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Persson, R., Stichel, S., Liu, Z. & Giossi, R. L. (2023). Cost reduction with single axle running gears in metro trains. In: 2022 Conference Proceedings Transport Research Arena, TRA Lisbon 2022: . Paper presented at 2022 Conference Proceedings Transport Research Arena, TRA Lisbon 2022, Lisboa, Portugal, Nov 14 2022 - Nov 17 2022 (pp. 876-883). Elsevier B.V.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cost reduction with single axle running gears in metro trains
2023 (English)In: 2022 Conference Proceedings Transport Research Arena, TRA Lisbon 2022, Elsevier B.V. , 2023, p. 876-883Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Energy and maintenance costs constitute a large part of the recurring cost for railway operation. The vehicle weight impacts both energy consumption and the need for tamping of the track, while curving performance impacts the curving resistance and the wear on wheels and rails. In the project RUN2Rail and further in NextGear, both parts of the EU-funded initiative Shift2Rail, a single axle running gear with composite frame and active wheelset guidance was proposed for metro vehicles. The present study is comparing a reference vehicle from Metro Madrid with the proposed vehicle in terms of energy consumption and maintenance cost for simulated service on Metro Madrid Line 10 with curvature, gradients, stops and speed profiles considered. The calculated yearly saving for each vehicle become about 50 k€/(year*trainset), split on 20% on energy and 40% on each of wheel and track maintenance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2023
Keywords
Active suspension, Energy consumption, Reinforced plastic, Two-axle vehicle, Weight reduction, Wheel wear
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-342801 (URN)10.1016/j.trpro.2023.11.495 (DOI)2-s2.0-85182935313 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2022 Conference Proceedings Transport Research Arena, TRA Lisbon 2022, Lisboa, Portugal, Nov 14 2022 - Nov 17 2022
Note

QC 20240202

Available from: 2024-01-31 Created: 2024-01-31 Last updated: 2024-02-02Bibliographically approved
Goodall, R., Licciardello, R., Hughes, P. & Persson, R. (2022). An authorisation framework for actively controlled running gear. Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, 236(9), 1070-1079
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An authorisation framework for actively controlled running gear
2022 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 236, no 9, p. 1070-1079Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A Shift2Rail funded research project called RUN2Rail has investigated a range of new technologies for railway rolling stock. The project included a task on the use of active suspensions, and one of the subtasks was to propose a strategy supporting the authorisation by safety authorities for highly innovative mechatronic vehicles to be placed on the market. The incorporation of electronics and control into suspension systems is still at an early stage, so this paper provides a framework for a practical and efficient authorisation strategy, primarily based upon existing European regulations and standards but in general applicable worldwide.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAGE Publications, 2022
Keywords
active suspension, control, electronics, Safety, suspensions, Authorization frameworks, European regulation, European Standards, Mechatronic vehicles, Railway rolling stock, Running gear, Safety authority, Subtask, Suspension system, Automobile suspensions
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-321551 (URN)10.1177/09544097211066373 (DOI)000765102100001 ()2-s2.0-85125709280 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20221121

Available from: 2022-11-21 Created: 2022-11-21 Last updated: 2022-11-21Bibliographically approved
Persson, R., Giossi, R. L. & Stichel, S. (2022). Single Axle Running Gear with Nonlinear Axle Guidance Stiffness. In: IAVSD 2021: Advances in Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks II: . Paper presented at 27th Symposium of the International Association of Vehicle System Dynamics, IAVSD 2021,Virtual, 17-19 August 2021 (pp. 355-361). Springer Nature
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Single Axle Running Gear with Nonlinear Axle Guidance Stiffness
2022 (English)In: IAVSD 2021: Advances in Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks II, Springer Nature , 2022, p. 355-361Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Within the Shift2Rail project RUN2Rail, an innovative Metro vehicle with single axle running gear is proposed. In NEXTGEAR, also a Shift2Rail project, the work is continued to achieve a higher technical readiness level. For a 2-axle vehicle with a wheelset distance of 8 m the contradiction between stability and curving performance is imminent, and an active wheelset guidance is considered necessary for networks with many small curve radii. For networks with larger curve radii a passive solution might be enough. A nonlinear axle guidance stiffness that has the potential to improve the curving performance is studied here. The running gear frame is modelled in Abaqus® and structural frame modes are implemented in SIMPACK® together with the other suspension elements. To select the properties of the nonlinear spring, simulations are performed to check stability at demanding conditions at 160 km/h on tangent track as well in a curve with 1000 m radius. These two cases give the high and low guidance stiffness of the nonlinear spring. The results show that a nonlinear wheelset guidance can reduce the wear compared to a linear guidance and be an alternative to active wheelset steering for networks with low numbers of narrow curves.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2022
Series
Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, ISSN 2195-4356, E-ISSN 2195-4364
Keywords
Single axle running gear, Wear number, Wheelset guidance
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-329646 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-07305-2_36 (DOI)2-s2.0-85136941654 (Scopus ID)
Conference
27th Symposium of the International Association of Vehicle System Dynamics, IAVSD 2021,Virtual, 17-19 August 2021
Note

Part of ISBN 9783031073045

QC 20230614

Available from: 2023-06-26 Created: 2023-06-26 Last updated: 2023-06-26Bibliographically approved
Giossi, R. L., Shipsha, A., Persson, R., Wennhage, P. & Stichel, S. (2022). Towards the realization of an innovative rail vehicle - active ride comfort control. Control Engineering Practice, 129, Article ID 105346.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards the realization of an innovative rail vehicle - active ride comfort control
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2022 (English)In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 129, article id 105346Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Shift2Rail project Pivot2 introduces an innovative metro vehicle with two single axle running gears with only one suspension step to reduce the vehicle's weight. A U-shaped connection frame is designed in Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer to further reduce weight and incorporate the anti-roll bar. Due to the poor ride comfort of the vehicle with standard passive dampers, all six dampers are replaced by hydraulic actuators. Modal control is applied and optimized with genetic algorithms. Despite the good improvements obtained, the weighted vertical acceleration remains above the acceptance level. Two modifications of modal control are studied, i.e., modal control with additional sensor, and blended control. Based on the frequency response of the results, it is proposed a low-pass filtered blended controller to neglect frame accelerations high frequency content. This last improves vertical comfort at the expenses of a more complex control system in comparison to modal control.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2022
Keywords
Two-axle vehicle, Modal control, Blended control, Comfort evaluation, Structural modes, Hydraulic actuator modelling
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-320296 (URN)10.1016/j.conengprac.2022.105346 (DOI)000861745500002 ()2-s2.0-85138364255 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20221024

Available from: 2022-10-24 Created: 2022-10-24 Last updated: 2023-05-05Bibliographically approved
Giossi, R. L., Shipsha, A., Persson, R., Wennhage, P. & Stichel, S. (2021). Active Modal Control of an Innovative Two-Axle Vehicle with Composite Frame Running Gear. In: IAVSD 2021: Advances in Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks II. Paper presented at 27th Symposium of the International Association of Vehicle System Dynamics, IAVSD 2021, Virtual/Online, 17-19 August 2021 (pp. 8-17). Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Active Modal Control of an Innovative Two-Axle Vehicle with Composite Frame Running Gear
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2021 (English)In: IAVSD 2021: Advances in Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks II, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2021, p. 8-17Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Within the Shift2Rail projects Pivot2 and NEXTGEAR, an innovative Metro vehicle with single axle running gear and only one suspension step is proposed. A composite material running gear frame is developed to be used both as structural and as suspension element. The design with only one suspension step can significantly degrade the passengers ride comfort. Thus, active modal control is implemented both in lateral and vertical direction to increase the performance of the system. The running gear frame is modelled in Abaqus® as well as the carbody. Structural modes of both elements are implemented in SIMPACK®. A hydraulic actuator model is developed in Simscape®, where two pressure-controlled valves are used to control the pressure inside the chambers of a double acting hydraulic cylinder. A co-simulation environment is then established between SIMPACK® and Simulink®. The vehicle is running with speeds between 10 and 120 km/h. Active modal control makes it possible to maintain ride comfort levels of conventional bogie vehicles with this innovative single axle and single suspension step running gear, promising substantial weight savings of about 400 kg/m. The single axle running gear solution with active comfort control developed here can be an attractive alternative to bogies, providing reduced Life Cycle Costs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2021
Series
Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, ISSN 2195-4356, E-ISSN 2195-4364
Keywords
Active control, FE model, Hydraulic actuator modelling, Ride comfort, Structural modes
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-326560 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-07305-2_2 (DOI)2-s2.0-85136937455 (Scopus ID)
Conference
27th Symposium of the International Association of Vehicle System Dynamics, IAVSD 2021, Virtual/Online, 17-19 August 2021
Note

QC 20230626

Available from: 2023-05-05 Created: 2023-05-05 Last updated: 2023-06-26Bibliographically approved
Persson, R., Liu, Z. & Giossi, R. L. (2021). Possible reduction of energy consumption with single axlerunning gears in a metro train. In: : . Paper presented at Resource efficient vehicle conference (REV 2021) online on 14 – 16 June 2021.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Possible reduction of energy consumption with single axlerunning gears in a metro train
2021 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Running gears form a significant part of the weight of a railway vehicle, and if the weight of these could be reduced, this would affect the vehicle’s energy consumption, especially for services with many stops. In the project RUN2Rail, a part of the EU-funded initiative Shift2Rail, a single axle running gear was proposed for metro vehicles. Active suspensions were suggested to overcome deficiencies in terms of ride comfort and wheelset steering, which are well known for such vehicles. The concept has been further developed in the project NextGear, also part of Shift2Rail, where the material of the running gear frame has been changed from steel to composite to further reduce the weightand the wheelset guidance updated to decrease the running resistance in curves. Prototypes of frame and wheelset steering actuator will be built and tested in the laboratory to validate the performance.The present study is comparing a reference vehicle from Metro Madrid with the proposed vehicle in terms of energy consumption for simulated service on Metro Madrid Line 10 with curvature, gradients, stops and speed profiles considered. Only parameters with relation to the weight, curving performance and auxiliary energy consumption for the active system are assumed different for the vehicles. The vehicles are further assumed to use regenerative braking, hence the energy needed to accelerate the vehicle will be regenerated when braking, but there will be transformation losses with relation to the weight. The simulation results show that the very innovative NextGear vehicles will reduce energy consumption by 8% compared to the reference vehicles. The lower weight and the decreased running resistance in curves contribute about as much to the savings.

National Category
Vehicle Engineering Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-292111 (URN)
Conference
Resource efficient vehicle conference (REV 2021) online on 14 – 16 June 2021
Note

QC 20210330

Available from: 2021-03-24 Created: 2021-03-24 Last updated: 2022-12-12Bibliographically approved
Giossi, R. L., Stichel, S. & Persson, R. (2020). Gain Scaling for Active Wheelset Steering on Innovative Two-Axle Vehicle. In: Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering: . Paper presented at 26th Symposium of the International Association of Vehicle System Dynamics, IAVSD 2019; Gothenburg; Sweden; 12 August 2019 through 16 August 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gain Scaling for Active Wheelset Steering on Innovative Two-Axle Vehicle
2020 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 2020Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Within the Shift2Rail project Run2Rail, an innovative single axle running gear with only one suspension step is proposed. A composite material frame shall be used both as structural and as suspension element. To improve curving performance active wheelset steering control is introduced. The selected control aims to minimize the longitudinal creepage by controlling the lateral wheelset position on the track. A two-axle vehicle is created in the MBS program SIMPACK and co-simulation is established with Simulink. The control strategy used is a simple PID control. A set of run cases with different curves and speeds is selected to verify the performance. The control gain optimal for high non-compensated lateral acceleration (NLA) tends to produce unstable results for low speeds. Control gain scaling is introduced based on vehicle speed and online estimation of the curvature. The proposed gain scheduling approach maintains the simple control formulation still solving the instability problem. Gain scheduling allows use of optimal control gains for all combinations of curve radii and vehicle speed and thereby taking the full advantage that the active wheelset steering brings to a vehicle with single axle running gears. 

National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-271895 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-38077-9_7 (DOI)000675429300007 ()2-s2.0-85081589016 (Scopus ID)
Conference
26th Symposium of the International Association of Vehicle System Dynamics, IAVSD 2019; Gothenburg; Sweden; 12 August 2019 through 16 August 2019
Projects
RUN2Rail
Note

QC 20200603

Available from: 2020-04-10 Created: 2020-04-10 Last updated: 2023-05-05Bibliographically approved
Giossi, R. L., Persson, R. & Stichel, S. (2020). Improved curving performance of an innovative two-axle vehicle: a reasonable feedforward active steering approach. Vehicle System Dynamics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improved curving performance of an innovative two-axle vehicle: a reasonable feedforward active steering approach
2020 (English)In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A mechatronic rail vehicle with reduced tare weight, two axles and only one level of suspension is proposed with the objective of reducing investment and maintenance costs. A wheelset to carbody connection frame in composite material will be used both as structural and as suspension element. Active control is introduced to steer the wheelsets and improve the curving performance. A feedforward control approach for active curve steering based on non-compensated lateral acceleration and curvature is proposed to overcome stability issues of a feedback approach. The feedforward approach is synthesised starting from the best achievable results of selected feedback approaches in terms of wheel energy dissipation and required actuation force. A set of 357 running cases (embracing 7 curves, 17 speeds per curve and 3 conicities) is used to design the controller. The controller is shown to perform well for conicity and track geometry variations and under the presence of track irregularities.

Keywords
Feedforward control; feedback control comparison; active control of rail vehicles; two-axle vehicle; conicity variation
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-283520 (URN)10.1080/00423114.2020.1823005 (DOI)000575611300001 ()2-s2.0-85092110771 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20201007

Available from: 2020-10-07 Created: 2020-10-07 Last updated: 2023-05-05Bibliographically approved
Qazizadeh, A., Stichel, S. & Persson, R. (2018). Proposal for systematic studies of active suspension failures in rail vehicles. Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, 232(1), 199-213
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proposal for systematic studies of active suspension failures in rail vehicles
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 232, no 1, p. 199-213Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Application of active suspensions in high-speed passenger trains is gradually getting more and more common. Active suspensions are primarily aimed at improving ride comfort, wear or stability. Failure of these systems may not only just deteriorate the performance but it may also put vehicle safety at risk. There are not many studies that explain how a thorough study proving safety of active suspension should be performed. Therefore, initiating this type of study is necessary for not only preventing incidences but also for assuring acceptance of active suspension by rail vehicle operators and authorities. This study proposes a flowchart for systematic studies of active suspension failures in rail vehicles. The flowchart steps are solidified by using failure mode and effects analysis and fault tree analysis techniques and also acceptance criteria from the EN14363 standard. Furthermore, six failure modes are introduced which are very general and their use can be extended to other studies of active suspension failure. In the last section of the paper, the proposed flowchart is put into practice through four failure examples of active vertical suspension.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2018
Keywords
Active suspension, failure analysis, FMEA, FTA, EN14363 standard, high-speed trains, active vertical suspension
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Vehicle and Maritime Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-208181 (URN)10.1177/0954409716663583 (DOI)000419833100014 ()2-s2.0-85040364037 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Note

QC 20180122

Available from: 2017-06-01 Created: 2017-06-01 Last updated: 2024-03-15Bibliographically approved
Qazizadeh, A., Persson, R. & Stichel, S. (2014). On-Track Tests and Simulation of Active Secondary Suspension on a Rail Vehicle: Research, Development and Maintenance. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Railway Technology: Research, Development and Maintenance. Paper presented at The Second International Conference on Railway Technology: Research, Development and Maintenance, Ajaccio, Corsica, France from 8-11 April 2014.. Stirlingshire, UK: Civil-Comp Press, 104
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On-Track Tests and Simulation of Active Secondary Suspension on a Rail Vehicle: Research, Development and Maintenance
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Railway Technology: Research, Development and Maintenance, Stirlingshire, UK: Civil-Comp Press , 2014, Vol. 104, p. 12Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Ride comfort is one of the important criteria when designing and approving a new train. This parameter is negatively affected by low track quality or by increased train speed. One way to improve ride comfort in such operation conditions is to use active suspension control. However, the solution needs to be economic and reliable to remain attractive to industry. In this paper such an active suspension is developed and tested in a collaboration between KTH and Bombardier. The active control is implemented by replacing secondary vertical and lateral dampers with actuators. Skyhook control theory is used in combination with mode separation to calculate the reference force to the actuators. A two carbody train set manufactured by Bombardier is used as a test train. One of the cars has conventional passive suspension and is used as a reference car and the other is equipped with active secondary lateral and vertical suspension. Before carrying out the measurements, different failure scenarios of the active suspension were defined and studied in the multi-body simulation software Simpack. Active secondary vertical and lateral suspensions were finally tested together for the first time in Sweden in May 2013. Measurements were performed at different speeds up to 200 km/h on tracks around Stockholm. The results show a significant reduction of the vibration level in the carbody. According to the comfort values, up to 44% improvement is achieved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stirlingshire, UK: Civil-Comp Press, 2014. p. 12
Series
Civil-Comp Proceedings, ISSN 1759-3433
Keywords
ride comfort, active suspension, skyhook control, mode separation, safety analysis, rigid body modes, electro-hydraulic actuator
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Gröna tåget; Järnvägsgruppen - Ljud och vibrationer
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-149806 (URN)10.4203/ccp.104.5 (DOI)2-s2.0-84963775521 (Scopus ID)978-1-905088-59-1 (ISBN)
Conference
The Second International Conference on Railway Technology: Research, Development and Maintenance, Ajaccio, Corsica, France from 8-11 April 2014.
Note

QC 20150205

Available from: 2014-08-27 Created: 2014-08-27 Last updated: 2024-03-18Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3855-0011

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