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Linder, D., Hou, Z., Xie, R., Hedström, P., Ström, V., Holmström, E. & Borgenstam, A. (2019). A comparative study of microstructure and magnetic properties of a Ni–Fe cemented carbide: Influence of carbon content. International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, 80, 181-187
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comparative study of microstructure and magnetic properties of a Ni–Fe cemented carbide: Influence of carbon content
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, ISSN 0263-4368, Vol. 80, p. 181-187Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Due to the renewed interest in alternative binders for cemented carbides it is important to understand how the binder composition influences not only mechanical properties but also the microstructure and related measurements for quality control. Microstructure and chemical composition of WC-Co is often evaluated by magnetic measurements. However, when the binder composition deviates significantly from conventional Co-based binders it should not be assumed that the standard measurements can be used to directly evaluate the same parameters. In this paper we investigate the influence of relative C-content on the microstructure and magnetic properties of an alternative binder cemented carbide. It is shown that the saturation magnetization is related to the relative C-content and the magnetic coercivity is related to the microstructure, more specifically to the binder phase distribution, but could not be directly linked to the carbide grain size in the same manner as for standard WC-Co. Furthermore, a direct correlation between Curie temperature and saturation magnetization is observed for this system which means that the Curie temperature potentially could be used for calibration of empirical relations or as a method to accurately determine the binder volume fraction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Alternative binder, Cemented carbide, Cermet, Cobalt substitution, Magnetic properties, Metal-matrix composite, Microstructure
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-246465 (URN)10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2019.01.014 (DOI)000460992100018 ()2-s2.0-85060087544 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190326

Available from: 2019-03-26 Created: 2019-03-26 Last updated: 2019-12-20Bibliographically approved
Leach, L., Ågren, J., Höglund, L. & Borgenstam, A. (2019). Diffusion-Controlled Lengthening Rates of Bainitic Ferrite a Part of the Steel Genome. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, 50A(6), 2613-2618
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diffusion-Controlled Lengthening Rates of Bainitic Ferrite a Part of the Steel Genome
2019 (English)In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 50A, no 6, p. 2613-2618Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As a step in the further development of models and databases to support design of new steels, i.e., the steel genome, the growth of bainitic ferrite plates is accounted for by a thermodynamic and kinetic approach. The thermodynamic aspects are represented by CALPHAD databases and a Gibbs energy barrier for growth B-m. Experimental information on ferrite-plate growth rates for a number of Fe-C alloys, some of high-purity, are analyzed in terms of a modified Zener-Hillert model and the barrier as well as some kinetic parameters are evaluated. It is found that the barrier varies in a smooth way with carbon content and lengthening rate. In order to improve the agreement with the experimental information it was necessary to adjust the diffusion coefficient of carbon in austenite at low temperatures. It is concluded that the representation of the experimental data is satisfactory.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251697 (URN)10.1007/s11661-019-05208-x (DOI)000466497000008 ()2-s2.0-85064334909 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190520

Available from: 2019-05-20 Created: 2019-05-20 Last updated: 2019-12-20Bibliographically approved
Hou, Z., Linder, D., Hedström, P., Forsberg, A., Holmström, E. & Ström, V. (2019). Effect of carbon content on the Curie temperature of WC-NiFe cemented carbides. International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, 78, 27-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of carbon content on the Curie temperature of WC-NiFe cemented carbides
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, ISSN 0263-4368, Vol. 78, p. 27-31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have investigated the effect of the carbon content on the Curie temperature of a cemented carbide composite material with a Ni-Fe alloy as the binder phase and WC as the hard phase. In the carbon concentration range from 5.72 to 5.83 wt% carbon, which covers the interval where WC coexists with fcc Ni-Fe without other phases (the ‘carbon window’), the Curie temperature rises from 200 to 527 °C. This result indicates the possibility to use the Curie temperature to determine the carbon balance in the system. With thermodynamic calculations and kinetic simulations we can quantitatively establish the correlation between the carbon and tungsten content of the binder phase and the Curie temperature. This strong compositional effect on the Curie temperature is quantitatively very different from the conventional Co-based cemented carbides, with Curie temperatures of about 950–1050 °C.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Alternative binder, Carbon window, Cemented carbide, Curie temperature, Hard metals, Binary alloys, Binders, Carbide tools, Carbides, Cobalt compounds, Iron alloys, Nickel alloys, Carbon concentrations, Cemented carbide composites, Cemented carbides, Compositional effects, Effect of carbons, Kinetic simulation, Thermodynamic calculations, Temperature
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-236334 (URN)10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2018.08.010 (DOI)000451489300003 ()2-s2.0-85052282006 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20181109

Available from: 2018-11-09 Created: 2018-11-09 Last updated: 2018-12-11Bibliographically approved
Hou, Z., Linder, D., Hedström, P., Ström, V., Holmström, E. & Borgenstam, A. (2019). Evaluating magnetic properties of composites from model alloys – Application to alternative binder cemented carbides. Scripta Materialia, 168, 96-99
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating magnetic properties of composites from model alloys – Application to alternative binder cemented carbides
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2019 (English)In: Scripta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6462, E-ISSN 1872-8456, Vol. 168, p. 96-99Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The magnetic properties of 85Ni-15Fe model alloys containing Co, W and C have been studied with the intent to isolate the influence of alloy chemistry on quality control measurements of alternative binder cemented carbides. The results show a strong influence of dissolved W on the Curie temperature and the saturation magnetization. The amount of dissolved C, and the presence of WC precipitates, on the other hand, is shown to have negligible effect. Furthermore, the magnetic coercivity is indicated to be entirely dominated by the microstructural features and quite insensitive to composition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Acta Materialia Inc, 2019
Keywords
Alternative binder, Cemented carbide, Magnetic properties, Metal-ceramic composite, Ni-Fe model alloy, Binary alloys, Binders, Carbide tools, Carbides, Cobalt alloys, Nickel alloys, Saturation magnetization, Alloy chemistry, Cemented carbides, FE model, Magnetic coercivities, Metal-ceramic composites, Microstructural features, Properties of composites, Quality control measurement, Iron alloys
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-252472 (URN)10.1016/j.scriptamat.2019.04.033 (DOI)000470798400021 ()2-s2.0-85064921201 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190715

Available from: 2019-07-15 Created: 2019-07-15 Last updated: 2019-12-20Bibliographically approved
Holländer Pettersson, N., Lindell, D., Lindberg, F. & Borgenstam, A. (2019). Formation of Chromium Nitride and Intragranular Austenite in a Super Duplex Stainless Steel. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, 50(12), 5594-5601
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Formation of Chromium Nitride and Intragranular Austenite in a Super Duplex Stainless Steel
2019 (English)In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 50, no 12, p. 5594-5601Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Precipitation of chromium nitrides and formation of intragranular austenite were studied in detail for the super duplex stainless steel grade 2507 (UNS S32750). The situation of multipass welding was simulated by heat treatment at 1623 K (1350 degrees C) and quenching followed by short heat treatments at 1173 K (900 degrees C). The microstructural evolution was characterized using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter, and transmission Kikuchi diffraction, and it was observed that the interior of the ferrite grains contained chromium nitrides after quenching. The nitrides were predominantly of CrN with a cubic halite-type structure and clusters of CrN-Cr2N where rod-shaped trigonal Cr2N particles had nucleated on plates of CrN. After heat treatment for 10 seconds at 1173 K (900 degrees C), the nitride morphology was transformed into predominantly rod-shaped Cr2N, and finely dispersed intragranular secondary austenite idiomorphs had formed in the nitride-containing areas within the ferrite grains. After 60 seconds of heat treatment, both the Cr2N nitrides and the secondary austenite were coarsened. Analysis of electron diffraction data revealed an inherited crystallographic relationship between the metastable CrN and the intragranular austenite. The mechanism of chromium nitride formation and its relation to secondary austenite formation in duplex stainless steels are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-263672 (URN)10.1007/s11661-019-05489-2 (DOI)000492465700013 ()2-s2.0-85074296846 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20191108

Available from: 2019-11-08 Created: 2019-11-08 Last updated: 2019-12-20Bibliographically approved
Walbrühl, M., Linder, D., Bonvalet, M., Ågren, J. & Borgenstam, A. (2019). ICME guided property design: Room temperature hardness in cemented carbides. Materials & design, 161, 35-43
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ICME guided property design: Room temperature hardness in cemented carbides
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2019 (English)In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 161, p. 35-43Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The potential change in EU regulations may affect the traditional W-C-Co based cemented carbides industry and a methodology is required to accelerate the materials development with alternative binders. This work presents the ICME (Integrated Computational Materials Engineering) framework and the improved models that will enable tailor-made materials design of cemented carbides. The cemented carbide hardness is one of the key properties of the composites and here its close relation to the binder composition is in focus. Modeling the influence of alternative binder materials on the hardness of cemented carbides offers a way to optimize the composite properties of prospective binder candidates virtually, thereby reducing the development time and costs drastically compared to a classical trial-and-error method. The outline of a genetic algorithm is presented and the integration of the required models and tools, that are, or will become, available within this ICME framework, are presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
ICME, Hardness, Solubility, Solid solution strengthening, Genetic algorithm
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-240990 (URN)10.1016/j.matdes.2018.11.029 (DOI)000453745400004 ()2-s2.0-85056645666 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190110

Available from: 2019-01-10 Created: 2019-01-10 Last updated: 2019-12-20Bibliographically approved
Bonvalet, M., Odqvist, J., Ågren, J. & Forsberg, A. (2019). Modelling of prismatic grain growth in cemented carbides. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF REFRACTORY METALS & HARD MATERIALS, 78, 310-319
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling of prismatic grain growth in cemented carbides
2019 (English)In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF REFRACTORY METALS & HARD MATERIALS, ISSN 0263-4368, Vol. 78, p. 310-319Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A mean-field model dealing with prismatic grain growth during liquid phase sintering of cemented carbides with a Co-rich binder is presented. The evolution of the size of an assembly of non-spherical grains is obtained using a Kampmann-Wagner approach and by introducing a constant shape factor between the characteristic lengths of prisms. This factor is a function of interfacial energies of the two kind of facets, basal and prismatic, considered. The growth model is based on three different mechanisms, that can be rate limiting, taking place in series: 2D nucleation of a new atomic layer, mass transfer across the interface and long-range diffusion. The driving force for coarsening is distributed between the different facets. These equations are solved numerically, and the simulation results reveal that the specific abnormal grain growth phenomena experimentally observed in cemented carbides may be reproduced with this new more realistic description of the grain shape contrary to the spherical approach developed in the past. It is also shown that the initial powder size distribution, and more specifically its shape has a strong influence on the distribution of the driving force between the different rate limiting mechanisms and thus on the occurrence of abnormal grain growth. In that case, the self-similarity of the normalized grain size distribution over time is not achieved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2019
Keywords
Grain coarsening, Abnormal grain growth, Cemented carbides, Modelling, Liquid phase sintering
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-239962 (URN)10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2018.10.007 (DOI)000451489300038 ()2-s2.0-85055672266 (Scopus ID)
Funder
VINNOVA
Note

QC 20181211

Available from: 2018-12-11 Created: 2018-12-11 Last updated: 2018-12-11Bibliographically approved
Leach, L., Kolmskog, P., Höglund, L., Hillert, M. & Borgenstam, A. (2019). Use of Fe-C Information as Reference for Alloying Effects on B-S. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, 50A(10), 4531-4540
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use of Fe-C Information as Reference for Alloying Effects on B-S
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2019 (English)In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 50A, no 10, p. 4531-4540Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many empirical equations of the variation of the critical temperature with alloy content of the start of bainite formation in steels are available. They are often obtained by regression analysis of measured values for a large number of alloyed steels, usually with several alloying elements. However, such equations differ considerably, especially when applied to pure Fe-C alloys, which results in large differences between reported effects of individual alloying elements since they have not been based on the Fe-C system as a reference. Apparently, for the first time, an empirical equation is now derived by starting with information from Fe-C alloys and low alloy steels and then adding the effect of each alloying element separately, using information from ternary Fe-C-M alloys. Sets of information from the same alloy content but different carbon contents proved particularly useful. Lines connecting such points are regarded as B-S lines for the respective alloy content and the effect of alloying elements was evaluated from their distance from the B-S line for Fe-C alloys. Only under this condition can coefficients for alloying elements be expected to represent the physical effect of the elements. The resulting equation was tested with about 600 experimental B-S temperatures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2019
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Materials Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-260995 (URN)10.1007/s11661-019-05371-1 (DOI)000485037500006 ()2-s2.0-85070191474 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20191010

Available from: 2019-10-10 Created: 2019-10-10 Last updated: 2019-12-20Bibliographically approved
Walbrühl, M., Linder, D., Ågren, J. & Borgenstam, A. (2018). A new hardness model for materials design in cemented carbides. International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, 75, 94-100
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A new hardness model for materials design in cemented carbides
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, ISSN 0263-4368, Vol. 75, p. 94-100Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Materials Design approach offers new possibilities towards property-oriented materials development. The performance of cemented carbides is significantly influenced by properties like the hardness and fracture toughness. Fundamentally based phenomenological models, which allow for prediction of the properties of interest, make it possible to tailor the properties of the material based on the required performance. None of the previously available models are suitable to actively design the cemented carbide hardness because they are valid only for Co binders and do not allow alternative binder phases. The hardness is greatly influenced by the chemistry, binder volume fraction and carbide grain size. Only the chemistry, specifically the binder composition, leaves the possibility to optimize the binder hardness and to exceed classical WC-Co cemented carbides. Specifically focusing on the design of the binder phase, a new binder hardness description is implemented in a modified Engqvist hardness model and allows description of a wider range of conventional and alternative systems. The model was validated for various published cemented carbide systems and is able to predict their hardness within a 10% error. The assessed systems contain classical Co binders as well as alternative, austenitic binders based on Fe, Ni and Co.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Alternative binder, Cemented carbides, ICME, Materials design, Solid solution strengthening, Thermo-Calc
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-227506 (URN)10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2018.04.004 (DOI)000437362100013 ()2-s2.0-85045428618 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180518

Available from: 2018-05-18 Created: 2018-05-18 Last updated: 2018-07-23Bibliographically approved
Tian, Y., Forsberg, A. & Hedström, P. (2018). Comparing the deformation-induced martensitic transformation with the athermal martensitic transformation in Fe-Cr-Ni alloys. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 766, 131-139
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparing the deformation-induced martensitic transformation with the athermal martensitic transformation in Fe-Cr-Ni alloys
2018 (English)In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 766, p. 131-139Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The microstructure of martensite formed athermally or via deformation in Fe-Cr-Ni alloys with different austenite (gamma) stability has been investigated using microscopy. Two different types of microstructures, viz. blocky and banded structure, are observed after athermal and deformation-induced martensitic transformation (AMT and DIMT, respectively). The blocky structure form during AMT or DIMT if the stability of gamma is low. In both cases, there is a significant chemical driving force for the transformation from gamma to alpha'-martensite (alpha'), and if it is not hindered by e.g. planar defects it can grow uninhibited into a blocky morphology without the necessity to nucleate new crystallographic variants to accommodate the transformation strains. On the other hand, the banded structure is due to the formation of epsilon-martensite (epsilon) during AMT, or the wider concept shear bands in the case of DIMT. The shear bands, and in particular epsilon, lower the nucleation barrier for alpha' that forms within individual shear bands if the stability of gamma is low. Neighbouring alpha' units predominantly have a twin-related orientation relationship to accommodate the transformation strains. With increasing y stability during DIMT, variant selection becomes pronounced with preferred formation of variants favorable oriented with respect to the applied stress/strain field. The formation of alpha' at individual shear bands is also rare, since nos is present and instead alpha' forms at the intersection of shear bands for more stable gamma. In conclusion, AMT and DIMT for low gamma stability lead to similar microstructures, whereas the DIMT microstructure for high y stability is distinct. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA, 2018
Keywords
Metastable austenite, Deformation-induced martensitic transformation, Deformation microstructure, Variant pairing tendency, Variant selection
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-235554 (URN)10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.06.326 (DOI)000444617200014 ()2-s2.0-85049301116 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20181002

Available from: 2018-10-02 Created: 2018-10-02 Last updated: 2018-10-02Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7656-9733

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