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Circular Manufacturing Systems: A development framework with analysis methods and tools for implementation
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6590-7514
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The society today lives on the philosophy of ‘take-make-use-dispose.’ In the long run, this is not sustainable as the natural resources and the waste carrying capacity of the earth are limited. Therefore, it is essential to reduce dependency on the natural resources by decoupling the growth from the consumption. In this venture, both the society and the manufacturing industry have a vital role to play. The society needs to shift towards Circular Economy that rests upon the philosophy of ‘take-make-use-reuse’ and the manufacturing industry has to be a major stakeholder in this shift. Despite being proven to be both economically and environmentally beneficial, successful examples of circular systems are few today. This is primarily due to two reasons; firstly, there is a lack of systemic and systematic approach to guide industries and secondly, there is a lack of analysis methods and tools that are capable of assessing different aspects of circular manufacturing systems. Taking on to these challenges, the objective of this research is to bring forward a framework with methods and decision support tools that are essential to implement circular manufacturing systems. The initial conceptual framework with the systemic approach is developed based on extensive review and analysis of research, which is further adapted for industrial implementation. Systematic analysis methods, decision support and implementation tools are developed to facilitate this adaptation. This development has been supported by four cases from diverse manufacturing sectors. Behind each decision support tool, there are analysis methods built upon mainly system dynamics principles. These tools are based on simulation platforms called Stella and Anylogic. Among other things, these tools are capable of assessing the performance of closed-loop supply chains, consequences of resource scarcity, potential gains from resource conservation and overall economic and environmental performance of circular manufacturing systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , 120 p.
Series
TRITA-IIP, ISSN 1650-1888 ; 05
Keyword [en]
Circular economy, circular manufacturing systems, resource conservative manufacturing, ResCoM, system dynamics
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Production Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207470ISBN: 978-91-7729-403-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-207470DiVA: diva2:1096938
Public defence
2017-06-08, Brinellsalen M311, Brinellvägen 68, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
ResCoM: Resource Conservative Manufacturing- transforming waste into high value resource through closed-loop product systems
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 603843
Note

QC 20170522

Available from: 2017-05-22 Created: 2017-05-19 Last updated: 2017-05-22Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Resource Conservative Manufacturing: an essential change in business and technology paradigm for sustainable manufacturing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resource Conservative Manufacturing: an essential change in business and technology paradigm for sustainable manufacturing
2013 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 57, 166-177 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For sustainability of our future societies we need sustainable manufacturing strategies with resource and environment conservation as their integral part. In this perspective closed-loop supply chains are considered as the most feasible solution. However, their implementation within the paradigm of prevailing open-loop product systems seems extremely complicated and practically infeasible. This paper argues for a radical shift in thinking on the closed-loop systems and presents the novel concept of Resource Conservative Manufacturing (ResCoM). The ResCoM concept considers the conservation of energy, material and value added with waste prevention and environment protection as integrated components of the product design and development strategy. It also presents the innovative idea of products with multiple lifecycles where several lifecycles of predefined duration are determined already at the product design stage thus demanding for new design strategies and methodologies. To succeed with this concept ResCoM advocates for new approach to supply chain design and business models as well, where the customers are integral part of manufacturing enterprises and the product design is effectively connected with the supply chain design. This work concludes that the products, supply chains and the business models developed for open-loop product systems are unable to cope with the dynamics of closed-loop systems. The uncertainties associated with product returns are inherent to the conventional concept of lifecycle and closed-loop systems. The ResCoM concept has much better capability in dealing with these uncertainties while developing sustainable closed-loop systems. The presented work outlines and discusses the conceptual framework of ResCoM. A comprehensive work on the strategic and tactical issues in the implementation of the ResCoM concept will follow.

Keyword
Sustainable manufacturing, Closed-loop supply chains, Remanufacturing, Multiple lifecycle, Resource conservation
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133970 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.06.012 (DOI)000324661400017 ()2-s2.0-84883451568 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20131115

Available from: 2013-11-15 Created: 2013-11-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. System dynamics models for decision making in product multiple lifecycles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>System dynamics models for decision making in product multiple lifecycles
2015 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 101, 20-33 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The main drivers for adopting product multiple lifecycles are to gain ecological and economic advantages. However, in most of the cases it is not straight forward to estimate the potential ecological and economic gain that may result from adopting product multiple lifecycles. Even though many researchers have concluded that product multiple lifecycles result in gain, there are examples which indicate that the gain is often marginal or even none in many cases. The purpose of this research is to develop system dynamics models that can assist decision makers in assessing and analysing the potential gain of product multiple lifecycles considering the dynamics of material scarcity. The foundation of the research presented in this paper is laid based on literature review. System dynamics principles have been used for modelling and simulations have been done on Stella iThink platform. The data used in the models have been extracted from different reports published by World Steel Association and U.S. Geological Survey. Some of the data have been assumed based on expert estimation. The data on iron ore reserves, iron and steel productions and consumptions have been used in the models. This research presents the first system dynamics model for decision making in product multiple lifecycles which takes into consideration the dynamics of material scarcity. Physical unavailability and price of material are the two main factors that would drive product multiple lifecycles approach and more sustainable decisions can be made if it is done by taking holistic system approach over longer time horizon. For an enterprise it is perhaps not attractive to conserve a particular type of material through product multiple lifecycles approach which is naturally abundant but extremely important if the material becomes critical. An enterprise could through engineering, proper business model and marketing may increase the share of multiple lifecycle products which eventually would help the enterprise to reduce its dependency on critical materials.

Keyword
Material criticality, Multiple-lifecycle, Resource conservation, Resource scarcity, Resources policy, System dynamic
National Category
Environmental Sciences Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-170238 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.05.002 (DOI)000358970100003 ()2-s2.0-84930644712 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 603843
Note

QC 20150630

Available from: 2015-06-30 Created: 2015-06-29 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
3. Performance analysis of the closed loop supply chain
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance analysis of the closed loop supply chain
2012 (English)In: Journal of Remanufacturing, ISSN 2210-4690, Vol. 2, no 4Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

The question of resource scarcity and emerging pressure of environmental legislations has brought a new challenge for the manufacturing industry. On the one hand, there is a huge population that demands a large quantity of commodities; on the other hand, these demands have to be met by minimum resources and pollution. Resource conservative manufacturing (ResCoM) is a proposed holistic concept to manage these challenges. The successful implementation of this concept requires cross functional collaboration among relevant fields, and among them, closed loop supply chain is an essential domain. The paper aims to highlight some misconceptions concerning the closed loop supply chain, to discuss different challenges, and in addition, to show how the proposed concept deals with those challenges through analysis of key performance indicators (KPI).

Methods

The work presented in this paper is mainly based on the literature review. The analysis of performance of the closed loop supply chain is done using system dynamics, and the Stella software has been used to do the simulation. Findings The results of the simulation depict that in ResCoM; the performance of the closed loop supply chain is much enhanced in terms of supply, demand, and other uncertainties involved. The results may particularly be interesting for industries involved in remanufacturing, researchers in the field of closed loop supply chain, and other relevant areas. Originality The paper presented a novel research concept called ResCoM which is supported by system dynamics models of the closed loop supply chain to demonstrate the behavior of KPI in the closed loop supply chain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Germany: , 2012
Keyword
Closed loop supply chain, Key performance indicator, Logistics, Operations management, Production management, Performance measurement, Resource conservative manufacturing, Production management, Performance measurement, Resource conservative manufacturing, Production management, Performance measurement, Resource conservative manufacturing, Supply chain management, System dynamics, Remanufacturing
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
SRA - Production
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-116407 (URN)10.1186/2210-4690-2-4 (DOI)
Projects
Swedish Institute project: Lifecycle Management and Sustainability in the Baltic Region.
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Note

QC 20130211

Available from: 2013-01-18 Created: 2013-01-18 Last updated: 2017-05-19Bibliographically approved
4. Multi-method simulation based tool to evaluate economic and environmental performance of circular product systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-method simulation based tool to evaluate economic and environmental performance of circular product systems
2016 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 139, 1261-1281 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The transition from linear to circular product systems is a big step for any organization. This may require an organization to change the way it does business, designs product and manages supply chain. As these three areas are interdependent, bringing change in one area will influence the others, for instance, changing the business model from conventional sales to leasing will demand changes in both product design and the supply chain. At the same time, it is essential for an organization to anticipate the economic and environmental impact of all changes before it may decide to implement the circular product systems. However, there is no tool available today that can assess economic and environmental performance of circular product systems. The purpose of this research is to develop a multi-method simulation based tool that can help to evaluate economic and environmental performance of circular product systems. Method: The conceptual models that are used to develop the tool have been formulated based on review of the state-of-the-art research. System Dynamics (SD) and Agent Based (AB) principles have been used to create the simulation model which has been implemented in Anylogic software platform. Originality: This research presents the first multi-method simulation based tool that can evaluate economic and environmental performance of circular product systems. Findings: Multi-method simulation technique is useful in designing dynamic simulation model that takes into consideration mutual interactions among critical factors of business model, product design and supply chain. It also allows predicting system's behaviour and its influence on the economic and environmental performance of circular product systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-198948 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.08.122 (DOI)000386991600115 ()2-s2.0-84995646374 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170113

Available from: 2017-01-13 Created: 2016-12-22 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved

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