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Ranjbar, V., Olsson, N. O. .. & Sipilä, H. (2022). Impact of signalling system on capacity – Comparing legacy ATC, ETCS Level 2 and ETCS Hybrid Level 3 systems. Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, 23, Article ID 100322.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of signalling system on capacity – Comparing legacy ATC, ETCS Level 2 and ETCS Hybrid Level 3 systems
2022 (English)In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 23, article id 100322Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Most railways use fixed block technology, which could be replaced with moving block technology with associated high cost. It is therefore interesting to gradually upgrade the signalling system exploiting hybrid technologies. This paper aims to investigate the impact on capacity of various signalling systems (including fixed block technology and hybrid technology) using a microscopic simulation tool under scheduled (static) conditions without considering probability functions. To perform comparative analysis between European Train Control System (ETCS) Hybrid Level 3, ETCS Level 2, and the Swedish ATC2 legacy system, three signalling system scenarios are designed and capacity consumption is considered as a performance indicator. The study was performed on the central section of Stockholm’s commuter train network with peak hour conditions from the 2020 timetable. The results show that ETCS L2 delivers lower capacity consumption in total compared to the ATC2 legacy system. ETCS Hybrid Level 3 with existing trackside train detection and partially shortened block sections delivers lower capacity consumption compared to ETCS L2 and ATC2. The implementation of hybrid solutions such as ETCS Hybrid Level 3 in addition to allowing for gradual upgrading of signalling systems to the next generation (moving block system) can improve capacity of high-density commuter lines.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
ERTMS, ETCS, Moving block, Hybrid level 3, ATC2, Capacity consumption
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
The KTH Railway Group - Tribology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-305876 (URN)10.1016/j.jrtpm.2022.100322 (DOI)000810006400001 ()2-s2.0-85131439471 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20220627

Available from: 2021-12-07 Created: 2021-12-07 Last updated: 2023-03-07Bibliographically approved
Ranjbar, V. (2021). Challenges for ERTMS related to implementation, technology and railway capacity. (Licentiate dissertation). Stockholm, Sweden 2021: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges for ERTMS related to implementation, technology and railway capacity
2021 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The main purpose of European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) is to remove crossborder barriers and create an interoperable railway network across European countries (Smithet al. 2012). Since its birth, ERTMS has faced several issues regarding interoperability andimplementation. In addition, one of the main questions for decision-makers and infrastructuremanagers regarding ERTMS is determining what level of operation is suitable to implementand deliver additional performance compared to legacy systems.This thesis aims to identify challenges for the ERTMS related to implementation, andinteroperability to achieve a mobile and intelligent railway transport system. A subsequentstudy on railway capacity is performed. It investigates the impact of ERTMS Hybrid Level 3(HL3) compared to the European Train Control System Level 2, (ETCS L2) and a Swedishlegacy system, ATC2. To achieve the goals of this study, two methodologies are used: 1)Literature review and 2) Simulation.The literature reviews were conducted in order to determine what the challenges ofimplementation of ERTMS are to resolve issues related to ERTMS subsystems (Global Systemfor Mobile Communication – Railway (GSM-R), and ETCS). ETCS needs to exploit hybridtechnologies for gradual deployment of next generation signalling systems. GSM-R must bereplaced with new technologies such as, long-term evolution (LTE) to support necessary datatransmission capacity for implementation of the next generation of signalling system.Furthermore, the literature review regarding achieving interoperable and intelligent railwaytransport shows that reducing wayside equipment have potential to provide a more costefficientrailway transport. To test and validate this finding, it is necessary to develop adaptedtools for railway and signalling systems. Providing flexible railway operation with backwardforwardinteroperability and hybrid solutions will make it possible to gradually upgrade currentsystems.As decision-makers look for additional performance in new signalling systems over legacyinstallations, the impact various signalling systems have on line capacity must be examined.To this end, a comparative analysis between legacy ATC, ETCS Level 2, and ETCS HybridLevel 3 using simulation tool was performed. The case study was performed on a highfrequency traffic commuter train line in Stockholm during peak hours. The results of study showHL3 delivers better performance compared to the legacy system and ETCS L2, and can deliveracceptable performance for a commuter train line with high density. Considering the casestudy, it can be concluded that HL3 delivers better performance on commuter train lines withhigh density.

Abstract [sv]

Huvudsyftet med European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) är att avlägsnatekniska gränshinder och skapa ett driftskompatibelt järnvägsnät i europeiska länder (Smith etal. 2012). Sedan dess tillkomst har ERTMS utsatts för prövningar i flera frågor ominteroperabilitet och implementering. Dessutom är en av huvudfrågorna för beslutsfattare ochinfrastrukturförvaltare som hanterar ERTMS att bestämma vilken driftsnivå som är lämplig attimplementera och leverera ytterligare prestanda jämfört med äldre system.Denna avhandling syftar till att identifiera utmaningar för ERTMS relaterade till implementeringoch interoperabilitet för att uppnå ett mobilt och intelligent järnvägstransportsystem. I en studieundersöks effekterna på kapaciteten av ERTMS Hybrid Level 3 (HL3) jämfört med EuropeanTrain Control System Level 2, (ETCS L2) och ett svenskt äldre system, ATC2. För att uppnåmålen för denna studie används två metoder: 1) Litteraturgenomgång och 2) Simulering.Litteraturöversikterna genomfördes för att avgöra vilka utmaningar implementeringen avERTMS medför för att lösa problem relaterade till ERTMS delsystem (Global System for MobileCommunication - Railway (GSM-R) och ETCS). ETCS behöver utnyttja hybridteknik för gradvisanvändning av nästa generations signaleringssystem. GSM-R måste ersättas med ny teknik,såsom långtidsutveckling (LTE) för att stödja nödvändig dataöverföringskapacitet förimplementering av nästa generations signaleringssystem.Vidare visar litteraturöversikten om att uppnå interoperabla och intelligenta järnvägstransporteratt en minskning av utrustning i banan har potential att ge en mer kostnadseffektivajärnvägstransporter. För att testa och validera detta är det nödvändigt att utveckla anpassadeverktyg för signalsystem för järnväg. Att åstadkomma flexibel järnvägstrafik med bakåt-framåt-interoperabilitet och hybridlösningar kommer att göra det möjligt att gradvis uppgraderanuvarande system.Eftersom beslutsfattare letar efter ytterligare prestanda i nya signalsystem jämfört med äldresystem måste effekterna av olika signalsystem på linjekapaciteten undersökas. För dettaändamål utfördes en jämförande analys mellan äldre ATC, ETCS nivå 2 och ETCS hybridnivå3 med simuleringsverktyg. Fallstudien utfördes på en tättrafikerad pendeltågslinje i Stockholmunder högtrafikperiod. Resultaten av studien visar att HL3 ger bättre prestanda jämfört meddet äldre systemet och ETCS L2 och kan leverera acceptabla prestanda för en pendeltågslinjemed tät trafik. Med tanke på fallstudien kan man dra slutsatsen att HL3 ger bättre prestandapå pendeltågslinjer med tät trafik.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm, Sweden 2021: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2021. p. 21
Series
TRITA-ABE-DLT ; 2144
National Category
Civil Engineering Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Transport Science, Transport Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-305906 (URN)978-91-8040-032-9 (ISBN)
Presentation
2022-01-27, V318, Teknikringen 78, KTH Campus, Videolänk: https://kth-se.zoom.us/j/68075864233, Stockholm, 14:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20211213

Available from: 2021-12-13 Created: 2021-12-08 Last updated: 2022-06-25Bibliographically approved
Ranjbar, V. (2021). Migration to ERTMS for dense traffic lines: investigation methodologies and application to the Stockholm Citybanan case study. Tecnoscienza: Italian Journal of Science and Technology Studies, 76(12), 937-977
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Migration to ERTMS for dense traffic lines: investigation methodologies and application to the Stockholm Citybanan case study
2021 (English)In: Tecnoscienza: Italian Journal of Science and Technology Studies, E-ISSN 2038-3460, Vol. 76, no 12, p. 937-977Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Capacity of infrastructure in Railway dependson several factors, between them Control Commandand Signalling (CCS) systems aim at providing improvedoperation by keeping constant safety performances. Thisstudy intends to investigate the effects of ERTMS Level 3on capacity in comparison to ERTMS Level 2 and Swedishsignalling system ATC2. The study includes a comparativeevaluation based on both recognized microscopic simulationtools and analytical methods, adapted for the specificpurposes. The selected case study is the Southbound of cityline in Stockholm (Citybanan) in the peak period undervarious timetable configurations. The study findings illustratequantitatively the increase of capacity achievable byERTMS Level 3.

Abstract [it]

La capacità dell’infrastruttura ferroviariadipende da diversi fattori. Tra questi, i sistemi di segnalamentoe controllo (CCS) mirano a fornire un funzionamentomigliore pur mantenendo prestazioni di sicurezzacostanti. Questo studio intende esaminare gli effetti dellivello 3 dell’ERMTS sulla capacità a confronto con il livello2 dell’ERMTS e al sistema di segnalamento svedeseATC2. Lo studio comprende una valutazione comparativabasata su strumenti di simulazione microscopica riconosciutie su metodi analitici adattati allo scopo specifico. Ilcaso di studio selezionato è il Southbound della linea suburbanadi Stoccolma (Citybanan) analizzato nel periododi punta e in varie configurazioni di orario. I risultati dellostudio illustrano quantitativamente l’aumento di capacitàottenibile con il livello 3 del l’ERTMS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CIFI Collegio Ingegneri Ferroviari Italiani, 2021
Keywords
Capacity, Railway, Operation, ETCS, ERTMS, ATC2, Signalling system.
National Category
Civil Engineering Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
SRA - Transport; The KTH Railway Group - Tribology; Transport Science, Transport Systems; Business Studies; Transport Science, Transport Infrastructure
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-309215 (URN)2-s2.0-85122258365 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20220225

Available from: 2022-02-23 Created: 2022-02-23 Last updated: 2024-03-18Bibliographically approved
Ranjbar, V. & Olsson, N. O. .. (2020). Key challenges of European Rail traffic Management System. In: Proceedings of TRA2020, the 8th Transport Research Arena: Rethinking transport – towards clean and inclusive mobility. Paper presented at The TRA2020 physical conference, the 8th Transport Research Arena, was cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Key challenges of European Rail traffic Management System
2020 (English)In: Proceedings of TRA2020, the 8th Transport Research Arena: Rethinking transport – towards clean and inclusive mobility, 2020Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study is designed to analyse key challenges to European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) implementation encountered in recent years. To achieve this goal, a systematic literature review was conducted where data were gathered and analysed concerning challenges and current issues relating to ERTMS implementation projects. The findings show a growing literature of ERTMS experiences, especially in the last 4 years. Several European countries have contributed to the literature, which appears to be primarily based on qualitative research methods. To reduce complexity created by a plurality of actors, definition of a single regulatory entity to address uniformity and safety assessment of rolling stock, and deployment of wayside equipment is necessary. Concerning technical issues, outcomes show that interaction between the European Train Control System (ETCS) and Global System for Mobile Communications – Railway (GSM-R) requires replacing these with new hybrid technologies moving towards long-term evolution (LTE) and modular approaches.

Keywords
ERTMS, ETCS, GSM-R, Digitalization, Interoperability, Implementation
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-305886 (URN)
Conference
The TRA2020 physical conference, the 8th Transport Research Arena, was cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Note

QC 20211213

Available from: 2021-12-08 Created: 2021-12-08 Last updated: 2022-06-25Bibliographically approved
Ranjbar, V. & Olsson, N. O. .. (2020). Towards mobile and intelligent railway transport: A review of recent ERTMS related research. In: Computers in Railways XVII: . Paper presented at 17th International Conference on Railway Engineering Design and Operation, CR 2020, 1 July 2020 through 3 July 2020, Virtual, Online (pp. 65-73). WITPRESS LTD., 199
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards mobile and intelligent railway transport: A review of recent ERTMS related research
2020 (English)In: Computers in Railways XVII, WITPRESS LTD. , 2020, Vol. 199, p. 65-73Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The development of the European Railway Traffic Management System (ERTMS) throughout Europe over the last two decades to remove obstacles to providing an interoperable railway network has been facing several challenges. This study briefly highlights several of these challenges by analysing the current architecture of ERTMS and main concerns such as its implementation, the interoperability of communication, formal methods, hybrid ERMS (Level 3), safety, and human factors. This study has taken a systematic approach to data collection and analysis through a review of the current literature. The studies examined illustrate that it is necessary to reduce the number of components in order to pivot the system toward mobile equipment, autonomous trains, and decentralised communication. In the area of formalisation, every supplier and responsible party conducting modelling and testing of the system uses a different tool. Here, we conclude it would be appropriate to develop a robust and reliable tool for modelling, formalisation, testing and the validation of critical safety systems in the railway industry according to its particular specifications and functionalities, e.g. for ERTMS L3, including moving block, virtual coupling and Automatic Train Operation (ATO). To bridge gaps between human operation and new technologies, reduce human error, and increase performance in the railway industry, a stronger emphasis on the development of employees’ skills with new technologies is highly recommended. In order to build upon previous investments in ERTMS and to guarantee backwards and forwards interoperability, it is necessary to exploit hybrid solutions and to gradually update the current systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WITPRESS LTD., 2020
Series
WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, ISSN 1743-3509 ; 199
Keywords
Implementation of ERTMS, GNSS Based Train Positioning, Adaptable Communication System, Interoperability, Train Integrity Monitoring System, Virtual Coupling
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-303136 (URN)10.2495/CR200061 (DOI)2-s2.0-85104226653 (Scopus ID)
Conference
17th International Conference on Railway Engineering Design and Operation, CR 2020, 1 July 2020 through 3 July 2020, Virtual, Online
Note

Part of proceedings: ISBN 978-178466403-9

QC 20211216

Available from: 2021-10-06 Created: 2021-10-06 Last updated: 2023-02-06Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4653-1424

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