functioning, the value of this similarity parameter varies from 0.5 to 10. The approach can be used to optimise GSHP systems to obtain energy of the required amount and quality to capitalise on heat pumps as ‘flexible agents’ in Smart Energy Systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-250460 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2019.03.030 (DOI)000466999400003 ()2-s2.0-85063332591 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190507

Available from: 2019-04-30 Created: 2019-04-30 Last updated: 2023-12-07Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7020-1551

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