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Passive Optical Top-of-Rack Interconnect for Data Center Networks
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Optical networks offering ultra-high capacity and low energy consumption per bit are considered as a good option to handle the rapidly growing traffic volume inside data center (DCs). However, most of the optical interconnect architectures proposed for DCs so far are mainly focused on the aggregation/core tiers of the data center networks (DCNs), while relying on the conventional top-of-rack (ToR) electronic packet switches (EPS) in the access tier. A large number of ToR switches in the current DCNs brings serious scalability limitations due to high cost and power consumption. Thus, it is important to investigate and evaluate new optical interconnects tailored for the access tier of the DCNs.

We propose and evaluate a passive optical ToR interconnect (POTORI) architecture for the access tier. The data plane of the POTORI consists mainly of passive components to interconnect the servers within the rack as well as the interfaces toward the aggregation/core tiers. Using the passive components makes it possible to significantly reduce power consumption while achieving high reliability in a cost-efficient way.

Meanwhile, our proposed POTORI’s control plane is based on a centralized rack controller, which is responsible for coordinating the communications among the servers in the rack. It can be reconfigured by software-defined networking (SDN) operation. A cycle-based medium access control (MAC) protocol and a dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithm are designed for the POTORI to efficiently manage the exchange of control messages and the data transmission inside the rack.

Simulation results show that under realistic DC traffic scenarios, the POTORI with the proposed DBA algorithm is able to achieve an average packet delay below 10 μs with the use of fast tunable optical transceivers. Moreover, we further quantify the impact of different network configuration parameters on the average packet delay. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , 31 p.
Keyword [en]
Optical communications, data center interconnects, MAC protocol, dynamic bandwidth allocation.
National Category
Engineering and Technology Communication Systems
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-206421ISBN: 978-91-7729-387-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-206421DiVA: diva2:1092511
Presentation
2017-06-12, Ka-Sal C (Sal Sven-Olof Öhrvik), Electrum, Kistagången 16, Kista, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20170503

Available from: 2017-05-09 Created: 2017-05-03 Last updated: 2017-08-15Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Reliable and Cost Efficient Passive Optical Interconnects for Data Centers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reliable and Cost Efficient Passive Optical Interconnects for Data Centers
2015 (English)In: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558, Vol. 19, no 11, 1913-1916 p.Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To address the sustainability, scalability, and reliability problems that data centers are currently facing, we propose three passive optical interconnect (POI) architectures on top of the rack. The evaluation results show that all three architectures offer high reliability performance (connection availability for intra-rack interconnections higher than 99.999%) in a cost-efficient way.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Communications Society, 2015
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-184493 (URN)10.1109/LCOMM.2015.2478474 (DOI)000365028900014 ()2-s2.0-84947602238 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160525

Available from: 2016-04-01 Created: 2016-04-01 Last updated: 2017-08-15Bibliographically approved
2. Centralized Control Plane for Passive Optical Top-of-Rack Interconnects in Data Centers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Centralized Control Plane for Passive Optical Top-of-Rack Interconnects in Data Centers
2016 (English)In: 2016 IEEE Global Communications Conference, GLOBECOM 2016 - Proceedings, IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, 7841655Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

To efficiently handle the fast growing traffic inside data centers, several optical interconnect architectures have been recently proposed. However, most of them are targeting the aggregation and core tiers of the data center network, while relying on conventional electronic top-of-rack (ToR) switches to connect the servers inside the rack. The electronic ToR switches pose serious limitations on the data center network in terms of high cost and power consumption. To address this problem, we recently proposed a passive optical top-of-rack interconnect architecture, where we focused on the data plane design utilizing simple passive optical components to interconnect the servers within the rack. However, an appropriate control plane tailored for this architecture is needed to be able to analyze the network performance, e.g., packet delay, drop rate, etc., and also obtain a holistic network design for our passive optical top-of-rack interconnect, which we refer to as POTORI. To fill in this gap, this paper proposes the POTORI control plane design which relies on a centralized rack controller to manage the communications inside the rack. To achieve high network performance in POTORI, we also propose a centralized medium access control (MAC) protocol and two dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithms, namely Largest First (LF) and Largest First with Void Filling (LFVF). Simulation results show that POTORI achieves packet delays in the order of microseconds and negligible packet loss probability under realistic data center traffic scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2016
Series
IEEE Global Communications Conference, ISSN 2334-0983
Keyword
Data center networks, Dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA), Medium access control (MAC), Optical interconnect architectures
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-206391 (URN)10.1109/GLOCOM.2016.7841655 (DOI)000401963301011 ()2-s2.0-85015439339 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-1328-9 (ISBN)
Conference
59th IEEE Global Communications Conference, GLOBECOM 2016, Washington, United States, 4 December 2016 through 8 December 2016
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20170503

Available from: 2017-05-02 Created: 2017-05-02 Last updated: 2017-06-20Bibliographically approved
3. POTORI: A Passive Optical Top-of-Rack Interconnect Architecture for Data Centers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>POTORI: A Passive Optical Top-of-Rack Interconnect Architecture for Data Centers
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, ISSN 1943-0620, E-ISSN 1943-0639, Vol. 9, no 5, 401-411 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several optical interconnect architectures inside data centers (DCs) have been proposed to efficiently handle the rapidly growing traffic demand. However, not many works have tackled the interconnects at top-of-rack (ToR), which have a large impact on the performance of the data center networks (DCNs) and can introduce serious scalability limitations due to their high cost and power consumption. In this paper, we propose a passive optical ToR interconnect architecture (POTORI) to replace the conventional electronic packet switch (EPS) in the access tier of DCNs. In the data plane, POTORI relies on a passive optical coupler to interconnect the servers within the rack and interfaces toward the aggregation/core tiers. The POTORI control plane is based on a centralized rack controller responsible for managing the communications among the servers in the rack. We propose a cycle-based medium access control (MAC) protocol to efficiently manage the exchange of control messages and the data transmission inside the rack. We also introduce and evaluate a dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm for POTORI, namely largest first (LF). Extensive simulation results show that, with the use of fast tunable optical transceivers, POTORI and the proposed LF strategy are able to achieve an average packet delay below 10 μs under realistic DC traffic scenarios, outperforming conventional EPSs. On the other hand, with slower tunable optical transceivers, a careful configuration of the network parameters (e.g., maximum cycle time of the MAC protocol) is necessary to obtain a good network performance in terms of the average packet delay.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Keyword
Data center networks, Dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA), Medium access control (MAC), Optical interconnect architectures
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-206392 (URN)10.1364/JOCN.9.000401 (DOI)000401412300007 ()2-s2.0-85019551371 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20170613

Available from: 2017-05-02 Created: 2017-05-02 Last updated: 2017-06-13Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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